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SREE DATTHA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROJECT REPORT ON OFC LINK DESIGN FOR SDH SYSTEM OF STM -16

By: B.SOURAV (09E41A0465) S.PRATYUSHA (09E41A04A7) A.SAHITHI (09E41A0473) T.SNEHITHA (09E41A0486)

OUTLINE OF PROJECT
• OVERVIEW OF FIBRE OPTICS TRANSMISSION SYSTEM • PLESIOCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY(PDH) • SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HEIRARCHY (SDH) • STM-16 DESCRIPTION • E1 CONNECTION CONFIGURATION • OTDR TESTING

OVERVIEW OF FIBRE OPTICS TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

PRESENTATION OUTLINE • • • • • • • Introduction Designing a Fiber Optic System Principle of operation of OFC Types of OF cables Optical fiber parameters Advantages of optical fiber Applications of optical fiber .

to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. . transparent fiber made of a pure glass (silica) not much thicker than a human hair. or “light pipe”.INTRODUCTION • An optical fiber is a flexible. It functions as a waveguide.

Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection.• Optical fibers typically include a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Fig 1: Basic structure of OFC .

Fig 2: Cross Section details .

Designing Fig 3 : Design of optical fiber system .

Fig 4: Major elements of an optical fiber link .

the light is totally reflected back into the first material so that it does not enter the second material.Principle of operation of OFC Total internal reflection: “If the angle of incidence increases amore than the critical angle.” . The angle of incidence and reflection are equal and it is called Total Internal Reflection.

Fig 5: Total internal reflection in an OFC .

Graded index .Types of OF cables • • Single Mode Fibre Multi Mode Fibre 1. Step index 2.

Fig 6: Different types of Fibers. .

OPTICAL FIBRE PARAMETERS • • • • • • • Wavelength Frequency Window Attenuation Dispersion Bandwidth Numerical Aperture .

ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBER • • • • • • • Wide bandwidth Low loss Electromagnetic immunity Small size Light weight Greater safety Higher security .

Fig 7: Loss vs frequency curve .

• Link among computers and high-resolution video terminals used for such as computer aided design. • Connection between telephone network and antennas for mobile telephone service • Long haul telecommunication systems on land and at sea to carry many simultaneous telephone calls over long distances . • Moderate speed transmission of computer data in places where fibers is most economical to install.APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL FIBER • Local area networks operating at high speeds or over large areas. and backbone systems connecting slower local area networks. • Transmission of signals within the ships/aircraft/automobiles.

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy .

PRESENTATION OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION • VERSIONS OF PDH • LIMITATIONS OF PDH .

and chronous. time. • Transmission and reception are synchronized but timing is not • The channel clocks derived from diff master clock and range is within limit .INTRODUCTION • The term “PLESIOCHRONOUS” is derived from Greek plesio which means near. • It means. It called “PLESIOCHRONOUS” SIGNAL. networks works in different state but not perfectly within network. • PDH signal are neither SYNCHRONOUS nor ASYNCHRONOUS .

AMERICAN = 24 CHANNELS.VERSIONS OF PDH There are two version in PDH namely • THE EUROPEAN. • THE AMERICAN. . EUROPEAN = 30 CHANNELS.

Fig 8: Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy .

Fig 9: Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy .

LIMITATIONS OF PDH NETWORK • • • • • Homogeneity of equipment Limited functionality The problem of channel segregation The problem of cross-connection of channels Incompatibility .

SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY(SDH) .

is a set of standards for interfacing Operating Telephone Company (OTC) optical networks. They are a set of global standards for interfacing equipment from different vendors (One of the few where telephony is concerned).INTRODUCTION • SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) or SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) as it's known in Europe. • .

PDH PRINCIPLE .

SDH PRINCIPLE .

• Essentially. separate. slower signals can be multiplexed directly onto higher speed SDH signals without intermediate stages of multiplexing. . • SDH is more flexible than PDH and provides advanced network management and maintenance features.SDH Advantages versus PDH The advantage of SDH over PDH are • SDH is based on the principal of direct synchronous multiplexing.

International organization defined standardized bit rates .BIT RATES Fig 10.

SDH FRAME REPRESENTATION .

the standard SDH frame representation is a MATRIX with 9 rows and with variable columns.SDH FRAME REPRESENTATION • Everywhere in the world. .

SDH FRAME REPRESENTATION .

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SDH MULTIPLEXING .

STM FRAMES .

SDH EQUIPMENTS 1. REGENERATOR . TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER 2.

ADD/DROP MULTIPLEXER .3. TRANSPONDER (LAMDA CONVERTER) 4.

DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT .5.

NETWORK TOPOLOGIES .

Ring protection 2. 1:N protection Fig 11: Ring protection .NETWORK PROTECTION • Protection can be given in 2 ways 1. 1:1 protection 3.

Fig 12: 1:1 Protection Fig 13: 1:N Protection .

