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PRESENTED BY: Abhishek Singhal Ajay Chaudhary Ajay Kumar Sah Aleem Ansari Amit Kapoor Anas Aftab Anwar Siddiqui Arif Anwar Asif Mohd. SUBMITED TO: Prof. S. Veeramani
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its land area) and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population. During the 20th century Asia's population nearly quadrupled. Asia differs very widely among and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems.
BOUNDARIES Asia is defined as 4/5 of the landmass of Eurasia with the western portion of the latter occupied by Europe – located to the east of the Suez Canal. on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. . east of the Ural Mountains and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas. It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean.
international organizations such as the United Nations. which describes a geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than its location within Asia.SUB REGIONS OF ASIA Western Asia Western Asia. The terms are partly coterminous with the Middle East. West Asia. Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia are terms that describe the westernmost portion of Asia. Due to this perceived Euro centrism. . have replaced Middle East and Near East with Western Asia. This region and Europe are collectively referred to as Western Eurasia.
Cyprus. Turkey. in opposition to Far East. United Arab Emirates. Georgia. Iraq. The term is considered to be Eurocentric and used as a synonym for Near East. Oman. Qatar. Countries include are: Armenia. Bahrain. Kuwait.CONTINUED… Middle East The Middle East or Mideast is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. Israel. Saudi Arabia. Yemen . Lebanon. Syria. Jordan Azerbaijan. Occupied Palestinian Territory.
it is dominated by the Indian Plate. for some authorities . which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and. which rises above sea level as the Indian subcontinent south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. Topographically. Central Asia. . also known as Southern Asia. is the southern region of the Asian continent. from west) by Western Asia. Southeastern Asia and the Indian Ocean. South Asia is surrounded (clockwise. also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east.CONTINUED… South Asia: South Asia. Eastern Asia.
making it both the most populous and most densely populated geographical region in the world . Maldives. Iran. Bangladesh. and Sri Lanka Burma and Tibet are also sometimes included in the region of South Asia. Bhutan. Nepal. South Asia is home to well over one fifth of the world's population. India.CONTINUED… According to the United Nations geographical region classification Southern Asia comprises the countries of Afghanistan. Pakistan.
consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China. and Taiwan are sometimes grouped in the Southeast Asia sub region. which is analogous to the Malay Archipelago. Indonesia. Macau. east of India. west of New Guinea and north of Australia. Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: Mainland Southeast Asia. East Timor. Laos.East Malaysia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates. Christmas Island. and Singapore. Philippines.Thailand Vietnam and Peninsular Malaysia. and Maritime Southeast Asia.CONTINUED… Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a sub region of Asia. comprises Cambodia. Geographically Hong Kong. . with heavy seismic and volcanic activity. also known as Indochina. Burma (Myanmar). comprises Brunei .
5 billion people. and Mongolia.000 sq mile). live in geographic East Asia. it covers about 12. Japan.600. or about 28 percent of the Asian continent. The UN sub region of Eastern Asia and other common definitions of East Asia contain the entity of the People's Republic of China. North Korea. Republic of China (commonly known as "Taiwan"). South Korea..000. Geographically and geo-politically. . East Asia East Asia or Eastern Asia is a sub region of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. More than 1.CONTINUED. about 38% of the population of Asia or 22% of all the people in the world.000 km2 (4.
"the 'stans" (as the five countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with that suffix). Tajikistan. Turkmenistan.CONTINUED… Central Asia Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. All definitions of Central Asia include: Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. for a total population of 64. and. Mongolia. It is also sometimes referred to as Middle Asia. colloquially. northern Pakistan. northeastern Iran.7 million as of 2012. Other areas included are Afghanistan. and sometimes Xinjiang and Tibet in western China and southern Siberia in eastern Russia .
. The Phillips Illustrated Atlas of the World 1988 defines it as being most of the former USSR. the part that is to the east of the Ural Mountains. It consists of Mangolia and Northern China. North Asia North Asia or Northern Asia is a sub region of Asia. . consisting of the Asian portion apart from Russia.
SUB REGIONS OF ASIA United Nations Geoscheme For Asia: Blue North Asia Pink Central Asia Green Western Asia Red South Asia Yellow East Asia Orange Southeast Asia .
Asia dominated the office locations with 4 of top 5 were in Asia. Singapore. after Europe. . but the largest when measured in purchasing power parity. Around 68 percent of international firms have office in Hong Kong. Based on Global Office Locations 2011. Japan. As of 2010.ASIAN ECONOMY Asia has the second largest nominal GDP of all continents. India. Tokyo. Hong Kong. South Korea and Indonesia. London and Shanghai. the largest economies in Asia are China.
