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ALCOHOLISM

PRESENTORS: Bhumika Sabharwal Vibhuti Sinha

SCOPE OF THE PRESENTATION

Introduction to alcoholism Theories of alcoholism Signs & symptoms Causes Alcohol & medical problems Prevention Diagnosis Management Women & alcoholism Alcoholism on India Quiz bowl

usually to the detriment of the drinker's health. and is generally used to mean compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages. and social standing. . personal relationships.Alcoholism Alcoholism is a broad term for problems with alcohol.

THEORIES .

. . Seeking the mood swing.Johnson Theory Johnson (1980) explores the emotional progression of the addict‟s response to alcohol. Physical and social consequences. Risk for premature death. He looks at this in four phases: Learning the mood swing.

They describe the process in three stages: Adaptive stage Dependent stage Deterioration stage .Milam Theory Other theorists such as Milam & Ketcham (1983) focus on the physical deterioration of alcohol.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS .

The most prevalent psychiatric symptoms are anxiety and depression disorders. including heart disease. . affecting an individual's ability to control alcohol consumption safely. The onset of depression is a common symptom. peptic ulcers and sexual dysfunction. nutritional deficiencies.  Psychiatric The social skills that are impaired by alcohol abuse include impairments in perceiving facial emotions. the ability to understand humour is also impaired in alcohol abusers.  Physical Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms. Long-term misuse Alcoholism is characterised by an increased tolerance of physical dependence on alcohol. Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption. theory of mind deficits.

CAUSES .

Genes Several childhood trauma Lack of peer and family support Stressful situations or a big life change Peer pressure Relationship & social changes Emotional status Enjoying the “feeling” .

For example. there are differences between African. . East Asian and Indo-racial groups in how they metabolize alcohol.Genetic Variation Genetic differences exist between different racial groups which affect the risk of developing alcohol dependence.

ALCOHOL & MEDICAL PROBLEMS .

poor memory and concentration .    Stomach the entry point Slows down functioning and interferes with digestion Irritates the lining of the food pipe and stomach Causes gastritis and ulcer Increases incidence of cancer Liver  Can lead to fatty liver (sluggishness due to accumulation of fat cells) and alcoholic hepatitis (jaundice.Triggers psychiatric problems .like symptoms)  Permanent damage – cirrhosis Brain the control centre  Slows down the functioning  Causes loss of inhibitions and affects judgment and coordination  Leads to depression.Damages brain cells permanently .

Heart the life line  Interferes with normal heart rhythm  Excessive alcohol use can -damage blood vessels -weaken heart muscles -cause enlargement Other effects  Neuritis tingling sensation. tremors in hands and feet  Pancreatitis painful inflammation of the pancreas  Degeneration of muscles due to protein loss  Malnutrition leading to many problems ranging from tiredness onto poor memory  Sexual problems .

PREVENTION .

Targeting adolescents and young adults Alcohol policies by government & various organizations Restricting advertising of alcohol Educational campaigns Guidelines for parents .

DIAGNOSIS .

• . It asks three questions about amount and frequency of drinking.  • Screening T-ACE Test. and four questions about problems related to alcohol consumption. three questions about alcohol dependence. The T-ACE test is a four-question test that asks the following questions: Does it TAKE (T) more than three drinks to make you feel high? Have you ever been ANNOYED (A) by people's criticism of your drinking? Are you trying to CUT DOWN (C) on drinking? Have you ever used alcohol as an EYE OPENER (E) in the morning? AUDIT Test. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). These tests do not differentiate alcoholics from non-alcoholics. Urine and blood tests Blood Alcohol content (BAC).

• CAGE questionnaire: The questionnaire asks the following questions:  Have you ever felt you needed to Cut down on your drinking?  Have people Annoyed you by criticizing your drinking?  Have you ever felt Guilty about drinking?  Have you ever felt you needed a drink first thing in the morning (Eye-opener) to steady your nerves or to get rid of a hangover? • A single question : "When was the last time you had more than five drinks (for men) or four drinks (for women) in one day?" An answer of "within 3 months" accurately identified about half of people who were problem drinkers. . • Other Screening Tests: Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS).

and others to be less likely to suspect that a woman they know is an alcoholic. in turn. reduced fear of stigma may lead men to admit that they are suffering from a medical condition. Fear of stigmatization may lead women to deny that they are suffering from a medical condition. . and others to be more likely to suspect that a man they know is an alcoholic. and to drink alone. In contrast. leads family. leads family. and to drink in groups. to hide their drinking. physicians. This pattern. physicians. This is more of a barrier for women than men. in turn. This pattern. to display their drinking publicly.Social barriers Attitudes and social stereotypes can create barriers to the detection and treatment of alcohol abuse.

