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Inao Professor Mechatronics System Design Defence Engineering College Bishoftu, Ethiopia
The word mechatronics was first introduced by the senior engineer of a Japanese company; Yaskawa, in 1969, as a combination of "mecha" of mechanisms and "tronics" of electronics, and the company was granted trademark rights on the word in 1971.
Mechatronics - Definition
Mechatronics is synergistic integration of mechanical engineering, electronics and intelligent computer control in design and manufacture of products and processes.
Evolution of Mechtronic Systems
The development of mechatronics has gone through
The first stage corresponds to the years when this term
was introduced. During this stage, technologies used in mechatronic systems developed rather independently and individually.
During the second stage, i.e., with the beginning of the
eighties, a synergistic integration of different technologies started taking place, the no-table example is optoelectronics (i.e. an integration of optics and electronics). The concept of hardware/software codesign also started in those years.
The third and the last stage can also be considered as
the beginning of the mechatronics age since early nineties.
The most notable aspect of the third stage is the
increased use of computational intelligence in mechatronic products and systems. It is due to this development that we can now talk about Machine Intelligence Quotient (MIQ).
Another important achievement of the third stage is the
possibility of miniaturization of components; in the form of micro actuators and micro sensors (i.e. micro mechatronics).
Key Elements of Mechatronic System
Most mechatronic systems involve motion or action
of some sort. Actuators are the devices used to produce this motion or action. This motion or action can be applied to any thing from a single atom to a large articulated structure. It is created by a force or torque that results in acceleration and displacement.
Actuators produce physical changes such as linear and
They also modulate the rate and power associated with
An important aspect of mechatronic system design is
selecting the appropriate type of actuator.
Pneumatic and hydraulic actuation systems Mechanical actuation systems Electrical actuation systems
Types of actuation systems
A sensor is an element in a mechtronic or
measurement system that acquires a physical parameter and changes it into a signal that can be processed by the system.
Often the active element of a sensor is referred to as
Transducers are grouped according to what they are being used to measure
• Displacement position and proximity • Velocity and motion sensors • Force
• Fluid pressure
• Liquid flow • Liquid level • Temperature • Light sensors
Conductometric Sensors Capacitive Sensors Piezoelectric Sensors Magnetostrictive Sensors Piezoresistive sensors Optical Sensors Resonant Sensors Semiconductor bases sensors Acoustic Sensors Polymeric Sensors Carbon Nanotube Sensors
Necessity for Input Signal Conditioning
The transducers which converts physical quantities like temperature, displacement etc., into currents or voltages and gives them in the form of analog signals, which are continuous and time varying. Often the signal from the traducers may be –
Too small (in milli volts) Too noisy (due to electromagnetic interference) Containing wrong information (due to poor
transducer design) Having DC offset (due to transducer and instrumentation design)
Many of these these problems can be remedied and
the desired signal information can be extracted through appropriate analog signal processing.
The simplest and the most common form of signal
processing is amplification, where the magnitude of the signal is increased.
Need for digital signal
Analog signal are continuous and time varying,
whereas digital signals have only two stages: high and low. Since computers and microprocessors require digital signals, any application involving computer measurement or control requires analog to digital conversion.
To obtain completeness in the integration of mechanical devices sensors signal and power electronics into the most advanced mechatronic systems, microprocessor based control systems must be included.
Hierarchy of basic control approaches
Single Board Computer
Copy Machine – A typical example of a Mechatronic System
An office copy machine consists of analog and digital circuits, sensors, actuators and microprocessors. Analog circuits control the lamp, heater and other power circuits in the machine. Digital circuits controls the digital displays,
indicator lights, buttons and switches forming the user interface.
Optical sensors and micro switches detects the presence or absence of the paper, its proper positioning and whether or not doors and latches are in their correct positions.
Other sensors include encoders used to track the motor rotation. Actuators include servo and stepper motors that load and transport the paper, turn the drum and index the sorter. Microprocessors coordinate all the functions in the machine
Examples of Mechatronic Systems (MS)
computer disk drive
CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
1. OPEN LOOP 2. CLOSED LOOP
Open Loop Control System
In an open loop control system, the input to the plant
does not in any way depend on the current and past values of the output of the plant. The design of the open loop controller is based on inversion. Relatively simple and consequently low cost with generally good reliability.
The biggest problem with the open loop control
systems is that they rely totally in calibration, and ca not effectively deal with exogenous disturbances. They can not effectively deal with changes in the process. Can not deal with uncertainty. Can not stabilize an unstable system. Often in accurate since there is no correction for error.
