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SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR

BY FUZZY CONTROLLER

PREM KUMAR REG NO 1611110018 M TECH (PED)

INTRODUCTION
The fuzzy logic, unlike conventional logic system, is able to model inaccurate or imprecise models. The fuzzy logic approach offers a simpler, quicker and more reliable solution that is clear advantages over conventional techniques. This paper deals with speed control of Separately Excited DC

Motor through fuzzy logic Controller.

WHAT IS FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLERS ?

Its totally different from other controllers, fuzzy logic's principle is to think like an organic creature; human.

A form of knowledge representation suitable for notions that cannot be defined precisely, but which depend upon their contexts.

HOW DOES IT WORKS?


In fuzzy logic we define human readable rules to form the target system. For instance assume we want to control the room temperature, first of all we define simple rules:

If the room is hot then cool it down If the room is normal then don't change temperature If the room is cold then heat it up

HOW DOES IT WORKS? CONT.

BOOLEAN LOGIC REPRESENTATION

Slow
Speed = 0 bool speed; get the speed if ( speed == 0) { // speed is slow } else { // speed is fast }

Fast
Speed = 1

FUZZY LOGIC REPRESENTATION

For every problem must represent in terms of fuzzy sets.

Slowest
[ 0.0 0.25 ]

Slow
[ 0.25 0.50 ]

Fast
[ 0.50 0.75 ]

Fastest
[ 0.75 1.00 ]

FUZZY SETS

Extension of Classical Sets Fuzzy set is sets with smooth boundary Membership function

A fuzzy set defined by the function that maps


objects in a domain of concern to their membership value in the set. Such a function is called membership function

FUZZY SET OPERATORS

Union

max (fA(x) , fB(x) )

Intersection

min (fA(x) , fB(x) )

Complement Complement( fA(x) )

LINGUISTIC VARIABLE

Linguistic variables are the input (or) output variable of the system. Whose values are in natural language.

Example: The room is hot linguistic value How much it is hot linguistic variable

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER

The problem

Change the speed of a heater fan, based upon the room temperature and humidity.

A temperature control system has four settings

Cold, Cool, Warm, and Hot


Low, Medium, and High

Humidity can be defined by:

Using this we can define the fuzzy set.

STRUCTURE OF FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER


ADC

FUZZIFIER

INFERENCE ENGINE

DEFUZZIFIER

DAC

FUZZIFICATION

Conversion of real input to fuzzy set values

PROCEDURE

1. Description of the problem in an acceptable mathematical form.

2. Definition of the threshold for the variables, specifically the


two extremes of the greatest and least degree of satisfaction.

Based on the above threshold values a proper membership

function is selected among those available e.g. linear, piecewise linear, trapezoidal, parabolic... etc.

INFERENCE ENGINE

Which makes the rules works in response to system inputs.

INFERENCE ENGINE CONT.


These rules are human readable rules It is basically uses IF-THEN rules to manipulate input variables.

Example
IF( some function ) THEN( some function ).

DEFUZZIFICATION
Changing fuzzy output back into numerical values for system action There are two major defuzzification techniques

1.Mean Of Maximum method (MOM)


2.Gravity center defuzzifier (GCD)

DEFUZZIFICATION CONT.

Example

let y = {0.1/2 + 0.8/3 + 1.0/4 + 0.8/5 +0.1/6} using GCD method we have

Y = ( 0.1*2 + 0.8*3 + 1.0*4 + 0.8*5 +0.1*6 )

(0.1+ 0.8+ 1.0+ 0.8 +0.1)


Y=4

BLOCK DIAGRAM

DC VOLTAGE SOURCE

DC TO DC CONVERTER

DC MOTOR

PWM GENERATOR

FUZZY CONTROLLER

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Motor model : In this model the armature reaction is neglected. The Vf and If are maintained constant. That is field

excited separately

The armature voltage is controlled to get different speed

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION CONT.


A linear model of a simple DC motor consists of a mechanical equation and electrical equation as determined in the following equations

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION CONT.


The dynamic model of the system is formed using these differential equations

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION CONT.

DRIVER CIRCUIT :

Here the DC to DC converter is used to control


the armature voltage of the motor. The switches in the DC to DC converter are controlled by PWM inverter. The PWM which compares the corrected

error(ce) signal generated by the fuzzy controller and


reference signal.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION CONT.


Dc source

Thyristor

DC motor (armature)

Speed measurements

PWM controller Ref signal

Fuzzy controller

FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER


In this controller the input is speed and the output is voltage.The membership function is figured between error and change in error. After that using pre defined rule the controller produces signal this signal is called control variable.it is given to PWM current controller

THE RULE DATABASE TABLE

ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL CONTROL


TECHNIQUES

Developing a fuzzy logic controller is cheaper than developing model based or other controller with comparable performance.

Fuzzy logic controller are more robust than PID controllers because they can cover a much wider range of operating conditions.

Fuzzy logic controller are customizable.

DISADVANTAGES OF FUZZY SYSTEM

It is not useful for programs much larger or smaller than the historical data.

It requires a lot of data

The estimators must be familiar with the historically


developed programs

CONCLUSION
Thus the fuzzy logic controller is sensitive to variation of the reference speed attention. It is also overcome the disadvantage of the use conventional control sensitiveness to inertia variation and

sensitiveness to variation of the speed with drive system of dc motor.

THANK YOU