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SPECIFICATIONS SPECIFICATIONS

SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS

SPECIFICATIONS SPECIFICATIONS

CONTRACTS AND SPECIFICATIONS
ABARCA, KEVIN C.

INTRODUCTION
 Specifications are integral part of a Building Plan. It is a requirement in securing building permit.
 General Conditions of a Contract provides that, what is not shown on the Plan but mentioned in the Specifications is considered as shown and specified.  In effect, the Plan and Specifications are complementary, interrelated and interwoven.

Contracts and Specifications

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SPECIFICATIONS
 A precise, explicit statement or enumeration of particulars as to size, shape, quality, color, manner and procedures of making things right.  A written description of materials to be used, work to be done, mode of construction, and other informative data needed, as well as statement of particulars not shown on the drawings stated in full explicit terms.

Contracts and Specifications

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SPECIFICATIONS

 Description in detail of the Works to be executed, the character and quality of materials and workmanship and special responsibility of the Contractor that are covered by the Conditions of the Contract.
(includes addenda, supplemental specifications, special provisions and bulletins referred to in the Contract Documents together with all the written agreements made)

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Contracts and Specifications 5 . method of fabrication and testing requirements and other technical details. Each section is numbered according to the order of the technical description.  General Conditions  Describe briefly and in detail the scope of work of the Technical Section concerned and makes reference to the Contract Documents as being part of the requirements of that section of work.SPECIFICATIONS  Specifications is composed of the GENERAL CONDITIONS and the TECHNICAL SECTIONS.  Technical Section  Is a unit of work consisting of carefully worded description of materials and explains the method of construction or application.

Contracts and Specifications 6 .  It supplements and complements the working drawings but governs whenever there is conflict between the working drawings and other contract documents.PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF SPECIFICATIONS  A Specification is a written document describing in detail the (1) scope of work. (2) materials and finishes to be used. (3) method of installation or fabrication. and (4) quality of workmanship for a parcel of work to be placed under contract.

Contracts and Specifications 7 .PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE  Specifications provide such information which are required for proper construction or material and equipment procurement which cannot be placed in the drawings.  Specifications segregate the information shown on the drawings into various sections. They cross reference sections to each other and cross references the work of each discipline to that of the other disciplines.

Contracts and Specifications 8 .  Specifications constitute one of the contract documents together with the drawings and the agreement of contract between the owner and the contractor. they are frequently considered by the lawyers and the courts as having more importance than the drawings.PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE  Specifications instruct the suppliers of different materials of the extent of their work. Since specifications are written instructions. Thus. judgments are frequently made based on the specifications.

PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE  Drawings whether architectural. structural. mechanical or electrical. Contracts and Specifications 9 . on the other hand. Specifications. cannot segregate the work of the various trades. and each discipline indicates his work as an integrated whole. The contractor can then get his subcontractors on the basis of the specification breakdown of sections. segregate the information shown on the drawings into various sections within each discipline.

which are arbitrary. give a bad impression of the interior designer. unfair or unnecessary severe. Any specifications. therefore. ambiguous or useless will involve uncertainties and result in the addition of certain sums by the bidder for self-protection which sums will invariably be far in excess of the actual cost which would result from a definite and exact requirement. attorney and principals and usually involved Contracts and Specifications 10 . indeterminate.SPECIFICATIONS  Any specification that is indefinite.

SPECIFICATIONS either a refusal to bid on the work or additions to the price bid to offset the unwarranted treatment to be expected under such specifications. Contracts and Specifications 11 .

and how fair and just he will be in his treatment of contractors.PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE  A specification is not the place to show the extent of the knowledge of the architect or engineer or interior designer. but is a place to show how clearly and exactly he can describe the essential and practicable limits of the qualities of work and material needed. Contracts and Specifications 12 . how well he can protect his client by definite and proper requirements.

GC-1 DEFINITION OF TERMS  In the Contract. Contracts and Specifications 13 . as hereinafter defined. the following words and expressions shall have the meanings hereby assigned to them. except where the context otherwise requires.

