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Improving Police - Community Relations through Community Policing

National Crime Prevention Council 2006

Objectives
Define community policing and its principles Describe the benefits and the importance of citizen involvement Identify strategies for effective communication Identify the six factors for improving police community relations Describe the benefits of Neighborhood Watch

National Crime Prevention Council 2006

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Crime Prevention as a Bridge
Crime Prevention efforts reduce polarization that sometimes exists between police and citizens. Community Policing, Neighborhood Watch, Orange Hat Patrols, Weed & Seed, and McGruff programs build a bridge that enables residents and law enforcement to communicate, collaborate, and work together to build safer, more caring communities.
National Crime Prevention Council 2006
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Community Policing
“A policing philosophy that promotes and

supports organizational strategies to address the causes of crime, to reduce the fear of crime and social disorder through problem-solving tactics and community-police partnerships.”
- Community Oriented Policing Services Office

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The 8 “P”s of Community Policing
A PHILOSOPHY of full service, PERSONALIZED POLICING, where the same officer PATROLS and works in the same area on a PERMANENT basis, from a decentralized PLACE, working in PARTNERSHIP with citizens to identify and solve

PROBLEMS.

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National Crime Prevention Council 2006 6 .Community Policing The philosophy rests on the belief that lawabiding citizens in the community have the responsibility to participate in the police process. It also rests on the belief that solutions to today’s contemporary community problems demand freeing both community residents and law enforcement to explore creative ways to address neighborhood concerns beyond a narrow focus on individual crimes.

Sir Robert Peel Considered a “father” of law enforcement Are his principles of policing still applicable today? Absolutely! National Crime Prevention Council 2006 7 .

Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 8 .Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing 1. 3. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.

advice.Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing (cont. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to the necessity of the use of force. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.) 4. 5. and warning is found to be insufficient. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 9 . 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the expertise of persuasion.

Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition. not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 10 . 8. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder. The police being only full-time individuals charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the citizens.Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing (cont. the police are public and the public are the police. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary. 9.) 7.

The more the various groups share common values.Normative Sponsorship Theory Most people are of good will. • They will cooperate with others to facilitate the building of consensus. the more likely it is that they will agree on common goals. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 11 . and goals. beliefs.

Critical Social Theory Enlightenment-Give information Empowerment-Take action to improve conditions EmancipationPeople can achieve through social action National Crime Prevention Council 2006 12 .

Community relationships provide Worth in social value • A more informed citizenry • Example to young people and others • Opportunity to learn about law enforcement while working with law enforcement • Learning about citizens’ concerns Added value National Crime Prevention Council 2006 13 .

How Do People View the Police? National Crime Prevention Council 2006 14 .

Agencies Opening Their Doors to Citizens through Citizen Police Academies… Why can it be important? Who can it benefit? National Crime Prevention Council 2006 15 .

National Crime Prevention Council 2006 16 . Community policing is paramount to the effectiveness of crime reduction.Philosophy of the Citizen Police Academy Agency size and demographics can sometimes create barriers between the police and those they serve. Police Image – There are many misconceptions to dispel.

) Who Will Benefit from It? EVERYONE! Community Police Business Schools Government Youth 17 National Crime Prevention Council 2006 .Philosophy of the Citizen Police Academy (cont.

) What They Accomplish „ Improved Cooperation „ Less Apathy „ Reduction in Crime „ Reduction in Fear of Crime „ Better Communications „ Improved Police Image „ Clear Understanding 18 National Crime Prevention Council 2006 .Philosophy of the Citizen Police Academy (cont.

Introduction to Volunteers in Police Service Foundations of the VIPS Program • 2002 Presidential initiative • Department of Justice and IACP responsibilities Concept • Volunteers from the community • Expanding law enforcement to the community National Crime Prevention Council 2006 19 .

Volunteers in Police Service (cont.) Why they are needed – Ease demands on law enforcement – Encourage a more informed citizenry – Provide an example to young people – Improve cooperation and understanding between the police and their community National Crime Prevention Council 2006 20 .

Considerations of Community Interaction How community volunteers can be used within their community • Legal issues • Safety issues • Expertise issues National Crime Prevention Council 2006 21 .

Community/Police Needs and Support Filling needs with volunteers • Coordinating position • Prerecruitment action required • Role of the International Association of Chiefs of Police • Match volunteers to the organization’s strategic plan • Possible volunteer positions (adapt to local needs) National Crime Prevention Council 2006 22 .

citizen police academies National Crime Prevention Council 2006 23 . etc. • Elementary and secondary schools • Youth. PTAs.Recruiting and Marketing Recruitment strategy • Who is your target? • Develop a plan • Recognize important existing networks and tap in • Churches. community councils. Kiwanis. courts. Rotarians.

Recruiting and Marketing (cont.) Develop organizational marketing materials • • • • • • Websites Brochures Fliers/handouts/fact sheets Store window posters Ads in local papers Cable channel access National Crime Prevention Council 2006 24 .

) Media assistance • Public service announcements • News releases Prerecruitment strategy • Secure top management buy-in • Develop organization marketing materials National Crime Prevention Council 2006 25 .Recruiting and Marketing (cont.

What does a citizen need to know before volunteering? • • • • • Position description Time commitment Defined program activities Direct supervisor Website access for personal record of service/journal • How long should volunteers serve? • Age criteria • Citizen police academy attendance prior to service National Crime Prevention Council 2006 26 .

objectives. objectives. and goals • • • • Define the agency’s mission. and goals Volunteer concept and political consideration Volunteer objectives and goals within agency mission Clear and specific department guidelines for volunteers National Crime Prevention Council 2006 27 .Police Agency Management and Administrative Issues Agency mission.