002 17.774.923(estimated for year 2012) .512 (2011) Asia 16.626 (2010) 15.919.937.GDP (nominal) millions of US dollars World 57.460 (2010) 61.347.025.214.734 (2010) (2011) East Asia 13.
5 19 Iran 818.030 16 Turkey 960. South 1.459 15 Indonesia 1.4 source: CIA factbook .090 3 Japan 4.310 4 India 4.060 12 Korea.7 22 Saudi Arabia 622 27 Pakistan 464.9 29 Malaysia 414.GDP (PPP) of ASIAN NATIONS (in $ Bn) 2 China 10.
according to Goldman Sachs. . France. at USD 34. overtaking Germany. is already higher than that of Finland. According to IMF statistics for the year 2010. the United Kingdom and France. Several trade blocs exist. with the most developed being the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. South Korea will become the second wealthiest country in Asia by 2025. China will have the largest economy in the world.743. or Japan. In terms of GDP per capita. By 2027. both nominal and PPP-adjusted. Taiwan PPP-adjusted GDP per capita. It is forecasted that India will overtake Japan in terms of nominal GDP by 2020.
Japan and South Korea continue to dominate in the area of multinational corporations but increasingly the PRC and India are making significant inroads. Japan. South Korea and Japan have operations in Asia's developing countries to take advantage of its abundant supply of cheap labour and relatively developed infrastructure. the Philippines. forests. fish. particularly in the China. . and Singapore. and it is rich in natural resources. Asia is the largest continent in the world by a considerable margin. India. Taiwan. North America. water. copper and silver. rice. Many companies from Europe. South Korea. such as petroleum. Manufacturing in Asia has traditionally been strongest in East and Southeast Asia.
exploration and colonialism. attracting European commerce. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination . China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east.ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Ancient and medieval times: China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 A.D. and for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia.
most of Asia was under colonial rule. Siam. Japan in particular managed to develop its economy due to a reformation in the 19th century. The volume of trade continued to increase with the opening of the Suez Canal in the 1860s. corn. and Japan. At the same time. Such examples are China.Pre-1945 Prior to World War II. Tobacco. Only relatively few states managed to remain independent in the face of constant pressure exerted by European power. rose and sugar trade was the most in demand during that time. Southeast Asia was prospering due to trade and the introduction of various new technologies of that time. . coconut. . The Philippines was the first Asian country to trade with Latin America.
many oil fields were discovered and it was learnt later that the Mideast possesses the world's largest oil stocks. Japan invaded Malaya and thus began World War II in Asia. and suffered the same pain as Europe and the United States. This made the rulers of the Arab nations very rich though the socioeconomic development in that region lagged behind. prices of various goods starting to fall and further impoverished locals and foreigners alike. In the early 1930s. the world underwent a global economic depression. today known as the Great Depression. crude oil was first discovered in Persia. Afterwards.In 1908. In 1941. Asia was not spared. . With falling demand. modern day Iran. The volume of trade decreased dramatically all around Asia and indeed the world.
Following World War II, the People's Republic of China and India, which account for half of the population of Asia, adopted socialist policies to promote their domestic economy. These policies limited the economic growth of the region. In contrast, the economies of superiors Japan, and East Asian tigers i.e. South Korea Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong -- were economic successes. The Philippines from the post-World War II until the onset of the first People Power Revolution had the second largest economy in Asia.
After the liberalization of the economy of India, the Indian economy coupled with the Chinese economy to power Asia into being one of the hotspots for world trade. One of the factors was the sheer size of the population in this region. Meanwhile, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore emerged as the Four Asian Tigers with their GDPs growing well above 7% per year in the 1980s and the 1990s. Their economies were mainly driven by growing exports. The Philippines only began to open up its stagnated economy in the early 1990s. Vietnam's economy began to grow in 1995. Throughout the 1990s, the manufacturing ability and cheap labor markets in Asian developing nations allowed companies to establish themselves.
Asia's large economic disparities are a source of major continuing tension in the region. While global economic powers China, Japan, India, and South Korea continue powering through, and Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Sri Lanka have entered the path to long-term growth, regions right next to these countries are in severe need of assistance. Military intervention by the United States in Iraq and Afghanistan has also inflamed extremism and resulted in several terrorist attacks in a number of Asian countries. Another impending crisis is the depletion of oil reserves in the Middle East.
SOME FACTS ABOUT ASIA .