GC-2 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS 1. 7. 2. 8. 3. 4. Contract Agreement Conditions of Contract Drawings / Plans Specifications Invitation to Bid / Tender Instruction to Bidders Addenda Form of Bid including the following Annexes: Contracts and Specifications 14 . 5. 6.

c.CONTRACT DOCUMENTS a. k. Authorization of the Signatory Bid Prices in the Bill of Quantities Detailed Estimates Construction Schedules Construction Methods Project Organizational Chart Manpower Schedule Equipment Utilization Schedule Cash Flows and Payments Schedule Affidavit of Site inspection Bid Bond Contracts and Specifications 15 . d. e. i. g. f. h. b. j.

10.CONTRACT DOCUMENTS 9. 11. 12. Other Contract Documents that may be required by existing laws Contracts and Specifications 16 . Performance Bond Pre-qualification Estimate Certificate of Cash Deposit Notice of Award of Contract and “Conforme” thereto 13.

5. where applicable Other pertinent documents that may be required by existing laws Contracts and Specifications 17 . Duly Approved Program of Works and Cost Estimates Certificate of Availability of Funds Approved Agency Estimate (AAE) Abstract of Bids Resolution of the PBAC for Awards Approval of Award by the Owner Concurrence of Lending Institution. 2. 4.GC-3 OTHER SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS 1. 8. 7. 6. 3.

GC-4 INTERPRETATION  Contract Documents are complementary and what is called for by one shall be as binding as if called for by all.  In case of discrepancy. defective description. omission or ambiguity between or in any of the Contract Documents. error. the following shall be the rule of interpretation: Contracts and Specifications 18 .

the General Conditions. and the Drawings  The Detailed Drawings shall govern over the General Drawings  Figures written on drawings shall govern over the scaled drawings themselves Contracts and Specifications 19 .INTERPRETATION  The Drawings shall govern over the General Conditions  The Special Conditions shall govern over the General Conditions and Drawings  The Specifications shall govern over Special Conditions.

INTERPRETATION  If the Contractor. discovers discrepancies. errors or omissions between or in any Contract Documents or in case of any question concerning the meaning of the Contract. Contracts and Specifications 20 . either before commencing the works or during the execution thereof. he shall promptly notify the Owner thereof in writing and the Owner shall investigate the matter within seven (7) days from receipt of such notice and give appropriate orders or instructions to the Contractor.

the Contractor’s Performance thereof shall be at his own risk and bear any additional cost resulting therefrom. otherwise. Contracts and Specifications 21 .INTERPRETATION  The Contractor shall not perform any affected portion of the works after the discovery of the discrepancy. error or omission until receipt of the order or instruction from the Owner.

INTERPRETATION  In cases of omission from the Contract Documents or misdescription of details of work which are manifestly necessary to carry out the intent of the Contract. Contracts and Specifications 22 . or which are customarily performed. the Contractor shall perform such omitted or misdescribed details as if fully and correctly set forth in the Contract Documents and shall be entitled to a corresponding time extension for the delay he will suffer therefrom.

and is knowledgeable in various codes used in his area.QUALIFICATIONS OF A SPECIFICATION WRITER  Two groups of people who write specifications.  Professional specification writers  Professionals who write specifications  A professional specification writer maintains a good library of technical documents. and he generates the specifications. an extensive collection of manufacturer’s literature and catalogs. Contracts and Specifications 23 . He is given a set of drawings which are periodically updated.

The following qualifications are necessary for an effective specification writer:  A degree in the required discipline and eventual professional registration.  A good basic skill in drafting and detailing.  The ability to write in a proper and concise manner.  A thorough knowledge of construction gained by extensive field inspection. Contracts and Specifications 24 .QUALIFICATIONS  Most offices prefer professionals who write specifications. and  The ability to get along well with fellow workers.  An orderly mind.

there would be a considerable difference in the wording method of writing. In this respect.TYPES OF SPECIFICATIONS  If any two experienced specification writers were asked to specify the same objects. A particular item can be specified in many ways and that the best type of specification depends upon the product or method being specified. experience is the best teacher. Contracts and Specifications 25 . There are as many ways of specifying an item as there are many specification writers.

9. Performance Specification (result system) Descriptive/Prescription Specification (method system) Brand Name Specification Closed Specification Open Specification Reference Specification Combination Specification Brief or Outline Specification * Standard Specification * Contracts and Specifications 26 . 5. 3.TYPES OF SPECIFICATIONS  All specifications fall into seven (7) types: 1. 6. 8. 4. 7. 2.

