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# Sequencing

Sequencing
 Sequencing problems are of common occurrence in our daily
 ordering of jobs for processing in a manufacturing plant  waiting aircrafts for landing clearance  programmes to be run in a sequence at a computer centre

 Such problems exist whenever there is a alternative choice as to the order in which a number of jobs can be done.  The selection of an appropriate order or sequence in which to receive waiting customers (or jobs) is called sequencing.  the objective is to optimize the use of available facilities to effectively process the items or the jobs.

Scheduling Models
 Flow-Shop Scheduling model :
In this model we have m machines and n jobs. Any given job requires an execution on each machine. The ordering of processing on the various machines is same for all jobs ; also the sequence in which the jobs go through the first machine has to be the same as the sequence in which the jobs go through any of the subsequent machine, i.e. a job may not `Pass' another job while waiting for processing on a machine. A flowshop with this restriction is often called a permutation flow-shop.

Job-Shop Scheduling Model :
In this model we have n jobs and m machines and each job has its own machine order specified.

Scheduling Models
 Open shop scheduling model : In this model we have m machines and n jobs. Any given job requires an execution on each of the m machines. The order in which a job passes through the machines is immaterial.  Project Scheduling : It is one of a type project where all the resources are brought to the job.

FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING (n JOBS. m MACHINES) n JOBS BANK OF m MACHINES (SERIES) 3 1 2 4 n M1 M2 Mm Complete enumeration n! possible sequence for each machine (m machine) .

.......Notations     N= Set of 1..M2.. n jobs M= Set of m machines M1. .... 3.Mm tij=Processing time of i-th job on j-th machine Mj X i 1 n i or D(S n )  Total idle time of last machine for n jobs in a sequence S . 2.

 Minimum Penalty Cost : It is defined as the total penalty paid by virtue of jobs being late in completion by their due dates.Various Performance Measures In each one of the models it is assumed that the decision maker wishes to minimize a given objective function. Some of the objectives are listed below :  Minimum Make-span : It is defined as total completion time in which the set of all jobs finish processing on all the machines.  Minimum Total Production Cost : It is defined as the total production cost for the production of a set of products on machines. This is also called as Total Elapsed Time or minimum flow time.  Minimum Mean Flow Time : It is defined as the average completion time of any job. . It is the average time a job spends in the Shop.  Minimum In-Process Inventory Time : It is defined as minimization of total in-process inventory waiting time for all jobs.

due dates of jobs.Scheduling Problem The general scheduling problem is described below  Determine the sequence and schedule for processing a specified number of jobs on a given number of machines that minimizes a well-defined measure of performance. and the job and machine availabilities are to be considered while determining the sequence. It may be noted that the technological orders in which the jobs are processed on various machines. .

.  Scheduling refers to the time-table that includes the start time and completion time of-jobs on machines etc.Difference between Sequencing and Scheduling  Sequencing simply refers to the determination of ORDER in which the jobs are to be processed on various machines.

once started.   Each machine is initially idle at the beginning of the scheduling period. a time.  Each machine operates independently of the other.  Machines never break down and man-power of uniform ability is always available. Each operation on a machine.Flow-shop (Assumptions) Regarding Machines :   No machine processes more than one operation at. The given operation time includes set-up time. . There is only one machine of each type.  Each operation takes finite time and it must be completed before any other operation begins. must be performed to its completion.

The processing times of the jobs are independent of the order in which the jobs are performed. once started. Jobs are independent of each other. No job is processed more than once on any machine. . Each job. must be processed to completion.Flow-shop (Assumptions) Regarding Jobs :        All jobs are available for processing at time zero All jobs allow the same sequence of operations. Each job consists of a specified number of operations and each operation is performed by only one-machine.

Each machine processes jobs in the same sequence.Flow-shop (Assumptions) Regarding Operating Policies:     Each job is processed as early as possible.   Transportation time of a job between machines is negligible. no passing or overtaking of jobs is permitted. Set up times are sequence—independent. ..e. Each job is considered as indivisible entity even though it may be composed of a number of individual units. Each machine is provided with sufficient waiting space for allowing jobs to wait before starting their processing. i.

Sequencing (n Jobs and one machine Flow shop Problem) • Priority rules: Simple heuristics used to select the order in which jobs will be processed. • Job time: Time needed for setup and processing of a job. • It includes set up time unless setup times are sequence dependent .

critical ratio =time remaining / processing time • S/O .shortest processing time .earliest due date .first come.slack per operation =slack remaining / # of operations remaining • Rush .emergency FCFS SPT EDD CR . first served .Priority Rules • • • • .