Closed Loop Control System
Closed loop control system make the control system
robust to uncertainty and disturbances. It senses the output of the system and adjust the control input using feedback rules, which are based on how the system output deviates from the system behaves. The feedback helps compensate for the differences, if the system behaves slightly differently than the model. Relatively accurate in matching the actual to the required values. More complex, and more expensive, grater chance of breakdown due to number of components.
Open Loop system: Heating a room
Basic Elements of a Closed Loop system
Control element Correction Element Process element Measurement element
Closed Loop system: Heating a room
DESIGN OF MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS
STAGES IN DESIGN PROCESS
The need Analysis of problem Preparation of Specification Generation of possible solutions Selection of a suitable solution Production of a detailed design Production of working drawings
TRADITIONAL DESIGN VS MECHATRONICS DESIGN
TRADITIONAL DESIGN: The temperature control for a domestic
central heating system has been the bi-metallic thermostat of a closed loop control system. The bending of bi-metallic strip changes as the temperature changes and is used to operate an on/off switch for the heating system.
The bi-metallic thermostat is comparatively crude and the temperature is not accurately controlled; also devising a method for having different temperatures at different times of the day is complex and not easily achieved.
MECHATRONIC DESIGN: A mechatronic solution to the problem
might be to use a microprocessor controlled system employing perhaps a thermo-diode as the sensor
The microprocessor-controlled system can, however, cope easily with giving precision and programmed control. The system is much more flexible. This improvement in flexibility is a common characteristic of mechotronics systems when compared with traditional systems.
TRADITIONAL THERMOSTAT DESIGN
SECTIONAL VIEW COMPONENTS OF THERMOSTAT
CONVERSION TO MECHATRONIC DESIGN
ADVANTAGES OF MECHATRONICS DESIGN
HIGH RESOLUTION & ACCURACY REDUCES HOUSE HOLD HEATING COST SELF CALIBRATING FLEXIBLE DESIGN
TINY MCUs IN SWITCHES & POTENTIOMETERS
Applications in Mechatronics
Noteworthy Mechatronic Applications
Automotive Industry: • Vehicle diagnostics and health monitoring. Various sensors are used to detect the environment or road conditions; Sensors to monitor engine coolant, temperature and quality; Engine oil pressure, level, and quality; tire pressure; brake pressure. • Pressure, temperature sensing in various engine and power train locations Manifold control with pressure sensors; exhaust gas analysis and control; Crankshaft positioning; Fuel pump pressure and fuel injection control; Transmission force and pressure control. • Airbag safety deployment system. Micro-accelerometers and inertia sensors mounted on the chassis of the car measures car deceleration in x or y directions can assist in airbag deployment. • Antilock brake system, cruise control. Position sensors to facilitate antilock braking system; Displacement and position sensors in suspension systems. • Seat control for comfort and convenience. Displacement sensors and micro actuators for seat control; Sensors for air quality, temperature and humidity, Sensors for defogging of windshields.
Health Care Industry: • Medical diagnostic systems, non-invasive probes such as
ultrasonic probe. Disposable blood pressure transducer; Intrauterine pressure monitor during child delivery. • Pressure sensors in several diagnostic probes. Systems to control the intravenous fluids and drug flow; Catheter tip pressure sensor. • Endoscopic and orthopedic surgery. Angioplasty pressure sensor; Respirators; Lung capacity meters. • Other products such as Kidney dialysis equipment; MRI equipment.
Aerospace Industry: • Landing gear systems; Cockpit instrumentation; Pressure
sensors for oil, fuel, transmission; Air speed monitor; Altitude determination and control systems. • Fuel efficiency and safety systems; Propulsion control with pressure sensors; Chemical leak detectors; Thermal monitoring and control systems. • Inertial guidance systems; Accelerometers; Fiber-optic gyroscopes for guidance and monitoring. • Communication and radar systems; High bandwidth, low-resistance radio frequency switches; Optical instrumentation using laser communications.
Consumer Industry: • Consumer products such as auto focus camera, video, and
CD players; Consumer electronic products; User-friendly washing machines with water level controls, dish washers, and other home appliances. • Video game entertainment systems; Virtual instrumentation in home entertainment. • Home support systems; Garage door opener; Sensors with heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system; Home security systems.
Industrial Systems and Products: • Monitoring and control of the manufacturing process; CNC machine tools; Advanced high speed machining and quality monitoring; Intelligent machining and on-line quality check; Digital torque wrenches, variable speed drilling and other hand tools. • Rapid prototyping; Manufacturing cost saving by rapid creation of models done by CAD/CAM integration and rapid prototyping equipment. • Autonomous production cells with image-based object recognition; Flexible manufacturingand other factory automation systems. • Specialized manufacturing process such as the use of welding robots; Procedure for automatically programming and controlling a robot from CAD data; Robotics in nuclear inspection and space applications. • Automatic guided vehicles, space application; Use of automated navigation system for NASA projects; Use of automated systems in under water monitoring and control.
