1
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR:
Synchronous motor is an AC machines, the rotor of which moves with a
speed of constant relation with supply frequency and number of poles of the
machines. The stator consists of 3 phase winding and rotor consists of
electromagnetic poles.
PHASOR DIAGRAM OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
1. Machine on no load:
When the synchronous machine operates as a motor on no load and if the
losses are neglected, a back emf E is set up in the stator winding by rotor flux, which
opposes applied voltage V. Fig 2.2a shows that vector difference of E and V is zero.
Fig 2.2a
If the motor is on no load and it has losses, then the vector E falls back by a
certain small angle δ, so that there is a resultant voltage E
R
and hence a current I will be
drawn by the stator winding.
I lags the resultant voltage E
R
by nearly 90
0
Fig 2.2b
2. Effect of increased load with constant excitation:
When the mechanical load is applied to motor, the first reaction is to slow
down the rotor. Since the field of the stator continues to rotate at synchronous speed,
this has the effect of increasing the torque angle δ. Increase in torque angle increases
the resultant voltage E
R
and hence increases the magnitude of armature current.
Fig 2.2c
DIFFERENT TORQUES OF A SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
The various torques associated with synchronous motor are
1. Starting torque
2. Running torque
3. Pullin torque
4. Pullout torque.
POWER AND TORQUE RELATIONSHIPS:
Total power input to a 3 phase motor, P=3VIcosΦ
Armature copper loss = 3I
2
R
a
Gross mechanical power developed in the motor = P
m
= P – 3I
2
R
a
in watt
Net mechanical power output at the motor shaft
P
out
= P
m
– iron + friction + excitation losses
BHP = P
out
/746
Torque developed, T
g
= Pm synchronous watt
= P
m
/ω = Pm*60/2πN
s
in Nm
= 9.55*P
m
/N
s
in Nm
Power Input
Armature copper loss Mechanical power developed
iron, friction and excitation losses Net output
STARTING METHODS OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Starting of synchronous motor from its stationary condition can be achieved by
the following methods,
1. Starting with the help of damper winding arrangement in rotor pole face,
2. Starting with the help of separated induction motor,
3. Starting by using a DC motor coupled to the synchronous motor.
Damper winding
Armature winding
Field winding
End ring
Fig 2.3
V AND INVERTED V  CURVES
3
Φ
A
C
s
u
p
p
l
y
R
Y
B
Fig 2.4a
Connection diagram for V and inverted V curves of synchronous motor as
shown in fig 2.4
Fig 2.4b  V curves for variable load
Fig 2.4c – Inverted V curves for variable load
CONSTANT POWER INPUT
OAapplied voltage per phase of the motor
ABrepresents the motor induced
emf/phase
OBresultant of OA and AB is the resultant
emf acting in the armature circuit.
The armature curent, will lag
induced emf E
R
by θ, where
The power input /phase to the motor,
V I cosΦ = V*BC
s
R
Z
E
I =
a
s
R
X
1
tan
÷
= u
Fig 2.5
As V is constant, the power input is proportional to BC. Then if the motor is
operating with constant input power, the locus of the working point B is a straight line
through B and parallel to OX (or perpendicular to OY) since this line is at a constant
distance from OX.
Hence FG represents a constant power input line for a given voltage but varying
excitation (or varying induced emf). Similarly, a series of such parallel lines can be
drawn, each representing a definite input power of the motor.
The important points regarding constant power lines are
for equal increments of input power, the power lines are equally spaced.
The perpendicular distance from working point B to line OX represents the motor
input.
The line OX represents zero power line.
If the excitation is constant, the magnitude of induced emf E is constant and the
locus of the working point B is a circle shown dotted line in fig 2.5 with A as centre
and AB as radius.
Fig 2.6
CONSTANT EXCITATION
The voltage equation for a synchronous
motor is given as V = E + IZ
s
,Then the
armature current
Is
Taking V as reference, the phasor E is
constant in magnitude for the given
condition of constant excitation, varies in
phase with respect to V in accordance
with necessary variation in load angle δ.
Since E trace out a circular locus the
same must be true of E/Z
s.
The first component of armature
current is produced by applied voltage V
and the limiting impedance is Z
s
. This
component of current V/Z
s
must lag V by
an angle θ. The applied voltage V is
assumed fixed in position and so the
current V/Z
s
will be constant and fixed in
position w.r.t V.
s s
Z
E
Z
V
I + =
The second component of armature current is produced by induced emf E. This
component of current E/Z
s
must lag E by an angle θ.
The phasor E/Z
s
and the phasor current I must follow the path of a circle as the
load is varied on the motor. The locus is known as an excitation circle. It gives the
magnitude and power factor of the armature current for the fixed excitation and
varying load.
LOCUS OF ARMATURE CURRENT FOR CONSTANT
MECHANICAL POWER DEVELOPED
Fig 2.7
Lagging
Leading
The power per phase supplied to a synchronous motor is V I cosΦ. The power loss
due to the effective resistance of the armature is I
2
R
a
.
Therefore, mechanical power developed, P
m
=V I cos Φ – I
2
R
a
Rearranging the above equation, we get (both the side divided by R
a
)
By adding both the side by in the above equation, we get
From fig 2.5, and I are taken as two sides of a triangle. The third side is
When Pm remains constant, both and are constant. The locus of the
current phasor (I) as θ changes, is a circle. The radius of the circle is
and the coordinate of the circle is . For the development of maximum
P
m(max)
, the radius of the circle must be zero.
= 0
a
m
a
R
P
Cos I
R
V
I ÷ = ÷ 
2
2
2


.

\

a
R
V


.

\

÷


.

\

=


.

\

÷


.

\

+
a
m
a a a
R
P
R
V
I
R
V
R
V
I
2 2
2
2
cos
2
2
2



.

\

a
R
V
2
a
m
a
R
P
R
V
÷


.

\

2
2


.

\

a
R
V
2
a
m
a
R
P
R
V
÷


.

\

2
2
a
m
a
R
P
R
V
÷


.

\

2
2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦


.

\

0 ,
2
a
R
V
( )
a
m
a
R
P
R
V
max
2
2
÷


.

\

a
a
m
R
V
R
P
2
2
(max)
4
=
a
m
R
V
P
4
2
(max)
=