First Come. First Served Rule • Process first job to arrive at a work center first • Average performance on most scheduling criteria • Appears ‘fair’ & reasonable to customers – Important for service organizations • Example: Restaurants .

• Usually best at minimizing job flow and minimizing the number of jobs in the system • Major disadvantage is that long jobs may be continuously pushed back in the queue.Shortest Processing Time Rule • Process job with shortest processing time first. .

Earliest Due Date Rule • Process job with earliest due date first • Widely used by many companies – If due dates important – If MRP(Material Requirements Planning) used • Due dates updated by each MRP(Material Requirements Planning) run • Performs poorly on many scheduling criteria .

Today' s date  Work (lead) time remaining Process job with smallest CR first Performs well on average lateness .Critical Ratio (CR) Ratio of time remaining to work time remaining Time remaining CR  Work days remaining Due date .

2 Advantages of the Critical Ratio Scheduling Rule Use of the critical ratio can help to: – – – – – determine the status of a specific job establish a relative priority among jobs on a common basis relate both stock and make-to-order jobs on a common basis adjust priorities and revise schedules automatically for changes in both demand and job progress dynamically track job progress and location .4.

Performance measures • Flow time of a job: Duration of time from a job enters into the system until it leaves • Lateness of a job: Amount by which completion date exceeds due date. Could be negative. • Tardiness=max(lateness.0) • Makespan: total time needed to finish a group of jobs • Average number of jobs until the last is finished: =Total flow time / Makespan .

Criteria to Evaluate Priority Rules ΣFlow times Average completion time  # Jobs Process times Utilizatio n  Flow times Flow times Average number of jobs in the system  Process times Average job lateness   Late times Number of jobs .

Total Flow time=10+20 Average number of jobs=30/20 .Example: Average number of jobs • Jobs: A and B with processing times 10 each Number of jobs 2 1 Average number of jobs A finishes at 10 B finishes at 20 Time Process Time=20.

Example: Sequencing rules Jobs A B C D E Processing time 11 29 31 1 2 DD=Due date 61 45 31 33 32 .

6 40. 53.Ex: FCFS Jobs Proc.2 24.time Flow time DD Late Tardy A B C D E Total 11 29 31 1 2 11 40 71 72 74 268 61 45 31 33 32 202 -50 -5 40 39 42 66 0 0 40 39 42 121 Aver.2 .4 13.

4 -13.time Flow time DD Late Tardy D E A B C Total 1 2 11 29 31 1 3 14 43 74 135 33 32 61 45 31 202 -32 -29 -47 -2 43 -67 0 0 0 0 43 43 Aver.4 8.0 40.6 .Ex: SPT to minimize the total flow time Jobs Proc. 27.

6 .0 40.Ex: EDD to minimize the maximum lateness Jobs Proc.6 6.time Flow time DD Late Tardy C E D B A Total 31 2 1 29 11 31 33 34 63 74 235 31 32 33 45 61 202 0 1 1 18 13 33 0 1 1 18 13 33 Aver. 47.4 6.

17 6.2 Average Number of Jobs at the Work Center 268/74=3.Example summary Rule FCFS Average Flow Time (days) 53.6 135/74=1.6 .6 Average Tardiness (days) 24.82 235/74=3.62 SPT EDD 27 47 8.

CR: This is an Iterative Process using this model: • Set Current Time (sum of time of all scheduled jobs so far) • Compute:  Due _ Date    Cur _ Time  CR  Pr._ Work _ Re maining • Model Starts with current time = 0 • Current time updates after each selection by adding scheduled Process Time to current time .

55 2 1.727 .5 . Date 61 45 CR Current Time = 31 2. Time 11 29 D.00 33 16 Current Time = 0 1 2 3 4 5 11 29 31 1 2 61 45 31 33 32 4 5 1 2 33 32 2 0. Time Date JOB CR 1 2 Pr. D.483 5.54 6 1.Try it: JOB Pr.

091 do last -27* -14** 3 2 4 5 1 Total: . D. Date CR JOB C. Tardy Time Date Summary 31 60 61 63 74 289 31 45 33 32 61 0 15 28 31 13 87 Current Time = 60 1 4 5 11 1 2 61 33 32 0.Continuing (CR) JOB Pr. Time D.

Time: (289)/5 = 57.4 • # Tardy: 4 .8 • Mean Tardiness: (87)/5 = 17.Summarizing from CR analysis: • Mean F.

Johnson’s Rule • Used to sequence N jobs through 2 machines in the same order Jobs (N = 3) Saw Drill Job A Job B Job C © 1995 Corel Corp. . © 1995 Corel Corp.

eliminate it. the job is scheduled last.Johnson's Rule . If the shortest time lies with the first machine. Apply steps 2-3 to the remaining jobs. Once a job is scheduled. the job is scheduled first. if with the second machine. .Scheduling N Jobs on Two Machines All jobs are to be listed. working toward the center of the sequence. and the time each requires on a machine shown. Select the job with the shortest activity time.