Etc.) is recorded or when 30% of the frames received in one second contain errors • Unavailability Length of time where SONET equipment is not available (beginning after 10 consecutive SES) .QUALITY PARAMETER • Errored Seconds (ES) Seconds during which there is at least one error per block or frame • Severely Errored Seconds (SES) Length of time during which a major alarm (LOS. AIS. LOF.

STM-16 DESCRIPTION .

Fig 14: STM-16 Practical Equipment .

Different slots of STM-16
• • • • • • • • • COM 01 CARD AGG06 CARD ELAN05D CARD 2 XCC05 CARD 2 XCEXT CARD 2 A010000 CARD FAN MFC3 CARD POWER DSITRIBUTION MODULE

E1 CONNECTION CONFIGURATION

STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED
1. Connect the PC to NMS interface of the network element. 2. Log in to an uncommissioned network element requisites.

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• Determine the operating power available • Determine the special modifications (if any) necessary (such as impedances. • Check that the fiber bandwidth is adequate to pass the signal desired. .).Designing a Fiber Optic System The following step-by-step procedure should be followed when designing any system. splice loss. • Compare the loss figure obtained with the allowable optical loss budget of the receiver. These parameters should be available from the manufacturer of the electronics and fiber. special connectors. bandwidths. special fiber size. • Determine the correct optical transmitter and receiver combination based upon the signal to be transmitted. • Calculate the total optical loss (in dB) in the system by adding the cable loss. and connector loss. etc.

Calculation of receiver sensitivity • We make use of DTA for calculation. . • DTA has transmitter to send the signal to STM-16 and receiver the same. • It compare both this signal and indicates if there is any errors.

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Tx power (dbm) -0. 3. -0.11 -0.11 -0.14 -29.11 -0. 5.No 1.11 -20 -24 -29 -33.S.11 Rx power (dbm) -7.7 -99 -34.11 -0.20 -33.11 -15.8 -20.11 NO YES Table 1: Receiver sensitivity of station A .19 NO NO NO NO 8.11 -24.11 Error status NO NO NO 4.11 -34.99 -12.18 -99. -0. 6.11 -0. 9. 7.11 -0. 2.88 -12 -15 attenuation -7.

7dbm • Transmitted overload = -12dbm (from overload sheet). • Hence dynamic range = 12>Rx>34.11dbm • Minimum receiver power = -34.7 .Receiver sensitivity of station A • Transmitted power = -0.

2 -19.8 -2.S.8 -2. 2. 6.19 -10. Tx power -2.8 -2. 3.9 -22.99 -16 -22 -25.8 -2. 4.8 -2.7 -23.2 -99 attenuation Error status -6.5 -26 -101.8 NO NO NO NO NO YES Table 2: Receiver sensitivity of station A .No 1. 5.8 Rx power -4.

8dbm • Minimum receiver power = -23.10>Rx>23.2dbm • Transmitted overload = -4.10dbm (from overload sheet).Receiver sensitivity of station B • Transmitted power = -2.2 . • Hence dynamic range = 4.

OTDR TESTING .

REASONS TO USE OTDR : 1. Troubleshooting. verification documentation has always been an important step of the system installation process. 2. Documentation. 4.INTRODUCTION • Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) is used for system troubleshooting. Product acceptance. 3. . System verification.

OTDR PRINCIPLE • An OTDR takes advantage of the backscattered light that occurs in all fibers as light travels down the core Fig 15: Backscattered light (Rayleigh scattering) .

CALCULATION OF CABLE LENGTH USING OTDR Fig 16: Correction Factor Calculation .

LINK BUDGET • Definition: Computation of all losses that comes into account from source node to destination node is called “LINK BUDGET”. • Lets see how to prepare link budget of 2 station (seperated by 100 Kms) connected through of cable. .

31db Calculation of various losses: Splice loss (50 slices) = 0.69 .5db per slice Fiber loss = 0.07dbm (calculated) Rx sensitivity (stn B) = -23.2) = 23.11dbm (calculated) Rx sensitivity (stn A) = -34.(-23.25 x 100 = 25db Total loss = 3+2+5+25 =35db System loss margin = power margin – total loss = -11.5db per km Power margin = 0.1 x 50 = 5db Fiber loss (100Km) = 0.11.Numeric values for the link: Tx power = 0.2dbm (calculated) Source fiber coupling = 3db Connector loss = 1db Splice loss = 0.

5 db per Km (1310 nm) Hence max distance between 2 station = 12.2) = 23.31+1-11.5 = 25.Maximum distance between 2 station Dynamic range between stn A and stn B = Tx power of stn A – Rx sensitivity of stn B = 0.69 Max loss b/w 2 station = 23.11-(-23.62 We know that there is a loss of 0.31 Connector loss =1dbm System loss margin = -11.69 = 12.62/0.24 Km = 25 Km (approx) .

By this we can say that compared to other STM-N systems.CONCLUSION • • • We have successfully created an link between two STM-16 systems.5 Gbps. By using OFC cables we have transmitted the frames between two STM-16 systems and calculated receiver sensitivity using analyzer practically. STM-16 has very high speed 2. .