663 257.925 51.545 3.963 19.402 1.074 29.830 52.086 90.785 1000 6.616 17.400 8.518 28.240 1.017 7.515.752 10.631 8.166 21.Country or Territory GDP nominal millions of USD GDP PPP millions of USD GDP PPP per capita USD Location Asia Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan 18.600 South Asia West Asia West Asia West Asia South Asia South Asia Brunei 11.360 29.600 5.733 105.708 23.000 29.381 East Asia West Asia .878.077.811 2.197 Southeast Asia Cambodia 11.257 22.000 16.397 24.000 Southeast Asia China (PRC) Cyprus 5.200 1.646 76.800 Southeast Asia Burma 35.085.634 37.
432 34.234 226.000 1.084 117.339 West Asia East Asia South Asia Indonesia 706.069 3.444 818.537.007.162 West Asia West Asia West Asia East Asia West Asia Central Asia East Asia East Asia West Asia Central Asia .735 1.966 22.434 1.000 11.316 4.062 2.293 2.330 218.500 32.000 1.200 38.261 40.246 138.817 5.884 4.872 27.200 3.254 5.194 322.653 115.459.060.757 28.600 Southeast Asia Georgia Hong Kong India 11.600 29.309.900 30.392 4.East Timor 616 3.490 4.486 4.458.136 201.099 11.617 193.772 11.500 46.901 84.394 Southeast Asia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan 337.485 1.129 129.029.
302 Southeast Asia Philippines 189.451 West Asia East Asia Malaysia 218.100 59.061 350.792 1.807 15.950 412.782 164.603 Southeast Asia Maldives Mongolia Nepal Oman Pakistan 1.483 3.252 35.689 2.755 10.231 78.435 Southeast Asia Lebanon Macau 39.232 West Asia .433 5.518 149.100 464.250 26.341 15.789 South Asia East Asia South Asia West Asia South Asia Papua New Guinea 8.930 2.Laos 6.470 15.725 Southeast Asia Qatar 126.197 2.149 22.279 3.727 1.108 53.809 14.302 14.331 59.995 88.906 18.711 5.
529 5.051 27.650 37.324 14.597 36.793 Southeast Asia Yemen 30.743 15.987 275.960 239.639 2.124 105.392 6.633 5.907 South Asia West Asia Central Asia Thailand 312.724 960.712 57.768 8.108 1.742 West Asia Singapore 217.377 291.605 584.826 23.807 East Asia North Asia Saudi Arabia 434.487 2.957 34.595 West Asia .103 5.973 3.578 104.022 West Asia Central Asia West Asia Central Asia Vietnam 101.908 85.079 810.222.440 619.643 Southeast Asia Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan 729.511 35.241 59.465.883 186.984 1.023 63.Republic of China (Taiwan) Russia 426.329 2.238 Southeast Asia Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan 48.363 13.
UNEMPLOYMENT-RATE-MAJOR-COUNTRIES Latest data after 2011 .
MAJOR POPULATION COUNTRY Latest data after 2011 .
GDP GROWTH RATES Latest data after 2011 .
INTEREST -RATE –MAJOR.COUNTRIES Year 2011 .
DEBT-TO-GDP-MAJOR-COUNTRIES Year 2011 .
000 800 600 400 200 0 Export(Billion) Source: CIA World factb ook January 1.600 1. 2011 .400 1.MAJOR EXPORTER OF THE WORLD Export(Billion) 1.200 1.
546.) (p/SM) s (1000) 19 1.209 317 31 92 195 .374.796.441.672.049. of Populati Area Density countrie on (sq.064 4.898 19.356 3.724.165 489 Southern Asia Eastern Asia Northern Asia Western Asia Total 6 8 18 51 1.653 2.493 8.COUNTRIES AND POPULATION IN ASIA Regions No.455.110 225.mi.829 3.769 260.
GDP OF MAJOR COUNTRIES 2012 US Economy Report .
INFLATION RATE OF MAJOR COUNTRIES Latest data after 2011 .
CURRENT-ACCOUNT-TO-GDP-MAJORCOUNTRIES Year 2011 .
formerly called the Bangkok Agreement. members agreed in 2009 to implement a Trade Facilitation Framework Agreement aimed at streamlining trade procedures between members. among others. is the only trade agreement bringing together China and India. in addition to Bangladesh and the Republic of Korea.TRADE BLOCS Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement The Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA). The Secretariat of the agreement is provided by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). . While the agreement covers only a limited number of products.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a group of Pacific Rim countries who meet with the purpose of improving economic and political ties. . among others) this has failed to materialize. Although the initial intention was to create a free trade area covering all membership (which includes China. the United States and Australia.
