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Classification of a.c motor: 1.As regards their principle of operation  Synchronous Motor  Asynchronous Motor (Induction Motor) Squirrel Cage Rotor Slip Ring Rotor 1. As regards the type of current  Single Phase  Three Phase 1.As regards their speed  Constant speed  Variable speed  Adjustable speed 1.As regards their structural features  open  Semi enclosed  Enclosed 1. Ventilated

Introduction: The conversion of electrical power into mechanical power takes place in the rotating part of an electric motor. In d.c motor, the electric power is conducted directly to the armature through brushes and commutator. Hence, d.c motor can be called as conduction motor. In a.c motor rotor receive electric power by induction as same as secondary winding of transformer. Hence, it is called as induction motor and also called as rotating transformer. Advantages:  It has simple construction.  Its cost is low and it is reliable.  It has sufficiently high efficiency.  It requires minimum of maintenance.  Its an self starting motor. Disadvantages:  Its starting torque is low.  Its speed decrease with increase in load.

Constructional details: The induction motor essentially consists of two parts i.e., stator and rotor. Stator: It is made up of silicon steel laminations to reduces iron loss and its thickness 0.4mm to 0.5mm. Each lamination is insulated from the other with paper or varnish and is slotted to place the winding.

Rotor: The air gap between the stator and rotor should be small (0.5mm to 1mm) to improve the power factor. Based on its construction, rotor can be classified into two types i.e., squirrel cage rotor and slip ring rotor (wound rotor). Squirrel cage rotor: In squirrel cage rotor each slot contains a bar of copper (large) or aluminium (small) shorted at the two ends by means of conducting rings called as end rings. The rotor slots are slight skew, it helps to run the motor quietly by reducing the magnetic hum and reducing the locking tendency of the rotor.

Slip ring rotor: The winding is connected in star and the other ends are connected to external star connected rheostat through slip rings and brushes mounted on the shaft shown in fig 3.1. The external resistance can be added to the rotor winding to improve the starting torque of the motor. When the motor reaches the normal running condition, the slip rings are short circuited (similar to squirrel cage rotor) and the brushes are lifted up to reduce the friction loss.

Slip Ring

External Rheostat

Fig. 3.1

Principle of operation: Let the stator be connected to three phase supply, then the flux produced will be of constant magnitude and let it be assumed that it is rotating in a counter clockwise direction as in fig. 3.2a. When the stator flux cuts the stationary rotor conductors an emf is induced in it. This emf will cause to flow the current when the rotor conductor is in close path due the current flow it will produce the flux in clockwise direction as fig. 3.2b. Fig.3.2c shows the resultant flux which bends round the conductor and a torque is set up in the same direction as the stator field. Hence the rotor rotates in the same direction as that of the rotating magnetic field.

Fig. 3.2

Slip: The difference between the synchronous speed (rotating magnetic field) and the rotor speed is known as slip. It is expressed as

NN  Slip s () S N s
Where, Ns – speed of the rotating magnetic field N – Motor speed. Rotor Frequency: When the rotor is stationary, the relative speed between the rotor winding and the rotating magnetic field is Ns. Hence the frequency of emf induced and the resultant current is PNs/120 which is the same as the supply frequency (f). As the rotor speeds up, the relative speed is (Ns-N) and hence the rotor frequency is

N N Re lative inrpm s  speed 1 f  r 120 120 NN  P P sin slip s ce ,  s N 120 P f s Rotor frequency * ,f  * s r 120 f P 120 N N sNs   s* s P f sf r

120 f sub   s* . N N sNs in . , eqn ge 1 we s P


The separation of core loss and mechanical loss (windage and friction) can be obtained by no load test conducted from variable voltage, rated frequency supply. Step by step reduce the voltage till the machine slip suddenly start to increase and the motor tends to rest (stall). The core loss decrease almost square of the voltage and windage and friction loss remains almost constant. Plot the curve between applied voltage (V) and power (Po), extended to V=0 which gives mechanical loss.