 Example: “Watercloset -the watercloset has a capacity of 5 liters per 3 minutes of 15 psi in order to restore to its full capacity” Contracts and Specifications 27 . PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION  The results of the product rather than the product itself are specified.1.

b. DESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATION  As the name implies. front bottom outlet washdown bowl with extended rear shelf” Contracts and Specifications 28 . The watercloset shall be floor mounted.2.  Example: “Watercloset a. available with side or bottom supply with aide flow hole. close-coupled tank with cover. back outlet toilet combination. The watercloset shall be free standing toilet combination. a descriptive specification gives a description of the product.

Philippines or an equal approved by the “Interior Designer” Contracts and Specifications 29 . BRAND NAME SPECIFICATION  The desired product is specified by the name given by the manufacturer or manufacturer’s name and model number.  Example: “Watercloset -the watercloset shall be model number PF 2601 as manufactured by the Sanitary Wares Manufacturing.3.

 The multi-product specification is the same as a single-product except that more than one product is used. the single-product and the multi-product. Contracts and Specifications 30 . This is used basically where material is required to match existing material.4. The Interior Designer may want competition in bidding but may want to exclude a number of manufacturers. CLOSED SPECIFICATION  There are two types of closed specifications. Closed specification are usually brand-name specifications.

Philippines or by American Standard Corporation”. “Watercloset -the watercloset shall be model number PF 2601 as manufactured by Sanitary Wares Manufacturing Corporation. Philippines.CLOSED SPECIFICATION  Examples: “Watercloset -the watercloset shall be model number PF 2601 as manufactured by Sanitary Wares Manufacturing Corporation. Contracts and Specifications 31 . No other brand will be accepted”.

All performance and descriptive specifications are “open”. The phrase “or equal” means that the item specified by brand-name is established as a standard and any manufacturer with an equal product may bid. Contracts and Specifications 32 . may bid. Brand-name specification is “open” if the phrase “or equal” is used. It is “open” because all manufacturers whose products meet performance or description specified. OPEN SPECIFICATION  Opposite of Closed Specification.5.

 Example: “Watercloset -the watercloset shall conform to Philippine Standard (PS) SW – 2601” Contracts and Specifications 33 . It makes reference to a standard that has been established (like a guild or organization who can vouch for the quality of material or work).6. REFERENCE SPECIFICATION  The item desired is referred to by a number corresponding to a number in a published specification.

descriptive and reference types of specifications. Philippines” Contracts and Specifications 34 .7. round front bottom outlet washdown bowl with extended rear shelf. manufactured by Sanitary Wares Manufacturing Corporation.  Example: “Watercloset -the watercloset has a free standing toilet combination. COMBINATION SPECIFICATION  It may be desirable to use a combination of the performance. close-coupled tank with integral basin cover. has a capacity of 5 liters of water per 3 minutes of 15 psi in order to restore to its full capacity.

However. Note: A performance specification is not necessarily better than a descriptive specification. It was a dry year and no leak was discovered during the covered oneyear warranty period. The Owner suffered a bad loss but was unable to recover his money. the contractor applied no waterproofing whatsoever. In a case where the specification stated “the basement bathroom walls shall be watertight”. shortly thereafter. the walls leaked badly. Contracts and Specifications 35 . during a heavy storm.

Contracts and Specifications 36 . TS127V50 built-in liquid soap dispenser for Ground Floor toilets.BRIEF or OUTLINE SPECIFICATION  A brief description of basic trades and materials. Lavatory: Use TOTO MARIWASA brand or approved equivalent L548 Under the Counter Lavatory.  Example: 1. This is done during the schematic and design development phases. TX101LB single lever lavatory faucet with 1” popup waste.

TR201AMV1 4” center lavatory faucet with 1” pop-up waste for Basement Toilets. L237CF Wall Hung Lavatory. LW239J Pedestal Lavatory. TX103LCGC 8” mixer lavatory faucet with 1” pop-up waste for Powder Room of Hotel Units and Handicapped Toilets. Contracts and Specifications 37 .BRIEF or OUTLINE SPECIFICATION L548 Under the Counter Lavatory. TX103LCGC 8” mixer lavatory faucet with 1” pop-up waste for Hotel Units.