Papua New Guinea is given an observer status. . Cambodia. South Korea. East Timor and Indonesia. Australia and New Zealand) which some have proposed may become in the future a trade bloc. Japan. Founded in 1967. its aim is to foster cooperation and mutual assistance among members. The countries meet annually every November in summits. Philippines. India. Brunei Darussalam. economic. Laos. The current member countries of ASEAN are Myanmar (Burma).Association of Southeast Asian Nations The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a political. Vietnam. In 2005 ASEAN was instrumental in establishing the East Asia Summit (involving all ASEAN members plus China. Singapore. and cultural organization of countries located in Southeast Asia. the arrangements for which are far from certain and not yet clear. Thailand. Malaysia.
Pakistan. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an association of eight countries of South Asia. scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of its member states. cultural. population control. Maldives. The Arab League facilitates political. narcotics control and anti-terrorism. rural development. Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. . health. science and technology.Arab League The Arab League is an association of Arab countries in Africa and Asia. culture. namely Bangladesh. SAARC encourages cooperation in agriculture. economic. India. Bhutan. Nepal. These countries comprise an area of 5 130 746 km² and a fifth of the population of the world.
Pakistan. Bangladesh. It creates a framework for the creation of a free trade zone covering 1.South Asia Free Trade Agreement The South Asia Free Trade Agreement is an agreement reached at the 12th South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation summit. . Bhutan and the Maldives. Nepal. Sri Lanka.6 billion people in India. It came into effect on 1 January 2006.
ASIAN CO-OPERATION DIALOGUE .
then deputy leader of the now defunct Thai Rak Thai Party. The idea of an Asia Cooperation Dialogue was raised at the First International Conference of Asian Political Parties (held in Manila between 17–20 September 2000) by Surakiart Sathirathai. Afterwards. the idea of the ACD was formally put forward during the 34th ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting in Hanoi (23–24 July 2001) and at the ASEAN Foreign Ministers Retreat in Phuket (20–21 February 2002).The Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) is a body created in 2002 to promote Asian cooperation at a continental level and to help integrate separate regional cooperation organizations such as ASEAN. . It was suggested that Asia as a continent should have its own forum to discuss Asia-wide cooperation. SAARC and the Gulf Cooperation Council. then Prime Minister of Thailand. Thaksin Shinawatra. on behalf of his party leader.
Serve as the missing link in Asian cooperation by building upon Asia's potentials and strengths through supplementing and complementing existing cooperative frameworks so as to become a viable partner for other regions.The main objectives of the ACD are to: Promote interdependence among Asian countries in all areas of cooperation by identifying Asia's common strengths and opportunities which will help reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for Asian people whilst developing a knowledge-based society within Asia and enhancing community and people empowerment. . Expand the trade and financial market within Asia and increase the bargaining power of Asian countries in lieu of competition and. Ultimately transform the Asian continent into an Asian Community. in turn. capable of interacting with the rest of the world on a more equal footing and contributing more positively towards mutual peace and prosperity. enhance Asia's economic competitiveness in the global market.
SHANGHAI CO-OPERATION ORGANISATION .
April 24. Kazakhstan. Russia and Tajikistan. Kyrgyzstan.The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation or SCO is an intergovernmental mutual-security organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev. Russian President Vladimir Putin. Former Chinese President Jiang Zemin. Former Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev. . at one time the leaders of the Shanghai Five. and Uzbekistan. Except for Uzbekistan. 1996 with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai by the heads of states of Kazakhstan. the other countries had been members of the Shanghai Five.1997 the same countries signed the Treaty on Reduction of Military Forces in Border Regions in a meeting in Moscow. Kyrgyzstan. Russia. the members renamed the organisation. the People's Republic of China. Tajikistan. founded in 1996. after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001. and Tajik President Emomali Rakhmonov. The Shanghai Five grouping was originally created April 26.
particularly in Afghanistan. India. particularly that of Russia. iron. Cambodia.ECONOMIC SECTORS Primary sector Asia is by a considerable margin the largest continent in the world. The vast expanse of the former Soviet Union. and Vietnam. titanium. Opium is one of major cash crops in Central and Southeast Asia. uranium. though its production is prohibited everywhere . Agriculture constitutes a high portion of land usage in warm and humid areas of Asia. Many hillsides are farmed in a terrace method to boost arable land. Pakistan. The main agricultural products in Asia include rice and wheat. lead. High productivity in agriculture. and zinc. such as gold. southern China. especially of rice. allows high population density of many countries such as Bangladesh. contains a huge variety of metals. and is rich in natural resources.