• Telecommunications. • Biorobotics, which utilize the biofunctions for applications in environmental control. • Magnetically levitated vehicles. • Scanners and copying machines and other office eqpt
Consider a simple requirement for a device which
switches on some actuator, e.g. a motor, for some prescribed time. A mechanical solution could involve a rotating cam The cam would be rotated at a constant rate and the cam follower used to actuate a switch, the length of time for which the switch is closed depends on the shape of cam.
A PLC arrangement could involve
the arrangement shown in figure with the given ladder program. This would have the advantage over the rotating cam of having off and on times which can be adjusted by purely changing the timer preset values in the program where as different cam is needed if the times have to be changed with the mechanical solution.
A microprocessor-based solution could involve a microprocessor
with a memory chip and input/output interfaces. The program is then used to switch an output on and off after some time delay with the time delay being produced by a block of program in which there is a timing loop. This generates a time delay by branching round a loop the number of cycles required to generate the requisite time, in assembly language: LDX #F424 F424 is number of loops DEX BNE LOOP RTS o DEX decrements the index register, and this and BNE, branch if not equal, each take 4 clock cycles. The loop thus takes 8 cycles and there will be n such loops until 8n+3+5 gives the number F424 (LDX takes 3 cycles and RTS takes 5 cycles). In C we would write the program lines using the while function. DELAY LOOP
An alternative to using a loop is to use a
timer module, microprocessor. are set by capacitors.
With the 555 timer the timing intervals
Figure shows the timer and the external
circuitry needed to give an on-output when triggered, the duration of the on-output being 1.1RC.
Large times need large values of R and
C. R is limited to about 1 Mc otherwise leakage becomes a problem, and C is limited to about 10 μF if electrolytic capacitors with problems of leakage and low accuracy are to be avoided. Thus the circuit shown is limited to times less than about 10 s. the lower limit is about R= 1 kc and C= 100pF, i.e. times of a fraction of a millisecond. For longer times, from 16 ms to days, an alternative timer such as the ZN1034E can be used.
(a) Generating 2 MHz internal clock
Another possibility is to use the timer system in a microcontroller such as MC68HC11. The timer system is based on a 16-bit counter TCNT operating from the system E-clock signal (Figure (a)). The system E-clock can be pre-scaled by setting bits in the timer interrupt mask register 2 (TMSK 2), address $1024 (Figure (b)). The TCNT register starts at $0000 when the processor is reset and counts continuously until it reaches the maximum count of $FFFF. On the next pulse it overflows and reads $0000 again. When it overflows it sets the timer overflow flag TOF (bit 7 in miscellaneous timer interrupt flag register 2, TFLG2 at address $1025). Thus with a pre-scale factor of 1 and an E-clock frequency of 2 MHz, over flow occurs after 32.768 One way of using this for timing is for the TOF flag to be watched by polling. When the flag is set, the program increments its counter. The program then resets the flag, by writing a 1 to bit 7 in the TFLG2 register. Thus the timing operation just consists of the program waiting for the required number of overflag settings.
(b) Pre-scaled factor
A better way of timing involves the use of the outputcompare function. Port A of the microcontroller can be used for general inputs or outputs or timing functions. The timer has output pins, OC1,OC2,OC3,OC4 and OC5, with internal registers TOC1, TOC2, TOC3, TOC4 and TOC5. We can use the output-compare function to compare the values in the TOC1 to TOC5 registers with value in the free running counter TCNT. This counter starts at 0000 when the CPU is reset and then runs continuously. When a match occurs between register and the counter then the corresponding OCx flag bit is set and output occurs through the relevant output pin. The Figure shown illustrates this. Thus by programming the TOCx register, so the times at which output occur can be set. The output-compare function can generate timing delays with much higher accuracy than the timer overflag.
Consider a requirement for a device which will
oscillate an arm back and forth in an arc like a wind screen wiper. A mechanical solution is shown in the Figure below . Rotation of arm 1 causes arm 2 to impart an oscillatory motion to arm 3.
An alternative solution is to
use a stepper motor.
Figure below shows how a
microprocessor with a PIA, or a microcontroller, might be used with a stepper.
The input to the stepper is
required to cause it to rotate a number of steps in one direction and then reverse to rotate the same number of steps in one direction and then reverse to rotate the same number of steps in the other direction.
If the stepper is to be in the ‘ full-step’ configuration then the outputs need to be as shown in Table below. Thus to start and rotate the motor in a forward direction involves the sequence A, 9, 5, 6 and then back to the beginning with 1 again. To reverse we would use the sequence 6, 5, 9, A and then back to begin with 6 again.
