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Brief History of Quality Movement  1.2 Quality Control Era  1.3 Quality Assurance  1.4 Total Quality Management (TQM)  1.5 Differences of traditional quality and total quality perspectives  1.6 Elements of total quality


usable product Eliminating waste Delighting or pleasing customers Total customer service and satisfaction Compliance with policies and procedures .Different Responses of Quality Perfection Fast delivery Consistency Doing it right the first time Providing a good.

Brief History Of Q Emergence Of Q Consciousness .

C.1450 B.  Pyramid .

Prior to the 20th centuries  Middle Ages in Europe -Era of Craftsmanship  Manufacturer Inspector - Middle of the 18th Century The idea of Quality was brought in to USA *Parts was made following a fixed design -Weakness: underestimate the effect of variation Skilled craftsperson .

.Beginning of the 20th centuries 1900s – Frederick Taylor ushered Industrial Revolution. -Strength: good quality products -Weakness: 1)Great cost 2)Upper Managers were illprepared when the crisis hit For example: The Bell System – created inspection department in Western Electric Company to achieve quality assurance in its production. -Job were segmented into specific work tasks -Quality assurance fell in the hands of inspectors.

1920/30s – Walter Shewhart designed SQC. US military began using SQC and imposing stringent standards on suppliers . -SQC goes beyond inspection to focus on identifying and eliminating problems that cause defects. -During World War II.

Kaizen Result : U.S. -Culture of Continuous improvement . -Their main focus was on production of goods because at that time there was shortage of civilian goods JAPAN: Dr Joseph Juran and Dr Edwards Deming.Post-World War 2 1940-1950s – U. -Main concern – Upper Management rather than quality specialists alone.S (Failure rate was still exist) vs Japanese Products (zero failure) . introduced SQC techniques to the Japanese.A: Quality was not a top priority of top Managers in USA.

.The U.S Quality Revolution 1950s and 1960s US : Made no significant effort in quality JAPAN: ‘made in Japan’ was associated with inferior products.JUSE (Union of Japanese Scientist and Engineers) introduced Deming Prize 1970s – US : No improvement in quality markets. but US consumers purchased and accepted their quality without question. JAPAN: Japanese products were able to Penetrate into Western .

 1980s - US: period of growing awareness of quality to consumers.e: MBQA .Companies: began to institute quality improvement campaign. industries and government - Extensive product recalls following an intensive media coverage of the Challenger space shuttle disaster in 1986 – challenger exploded after takeoff killing all seven astronauts. i. Consumers: demand high quality products Government: Enacted several laws and Acts to ensure companies complied with the product safety regulation - - .

 1990s – Quality awareness – Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award -Quality differences between US and Japan began to narrow. -Total Quality Management .

QUALITY ASSURANCE Definition: ‘Any action directed toward providing consumers with products (goods & services) of appropriate quality’. . QA is usually associated with measurement and inspection activity.

-The American Society of Quality (ASQ) define quality as “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy given need”. -Ex: ‘Quality is a dynamic state associated with products.people. processes and environments that meets or exceeds expectations.DEFINE THE CONCEPT OF QUALITY? because -There is no single definition of quality quality is ‘situational’. services.’ .

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT? ‘Wide performance excellence rather than based on one discipline only’. .

. How quality is measured : establish level of non conformance (traditional) vs high performance benchmark (modern). 3. Productivity (quantity) vs quality 2. How quality is defined : traditional (meeting expectations) vs modern (exceeding expectations).Major differences between the traditional view of quality and the total quality perspective. (for explanation-pls refer to the supplement notes) 1.

process and effective control technique (modern). 8. Responsibility for quality – Employees are blamed for quality (traditional) vs at least 85% of quality problems are management fault. Quality as a function . Attitude towards defects –defect is an expected part – measure defects per 100 (traditional) vs defect is to be prevented using effective control technique –measure defects per million (modern).Q is a separate function (traditional) vs Q should be integrated (modern) 7. How quality is achieved –through product (traditional) vs product. Supplier relationships – short term (traditional) vs long term (modern) . 6. 5.4.

Freedom through control . 2. 3. 5.Key Elements of TQM: (REFER TO THE SUPPLEMENT NOTE) 1. Continual process improvement Education and training 9. 4. Strategically based Customer focus Obsession with quality Scientific approach Long-term commitment Teamwork 7. 6. 8.