MANAGEMENT .

that have similar effects to prevent alcohol withdrawal. such as benzodiazepines.Detoxification Alcohol detoxification or „detox' for alcoholics is an abrupt stop of alcohol drinking coupled with the substitution of drugs. Detoxification does not actually treat alcoholism. . and it is necessary to follow-up detoxification with an appropriate treatment program for alcohol dependence or abuse in order to reduce the risk of relapse.

Psychological  Various forms of group therapy or psychotherapy can be used to deal with underlying psychological issues that are related to alcohol addiction.  Alcoholics Anonymous was one of the first organizations formed to provide mutual. and it is still the largest. nonprofessional counseling.  The mutual-help group-counseling approach is one of the most common ways of helping alcoholics maintain sobriety. .

Medications A variety of medications may be prescribed as part of treatment for alcoholism: Vitamin supplements Disulfiram Calcium carbimide Naltrexone Odansetron Acamprosate Benzodiazepines .

WOMEN & ALCOHOLISM .

Heavy drinking over time has been found to have a negative effect on reproductive functioning in women . Women have a higher mortality rate from alcoholism than men.Women develop long-term complications of alcohol dependence more rapidly than do men.

ALCOHOLISM IN INDIA .

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ALCOHOL LAWS OF INDIA • In India. . • Advertising alcoholic beverages is banned in India as per the Cable Television Network (Regulation) Amendment Bill. • Legal drinking age between 18–25 years. which came into effect on September 8. consumption of alcohol is prohibited in the states of Gujarat. Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti are usually dry days throughout India. 2000. Manipur. Mizoram and Nagaland as well as the union territory of Lakshadweep. • National holidays such as Republic Day.

India has been identified as the potentially third largest market for alcoholic beverages in the world which has attracted the attention of multi national liquor companies.  Sale of alcohol has been growing steadily at 6% and is estimated to grow at the rate of 8% per year. 62. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN INDIA .  About 80% of alcohol consumption is in the form of hard liquor or distilled spirits showing that the majority drink beverages with a high concentration of alcohol.5 million alcohol users estimated in India  Due to its large population.  Branded liquor accounts for about 40% of alcohol consumption while the rest is in the form of country liquor.

have enforced prohibition.25.  Taxes generated from alcohol production and sale is the major source of revenue in most states (Rs. increased availability.  Mizoram. . urbanization. high intensity mass marketing and relaxation of overseas trade rules along with poor level of awareness related to alcohol has contributed to increased alcohol use. Manipur and Nagaland . Changing social norms.Gujarat.000 crores) and has been cited as a reason for permitting alcohol sale. Four states .

restrictions on production. IAPA provides a forum for advocacy to facilitate:  Development of alcohol policy that addresses issues related to alcohol taxation. drinking and driving laws and advertising  Education and information dissemination to create a high degree of public awareness and generate support for activities that will dissuade harmful alcohol use practices  Research to highlight costs of alcohol use. IAPA is affiliated to Global Alcohol Policy Alliance and receives support from FORUT Campaign for Development and Solidarity. monitor consumption trends and generate data for advocacy efforts to build political commitment and community support to reduce harmful impact of alcohol .Indian Alcohol Policy Alliance (IAPA) is a registered nongovernmental organization started in 2004 to prevent alcohol related harm through policy intervention. advocacy and capacity building. number of sales outlets and hours of operation as well as ensuring stricter implementation of rules on age restrictions.

QUIZ BOWL .

IAPA started in the year _____. Legal drinking age in India is _______.Legal drinking age in Delhi is ___. . ______ test is used for screening.______&______. Three stages according to the Milan Theory are______. IAPA stands for________.