VIPS Management and Administrative Issues • Develop a prerecruitment strategy according to the VIPS’ goal to help resource-constrained agencies • Internal management responsibilities • External management responsibilities • Who can manage the program • Training issues • Liability issues • Funding issues National Crime Prevention Council 2006 28 .

Strategies for Effective Communication National Crime Prevention Council 2006 29 .

Trust Building Model GREATER SUCCESS ! GREATER FLEXIBILITY AND RANGE OF SOLUTIONS RELATIONSHIP AND PARTNERSHIP BUILDING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TRUST National Crime Prevention Council 2006 30 .

The Communication Process Message cues Listener supplies meaning Content Relate to your audience/build rapport National Crime Prevention Council 2006 31 .

) One-way or two-way communication Verbal/nonverbal cues Physical appearance Solicit student engagement and participation by using open-ended questions and feedback.The Communication Process (cont. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 32 .

Nonverbal Communication Considerations Facial expression Tone of voice Eye contact Touch Personal space Territoriality Time National Crime Prevention Council 2006 33 .

(Both are important.Building Trust Through Effective Communication Effective Listening Listen to learn and understand. not to challenge or persuade.) National Crime Prevention Council 2006 34 . Take turns and listen for FACTS and FEELINGS.

Six Factors Necessary To Improve Police-Community Relations National Crime Prevention Council 2006 35 .

Process/Structure 4. Membership 2. Resources National Crime Prevention Council 2006 36 .The Six Factors 1. Purpose 6. Environment 3. Communications 5.

Mutual respect. Members develop an ability to compromise.Membership 1. 4. understanding. Appropriate cross-section of members 2. and trust 3. Members see that collaboration is in their best interest. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 37 .

Political and social climate are favorable.Environment 1. There is a history or evidence of collaboration or cooperation in the community. Collaborative group is viewed as a leader in the community. 3. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 38 . 2.

Members are invested in the 2. process as well as the outcome. 5. authority. 3. Clear roles and responsibilities Flexibility Adaptability Equal decision-making authority is held by each member regardless of rank. or place in the hierarchy.Process/Structure 1. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 39 . 4.

Members disclose self-interest at first meeting. 3. Members learn to listen and allow venting. Members establish informal and formal means of communication. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 40 . 4.Communication 1. There is open and frequent communication. 2.

Concrete. Shared vision 3. attainable goals and objectives 2. Desired results and strategies National Crime Prevention Council 2006 41 .Purpose 1.

Resources 1. Sufficient funds National Crime Prevention Council 2006 42 . A skilled and unbiased convener 2. Staff time and volunteer time 3.

.CRIME IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD A lack of community involvement may lead to some of the most serious and perplexing problems your community faces.

Why is Community Involvement Important? When members of a community are involved with each other. they know – Their neighbors – The daily “goings-on” in the neighborhood – When something is wrong National Crime Prevention Council 2006 44 .

One great way to perpetuate community involvement is through the Neighborhood Watch program National Crime Prevention Council 2006 45 .

What is the Neighborhood Watch program? Neighborhood Watch was established in 1970 to bring residents together to interact and become the guardians for the police in their community. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 46 .

and increased social interaction Donates time and resources Usually has no formal budget or funding source Success results in reduction in crime and improved quality of life for neighborhood residents National Crime Prevention Council 2006 47 .Neighborhood Watch Crime prevention group organized around a block. or business district Serves as “eyes and ears” for law enforcement Helps establish/reclaim informal control of an area by observation. visibility. defined neighborhood.

The Benefits of Neighborhood Watch Studies show Neighborhood Watch is effective because it Brings neighbors together around a common cause – safety and security Provides basic skills to all members on preventing crime and reporting suspicious activity or crimes Builds a base for action to correct neighborhood problems Works well with other civic associations National Crime Prevention Council 2006 48 .

Contact your local law enforcement agency and work with it to discuss basic community modifications that may overcome current problems. .Additional Citizen Actions Discuss your community’s overall security. including lighting. and contact neighbors or the proper authorities to request necessary improvements.

Are state crime prevention associations and Neighborhood Watch programs involved in community policing and homeland security? Absolutely! As citizens. we all share the responsibility for reporting and preventing terrorism in our communities. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 50 . We can be alert and aware of those activities in our neighborhood that may have links to terrorist and criminal behavior.

How can citizens be more aware? Be informed: Read the newspaper. and get involved with your local law enforcement and crime prevention associations. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 51 . and social events. church. Create a family first aid kit. work. Be alert: Be familiar with your environment at home. listen to or watch local and national news reports. and attend community meetings. school. Be prepared: Have a prepared family plan for emergencies. attend crime prevention classes.

In Conclusion… Community policing is the responsibility of both law enforcement AND community members. National Crime Prevention Council 2006 52 . There are many ways to involve the community in crime-reduction and problem solving. BOTH have important roles in community policing. including community meetings and citizen police academies. Police and local citizens are ALL members of the community.

Questions and Answers National Crime Prevention Council 2006 53 .

Special Thanks to Tri-State RCPI for providing their materials for this presentation National Crime Prevention Council 2006 54 .

gov National Crime Prevention Council 2006 55 .communitypolicing.Resources Community Policing Consortium www.citizencorps.org Citizen Corps www.org Volunteers in Police Service www.policevolunteers.

ncpc.org National Crime Prevention Council 2006 56 .The National Crime Prevention Council 1000 Connecticut Avenue. NW Thirteenth Floor Washington. DC 20036 202-466-6272 202-296-1356 fax www.

Presenter Contact Information National Crime Prevention Council 2006 57 .