3. Contracts and Specifications 38 . Chrome-plated Series 4” center mixer lavatory faucet for basement toilets. Lavatory Faucets: Use TOTO MARIWASA brand or approved equivalent Curio Series 8” mixer lavatory faucet for all Hotel Units’ lavatory. Bath Tubs: Use TOTO MARIWASA brand or approved equivalent FBY1515 Enameled cast iron apron bathtub.BRIEF or OUTLINE SPECIFICATION 2. Belle Series single lever mixer for Ground Floor.

clauses and sentences to describe the materials and methods of construction (all processes are explained in detail). Contracts and Specifications 39 .  This is also used in bid forms.STANDARD SPECIFICATION  Written in complete phrases.

INDEFINITE SPECIFICATIONS  Carelessness and ignorance of the detailed requirements. As it is usually provided that the interior designer shall interpret Contracts and Specifications 40 . often lead to indefinite specifications. Such specifications are also sometimes inserted with dishonest and vicious intent. at the time the specifications are being prepared. There is often a temptation to write such specifications rather than to take the trouble to consider and to determine the necessary requirements. which should be included.

2 ½ parts by volume of sand.” 41 .INDEFINITE SPECIFICATIONS or explain any clause not clearly stated. Such uncertainties may be and sometimes are used for the purpose of dishonest favoritism. and this also involves an uncertainty and a chance for a considerable variation in expense. and 5 parts by Contracts and Specifications volume of gravel. there remains an opportunity for the interior designer to decide the matter later.  Example: “Concrete shall be made of one part by volume of Portland Cement.

INDETERMINATE SPECIFICATIONS  When the amount of material or work to be done under a contract is expected to be small.” Contracts and Specifications 42 .  Example: “Stucco plastering is to made of such material and in such proportions as to material and in such a manner as the interior designer shall direct. it is customary with some interior designers to cover the same with only a brief clause in which the work done and material furnished are to be “as the interior designer shall direct”.

and are uncertain as to what is actually desired. but such specifications also brand their maker/writer as ignorant of the practical requirements of the work.AMBIGUOUS SPECIFICATIONS  Unnecessary or unreasonable requirements are always ambiguous. Not only does this unnecessarily in-crease the cost of work. Under such con-ditions. responsible contractors will add materially to the price for the work done under such spe-cifications. Contracts and Specifications 43 . and what will actually be re-quired by the interior designer.

” Contracts and Specifications 44 . or if carried out. will prove undesirable or expensive.  Example: “Concrete shall not be dropped into place through a greater distance than one foot.AMBIGUOUS SPECIFICATIONS It is easy to prepare specifications in the office which are actually impossible to carry out in the field.

to make the joists Contracts and Specifications of the pipes.” 45 .  Example: “The contractor must employ a competent mechanic. who understands and speaks English. and not a com-mon laborer.ARBITRARY SPECIFICATIONS  While it is necessary for the interior designer to be able to exercise such control over the work as will enable him to secure its proper performance and completion. it is unwise and unsafe for him to en-deavor to exercise unnecessary and arbitrary (illogical or subjective) specifications. by means of which the prerogative of management may be usurped (grabbed) by the interior designer.

Such restrictions can result in unnecessary expense. it would seem the purpose of the writer is not only to protect his client in every legal way but also to hamper the contractor by unfair and uncalled for restrictions. Such clauses should be eliminated entirely Contracts and Specifications 46 .UNFAIR SPECIFICATIONS  Occasionally in specifications. and suspicious of the treatment which he will actually receive should he be awarded the contract for the work. make the contracting parties doubtful of the good faith of the party preparing the specifications.

the purpose of every lawyer or interior designer who may be preparing a contract to see to it that his client is entirely and fully protected.  Example: “It is mutually understood and agreed that if the contractor shall assign or transfer either absolute or conditional by order or otherwise. the compensation or any part thereof to which he may be entitled under the Contracts and Specifications 47 . and should be. It is. but anything beyond this can give unsatisfactory results.UNFAIR SPECIFICATIONS as they have no place in the contract.

” Contracts and Specifications 48 . the city may. The contractor agrees not to do so assign or transfer his compensation. and the recognition of any assignment or transfer. or any part thereof.UNFAIR SPECIFICATIONS contract before such compensation is actually earned. cancel the contract and retain all compensation at the time of such assignment or transfer due or owing to the contract. at its option. or the city may. recognize any such assignment and transfer as valid. The option of the city in that regard shall be exercised by the department of public works. for that reason.

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