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UNIT 2 NOTES: Hearing & Equilibrium

(1) Ear Design
• Ear is like a well designed funnel. • Sound waves spiral down into auditory canal. • Sound Waves smack against ear drum (tympanic membrane).

(2) Vibrations
• Sound Waves  Tympanic Membrane
– Eardrum literally like the leather on a drum

• T-Membrane  Hammer  Anvil  Stirrup
– Hammer, Anvil and Stirrup are very small bones in inner ear

• Stirrup  Oval Window  Inner Ear Fluid

(3) Cochlea
• Cochlea = Snail like structure in inner Ear. • Contains Organ of Corti:
– Contains hearing receptors / hair cells – Hair cells stimulated by movement of Inner Ear Fluid

• Basilar Membrane
– Type of membrane on specific receptors – Responds to changes in pitch

• Fluid  Receptors  Cochlear Nerve  Brain

(4) Equilibrium & Balance
• Your ears keep track of your body’s position. • Equilibrium receptors lie within the inner ear of your ears (Vestibular Apparati). • 2 Types of Equilibrium:
– Static – Dynamic

(5) Static Equilibrium
• Head Balance • Static Receptors = Maculae:
– On top of maculae lies the otolithic membrane (gel-like) – Head Moves  Otoliths Moves! – Movement of Otolithic  Receptor  Impulse to Vestibular Nerve & Brain

• Tells your brain when your head is not upright.

(6) Dynamic Equilibrium
• Rotation & Angles of Head • Semicircular Canals of Cochlea:
– Contain receptors = Crista Ampullari – Crista Ampullari contain receptor hairs, endolymph fluid and a capula cap – Body Movement  endolymph movement  Push on Capula Cap  Receptor Hairs  Vestibular Nerve & Brain

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTiGskc1o48

(7) Motion Sickness
• Inefficient dynamic equilibrium…
– Semicircular Canals either too sensitive or too slow at sending messages

• Too many visual messages • Too many inner ear messages • Visual conflicts with Inner Ear
• Unique to each individual

(8) Deafness
• Deaf = Any hearing loss • Types:
– Conduction – Sensorineural

(9) Conduction Deafness
• Something Blocks Tympanic Membrane • Sound Waves cannot reach Ear Drum + Inner Ear

• Causes:
– Ear Wax – Ruptured Ear Drum – Injured Hammer, Anvil and/or Stirrup

• Usually Temporary, Solved by Surgery

(10) Sensorineural Deafness
• Damage to actual parts of ears:
– Receptor Cells – Cochlea – Vestibular Nerve

• Can be hereditary, damage from disease/virus, damage from loud noises • Often permanent