Mechanical loss will be obtained from graph Magnetic loss + mechanical loss = output power Therefore., magnetic loss = output power – mechanical loss

Formulae for calculating the equivalent circuit parameters: Z0 = Voc /(Ioc / √3) R0 = Woc / (Ioc) 2 X0 = [( Z0)2 - (R0)2 0 = cos-1 [Woc / (3 * Voc * Ioc )] RBR = Wsc / (Isc)2 ZBR = Vsc / (Isc/ √3) XBR = [( ZBR)2 - (RBR)2] RiWF – Resistance accounting for rotational losses R1 = 1.2 * stator winding resistance (dc) Pr = Woc – Ioc2 * R1 (since Pr = P0 – 3 * (Ioc / √3)2 * R1) RiWF = Voc2 / Pr Xm – Magnetizing reactance IiWF = Voc / Riwf Im = (Ioc2 - IiWF2)1/2 Xm = Voc / Im

Equivalent Circuit:



Fig. 3.3

Principle of operation Induction generators and motors produce electrical power when their rotor is rotated faster than the synchronous speed. For a four-pole motor operating on a 50 Hz will have synchronous speed equal to 1500 rpm. In normal motor operation, stator flux rotation is faster than the rotor rotation. This is causing stator flux to induce rotor currents, which create rotor flux with magnetic polarity opposite to stator. In this way, rotor is dragged along behind stator flux, by value equal to slip. In generator operation, a prime mover (turbine, engine) is driving the rotor above the synchronous speed. Stator flux still induces currents in the rotor, but since the opposing rotor flux is now cutting the stator coils, active current is produced in stator coils and motor is now operating as a generator and sending power back to the electrical grid.

a. Sub-synchronous (motor)

b. Super-synchronous (generator)

Fig. 3.4 current Locus for Induction Machine

Fig. 3.6 Torque-Slip Characteristics When the machine runs as induction generator, the vector diagram shown in fig.3.5. This is possible only if the machine is mechanically driven above the synchronous speed. OA-no load current AB-stator current to overcome rotor mmf OB-total stator current

Fig.3.5 Phasor Diagram

The torque-slip curve is shown in fig.3.6.Torque will become zero at synchronous speed. If the speed increases above the synchronous speed, the slip will be negative. Fig.3.4b the point P in the lower half of the circle shows operating point as an induction generator. PT-stator electrical output ST-Core, friction and windage losses RS-Stator copper loss QR-Rotor copper loss PQ-Mechanical input PR-Rotor input Slip
rotor copper loss QR   rotor PR input


output PT   input PQ

Induction generator differs from the synchronous generator as  Dc current excitation is not required.  Synchronisation is not required.

Advantages:  It does not hunt or drop out of synchronism  Simple in construction  Cheaper in cost  Easy maintenance  Induction regulators provide a constant voltage adjustment depending on the loading of the lines. Disadvantages:  Cannot be operated independently.  Deliver only leading current.  Dangerously high voltages may occur over long transmission lines if the synchronous machines at the far end become disconnected and the line capacitance excites the induction machines.  The induction generator is not helpful in system stability. Applications:  For installation in small power stations where it can be operated in parallel and feeding into a common mains without attendant.  For braking purpose in railway work.

It is possible to make the slip ring induction motor to run at synchronous speed when its secondary winding is fed from a dc source. Such motors are then called as synchronous induction motor. Stator


Fig. 3.3

Rotor connections for dc excitation:

Fig 3.4 Heating will always occur with normal three phase rotor winding as in fig.3.4. The two phase windings (e and f) gives uniform heating but produce large harmonics and noise. In those machines primary chording is commonly employed to reduce the effect of harmonics. The synchronous induction motor is generally built for outputs greater than 30HP because of its higher cost of the dc exciter. These motors are employed in applications where a constant speed is desirable such as compressors, fans, pumps, etc., If load torque is high and the machines goes out of synchronism, it continues to run as an induction motor. As soon as the load torque falls sufficiently low, the machines will automatically synchronize.

Advantages:  It will start and synchronise itself against heavy loads.  No separate damper winding is required.  The exciter may be small unit due to smaller air-gap. DOUBLE CAGE ROTOR

Double Cage Rotor has two independent cages on the same rotor slots, one inside the other for the production of high starting torque. The outer cage (alloy) in the rotor has high resistance and low reactance which is used for starting purpose. The inner cage (copper) has a low resistance and high reactance which is used for running purpose. The constructional arrangement and torquespeed characteristics as shown in fig. 3.5.

 High starting torque.  Low I2R loss under running conditions and high efficiency.

Double Cage construction

Fig. 3.5

Slip Torque-Slip Characteristics

Equivalent Circuit:

If the magnetising current is neglected, then the equivalent circuit is reduced to