Johnson’s Rule Steps List jobs & activity times Select job with shortest time Ties? No Machine? 2 Schedule LAST 1 Schedule FIRST Eliminate job from list No Yes Break arbitrarily Jobs left? Yes Stop .

tj1) .Flow-shop (n Jobs and two machine Flow shop Problem) Johnson's Rule : Job i precedes job j in an optimal sequence with regard to minimum total elapsed time if min (ti1. tj2)≤ min (ti2.

(ties may be broken arbitrarily)... . Go to step 3.. from right end.. schedule the k-th job in the first available position in sequence from the beginning.. Step 3: Remove the assigned job from further consideration and return to step 1 until all the job are assigned. n.e. 2. place the r-th job in the last available position in the sequence from the last i. (ties may be broken arbitrarily).e. ti2) where i=1. Go to step 3.Flow-shop (n Jobs and two machine Flow shop Problem) Johnson's Optimal Sequence Algorithm Step 1 : Examine the processing times of n jobs on both machines and find min [(min (ti1. (ii) If the minimum tr2 is obtained in the column of second machine B for job r.] Step 2 : (i) If the minimum tk1 is obtained in the column of first machine A for job k.. i. from left end..

The next shortest time is Eliminate M2 time isconsideration. The next Eliminate M1 and the only jobworkstation 2. shortest time Eliminate M5 from consideration. Time (hr) Motor Workstation 1 Workstation 2 at the M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 12 4 5 15 10 22 5 3 16 8 Eliminate M3 from consideration. so schedule next. scheduled is M4.Example Johnson’s Rule Morris Machine Co. Sequence = M2 M1 M4 M5 M3 . 1. The next to be Shortest from 3 hours at remaining shortest time is so isat workstation #2. M1 at workstation #1. M2 at Workstationso schedule M1 M2 to last. so schedule M5 nextfirst. M5 schedule job M3 last.

Gantt Chart for the Morris Machine Company Repair Schedule Workstation M2 (4) Idle M2 (5) M1 (12) M4 (15) M1 (22) M5 (10) M3 (5) M4 (16) Idle—available for further work M5 (8) M3 (3) 1 2 Idle 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Day 40 45 50 55 60 65 . No other sequence will produce a lower makespan. at the The schedule minimizes the idle time of workstation 2 and gives the fastest repair time for all five motors.Example Johnson’s Rule Morris Machine Co.

Johnson’s Rule Example Job A B C Work Center 1 (Drill Press) 5 3 8 Work Center 2 (Lathe) 2 6 4 D E 10 7 7 12 .

Johnson’s Rule .Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 B B C A A A B B E D D C C A A .

Graphical Depiction of Job Flow Time => 0 Work center 1 Work center 2 3 10 20 28 33 B E B 3 9 10 D E 20 22 C D 28 29 A C 33 A 35 Time => 0 B E = Job completed D C A = Idle .

Example: Two Work Center Job A B C D Work Work center 1 center 2 5 4 8 2 5 3 9 7 Lowest E F 6 12 8 15 @ work center 1 D .

Job A B C D Work Work center 1 center 2 5 4 8 2 5 3 9 7 Lowest E F 6 12 8 15 @ work station 2 D B .Example: Two Work Center cont.

Example: Two Work Center cont. Job A B C D Work Work center 1 center 2 5 4 8 2 5 3 9 7 Lowest E F 6 12 8 15 Tie: pick arbitrarily D A B .

Example: Two Work Center cont. Job A B C D Work Work center 1 center 2 5 4 8 2 5 3 9 7 Lowest E F 6 12 8 15 @ work station 1 D A E A B .

Job A B C D Work Work center 1 center 2 5 4 8 2 5 3 9 7 Lowest E F 6 12 8 15 @ work station 1 Final sequence D A C E A B D A C F A B E .Example: Two Work Center cont.

Example: Two Work Center cont. Work station 1 0 2 8 16 28 33 37 D E D 2 9 C E 17 F C 26 28 A B F 43 A B 48 51 Work station 2 Makespan = 51 .

Example: Johnson’s rule Job Processing time on 1 Processing time on 2 A B C D 15 8 12 20 25 6 4 18 .

The sequence that minimizes the Makespan A-D-B-C MC1 MC2 15 15 20 35 8 43 12 55 13 6 58 64 15 15 25 40 18 4 68 Idle time = 28 Makespan = 68 .