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An Introduction to Citation Practices

Chicago Manual of Style

Why cite?
• To give credit to the authors of the source materials you used when writing the paper. • To enable readers to follow up on the source materials. • To demonstrate that your paper is wellresearched.

What to cite?
• Direct quotes • Paraphrased ideas • When you use any idea or data attributable to any source you consulted • To point readers to other relevant sources

Info. required in a citation
• Author • Title • Publishing details
Author’s name Title Edition Place of Publisher Year of URL(Date publication publication accessed)

Types of Citations
• Two types of citations:
– Bibliography – Reference list

Notes - Bibliography
• Footnotes and endnotes are used to cite the exact page of a source you refer to in your paper. • Bibliography lists all of the references you used for the research paper and may also include works that were important to your thinking but have not specifically referred to in the text.

Parenthetical citations-Reference List
• Parenthetical citation appears in the text next to the quote or reference. • Reference List appears at the end of the paper/ text where you list all sources with complete information

Quotation cited in text
• Sherman says, “Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business.”32

• Corresponding footnote or endnote 32 William A. Sherman, “How to Write a Great Business Plan,” Harvard Business Review 75 (July–August 1997): 103 Bibliography Sherman, William A. “How to Write a Great Business Plan.” Harvard Business Review 75 (July–August 1997): 99-108.

• Note: 24 Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1997), 52-55. • Bibliography: Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1997.

Author + Editor /Translator
• N:

J.B. Harley, The New Nature of Maps: Essays in the History of Cartography, ed. Paul Laxton (New York: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002), 102103. • B: Harley, J. B. The New Nature of Maps: Essays in the History of Cartography. Edited by Paul Laxton. New York: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Part of an edited book
• N:

Anne Whiston , “Constructing Nature,” in Uncommon Ground, ed. William Cronon

(New York: Metheun, 2005), 116. • B:
Whiston, Anne. “Constructing Nature.” In Uncommon Ground, edited by William Cronon, 110 – 124. New York: Metheun, 2005.

Journal Article
• N:

Prashant K. Nayar, “English Travel Writing and India: 1650-1755,” Journal of British Studies 44, no. 2 (April 2005): 123.

• B:. Nayar, Prashant K. “English Travel Writing and India: 1650 – 1755.” Journal of British Studies 44, no. 2 (April 2005): 123 -142

Newspaper Articles
• N: 4 Editorial, The Hindu, June 1, 2008.

Ted Corbett. “Winning at any cost,” Chicago Tribune, August 25, 2003.

Annual Reports (Printed)
• N

General Motors, 2001 Annual Report (Detroit: General Motors, 2002), 34. • B General Motors. 2001 Annual Report. Detroit: General Motors, 2002.


Annual Reports (Online) Company Website
• N

General Motors, 2006 Annual Report, (July 2007): 58, docs/fin_data/gm06ar/download/gm06ar.pdf, (accessed September 2007).
• B General Motors. 2006 Annual Report. (July 2007). docs/fin_data/gm06ar/download/gm06ar.pdf, (accessed September 2007).

On the Web (database)
• N

General Motors, 2006 Annual Report, (July 2007): 58, Thomson Research/Investext, (accessed September 2007). • B General Motors. 2006 Annual Report. July 2007. Thomson Research/Investext, (accessed September 2007).


Books online
• N

Gregory J. E. Rawlins, Moths to the Flame (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996), under “Rising in the Sun,” e-books/Moths/ (accessed August 1997). • B Rawlins, Gregory J. E. Moths to the Flame. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996. http:// (accessed August 1997).


Books – CD-ROM
• N

Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. CDROM (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), 157 • B Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.


• N

Reinventing Software, IBM Corporate Brochure (NY: IBM, December 2002), 3. • B Reinventing Software. IBM Corporate Brochure. NY: IBM, December 2002.


Cases Printed
• N

V. Kasturi Rangan, “Population Services International: The Social Marketing Project in Bangladesh,” HBS No. 586-013 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1993), 9. • B Rangan, V. Kasturi. “Population Services International: The Social Marketing Project in Bangladesh.” HBS No. 586-013. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1993.


• N

Michael C. Jensen, “Response to Questions about Paper,” e-mail message to Sam Smith, May 24, 2001.


Market Research Reports
• F

Jim Neil et al., “Digital Marketing,” The Forrester Report 2:8 (April 1998), Forrester Research, Inc.,, (accessed June 2000). • B Neil, Jim, Bill Bass, Jill Aldort, and Cameron O’Connor. “Digital Marketing.” The Forrester Report 2:8 (April 1998). Forrester Research, Inc., (accessed June 2000).


Company Website
• F

Disney Company, “Disney’s Investors Relations—FAQs,” Walt Disney Company Website, older/faq.html, (accessed June 1999). • B Walt Disney Company. “Disney’s Investors Relations—FAQs.” Walt Disney Company Website. older/faq.html, (accessed June 1999).


Personal Website
• N

Nathan Shedroff,, (accessed August 2007). • B Shedroff, Nathan. (accessed August 2007).


• N

Andrew J. King, “Law and Land Use in Chicago: A Pre-history of Modern Zoning” (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1976), 32–37. • B King, Andrew J. “Law and Land Use in Chicago: A Pre-history of Modern Zoning.” Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1976.


• N

Stephen Spencer, “Teen Blogger Says ‘No’ to Mowing the Lawn,” Stephen Spencer’s Scatterings, Business Blog Consulting, entry posted August 14, 2007, (accessed September 2007).


Classroom Discussion
• N

Michael J. Roberts, “The Entrepreneurial Manager,” MBA class discussion, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA, September 29, 2001.


Creating New Citation Styles
• If you cannot find an example of the type of source material you want to cite, and if you have exhausted other resources then just cite all of the details that would help a reader find the source easily. Think about the four “W”s: • WHO created the work, • WHAT is the title and type of information, • WHERE can one find it, and • WHEN was it published