Secondary sector The manufacturing sector in Asia has traditionally been strongest in the East region . Taiwan. and Honda from Japan. mobile phones and cars. Toyota. . Games consoles. Major Asian manufacturing companies are mostly based in either South Korea or Japan. Hyundai. The industry varies from manufacturing cheap low value goods such as toys to high-tech added value goods such as computers. They include Samsung. and Kia from South Korea. CD players. Toshiba. South Korea and Singapore. and Sony.particularly in China. Japan. LG.
Hindustan Computers Limited. Here again India holds close to 60% of the trade share. The rise of the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry has seen the rise of India and China as the other financial centers. Mumbai. The country has emerged as one of the world's largest exporters of software and other information technology related services. Shanghai. World class Indian software giants such as Infosys. Wipro. Call centers are also becoming major employers in India and Philippines due to the availability of many well educated English speakers. Hong Kong. . Mahindra Satyam and Tata Consultancy Services have emerged as the world's most sought after service providers. located in Dubai. India has been one of the greatest beneficiaries of the economic boom. Singapore and Tokyo.Tertiary sector Asia has seven important financial centers. Bangalore.
the 21st century will be dominated by Asian politics and culture. and is attributed to a 1988 meeting with People's Republic of China leader Deng Xiaoping and Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi . if certain demographic and economic trends persist. and the 19th century the British Century. as the 20th century is sometimes referred to as the American Century. The phrase Asian Century arose in the mid to late 1980s.ASIAN CENTURY The Asian Century is a term used to describe the belief that.
2% in 2006 before slowing to 6% in 2009. then reaching 8. and the continuing growth rates. the Chinese economy has enjoyed three decades of economic growth rates between 8 and 10%. The Indian economy began a similar albeit slower ascent at the end of 1980s and early 1990s. though growing slightly over 8% in 2005. Since China's economic reforms in the late 1970s (in farm privatization) and early 1990s (in most cities).WHY ASIAN CENTURY? Economics: One major reason for the belief in a coming Asian Century is the remarkable economic growth in Asia. and hitting 9. and has averaged around 4% during this period.9% in 2010 .
Goldman Sachs report predicts that “by 2020. but India "will remain a lowincome country for several decades. India’s GDP per capita will quadruple of its 2007 GDP. Shujie Yao of Nottingham University explains that. "China will overtake the United States to become the world's largest economy by 2038.CONTINUED…. with per capita incomes well below its other BRICS peers. ." and that the Indian economy will surpass the US economy by 2043.
Goldman Sachs. in its BRIC economic forecast.CONTINUED.8.. East Asia's would approach . By 2050. highlighted the trend towards mainland China becoming the largest and India the second largest economies by the year 2050 in terms of GDP. the East Asian and South Asian economies will have increased by over 20 times. The trend for greater Asian economic dominance has also been based on the extrapolations of recent historic economic trends. The report also predicted the type of industry that each nation would dominate. leading some to deem mainland China 'the industrial workshop of the world' and India 'one of the great service societies'.94 . With that comes a rise in Human Development Index . India's HDI will approach .
and if current trends continue. While its percent of the world population is not expected to greatly change. their economy would be very large. Because of East Asian and Indian populations. . the Asian population is predicted to grow to more than five billion by 2050. East Asia could surpass all western nations' combined economies as early as 2030. North American and European shares of the global population are expected to decline.CONTINUED… Demographics: At four billion people in the beginning of the 21st century. India's long-term population could approach double that of China.
CONTINUED… Symbolic value: It is projected that the most groundbreaking construction projects will take place in Asia within the approaching years. As a symbol of economic power. Taipei 101 in Taiwan. super tall skyscrapers have been erected in Asia. UAE. International Finance Centre in Hong Kong. Completed projects include: the PETRONAS Towers of Kuala Lumpur. the Shanghai World Financial Center. and The Burj Khalifa in Dubai. . and more projects are currently being conceived and begun in Asia than in any other region of the world.
including Israel. they have been organized by the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA). until the 1978 Games. Since the 1982 Games. . officially known as Asiad. South Korea. The next Games will be held at Incheon. The Games are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and are described as the second largest multi-sport event after the Olympic Games. nine nations have hosted the Asian Games.ASIAN GAMES The Asian Games. The last Asian Games was held at Guangzhou. People's Republic of China last 12 November – 27 November 2010. which was excluded from the Games after their last participation in 1974. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation (AGF). after the breakup of the Asian Games Federation. 46 nations have participated in the Games. In its history. is a multisport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia.
THINK ABOUT ASIAN DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION!!!!!!!!!! .