Step 1 2 3 4 1
Bit 3 1 1 0 0 1
Bit 2 0 0 1 1 0
Bit 1 1 0 0 1 1
Bit 0 0 1 1 0 0
Code A 9 5 6 1
If ‘ half-step’ configuration is used then the outputs need to be as shown in Table below.
Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 Bit 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bit 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 Bit 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Bit 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Code A 8 9 1 5 4 6 2 A
Where there are many steps involved a simpler program is to increment a counter with each step and loop until the counter value reaches the required number. Such program would have the basic form of: Advance a step Jump to time delay routine to give time for the step to be completed. Increment the counter.
Loop or repeat the above with successive steps until the counter indicates the requisite number of steps completed in the forward direction.
Reverse direction Repeat the above for the same number of steps in reverse directi
Integrated circuit SAA 1027 for stepper motor
Integrated circuits are available for step motor control and their use can simplify the interfacing and the software. Figure shows how such a circuit can be used. All that is then needed is the requisite number of input pulses to the trigger, the motor stepping on the low-to-high
transition of a high-low-high pulse.
A high on the rotation input causes the motor to step counter-clockwise while a low gives clockwise rotation. Thus we just need one output from the microcontroller for output pulses to the trigger and one output to rotation. An output to set is used to reset the motor back to its original position.
BATHROOM SCALES or SIMPLE WEIGHING MACHINE
The main requirements are that a person can
stand on a platform and the weight of that person will be displayed on some form of readout. The weight should be given with reasonable speed and accuracy and be independent of where on the platform the person stands. person on the platform to deflect an arrangement of two parallel leaf springs (Figure (a)). With such an arrangement the deflection is virtually independent of where on the platform the person stands. deflection can be transformed into movement of a pointer across a scale by using the arrangement shown in Figure (b). A rack-andpinion is used to transform the linear motion into a circular motion about a horizontal axis. This is then transformed into a rotation about a vertical axis, and hence movement of a pointer across a scale, by means of a bevel gear.
One possible solution is to use the weight of the
It involves the use of a microprocessor. The platform can be mounted on load cells
employing electrical resistance strain gauges. When the person stands on the platform the gauges suffer strain and change resistance. arm Wheatstone bridge then the out-ofbalance voltage output from the bridge is a measure of the weight of the person. operational amplifier. The resulting analog signal can then be fed through a latched analog-to-digital converter for inputting to the microprocessor, e.g. the Motorola 6820. adjacent Figure shows the input interface. There will also be a need to provide a non-erasable memory and this can be provided by an EPROM chip, e.g. Motorola 2716. The output to the display can then be taken through a PIA, e.g. Motorola 6821.
If the gauges are mounted in a four-active-
This can be amplified by a differential
If a microcontroller is used then memory is present within the single microprocessor chip, and by a suitable choice if a microcontroller, e.g. M68HC11, the analog-to-digital conversion can be obtained for the inputs. The system then becomes: strain gauges feeding through an operational amplifier a voltage to the port E (the ADC input) of the microcontroller, with the output passing through suitable drives to output through ports B and C to a decoder and hence a LED display (Figure below).
A PICK-AND-PLACE ROBOT
The basic form of a Pick-and-Place robot unit is shown in the Figure (a). The robot has three axes, about which the motion can occur i.e. rotation in a clockwise or counter clockwise direction of the unit on its base, arm extension or contraction and arm up and down; also the gripper can open and close. These movements can be actuated by the use of pneumatic cylinders operated by solenoid-controlled valves with limit switches to indicate when a motion is completed.
Thus the clockwise rotation of the unit might result from the piston in a linear cylinder being extended and the counter clockwise direction by its retraction. Likewise the upward movement of the arm might result from the piston in a linear cylinder being extended and the downward motion from it retracting; the extension of the arm by the piston in another cylinder extending and its return movement by the piston retracting. The gripper can be opened or closed by the piston in a linear cylinder extending or retracting. Figure (b) shows a basic mechanism that could be used
Figure below shows how a micro controller could be used to control the
solenoid valves and hence the movements of the robot unit.
CAR PARK BARRIERS
As an illustration of a PLC, consider the coinoperated barriers for a car park.
The in-barrier is to open when the correct money is inserted in the collection box and the out-barrier is to open when a car is detected at the car park side of the barrier. The Figure shows the types of valve systems that can be used to lift and lower the pivoted barriers. When a current flows through the solenoid of valve A, the piston in a cylinder moves upwards and causes the barrier to rotate about its pivot and raise to a let a car through. When the current through solenoid of valve A ceases, the return spring of the valve results in the valve position changing back to its original position. When the current is switched to through the solenoid of valve B the pressure is applied to lower the barrier. Limit switches are used to detect when the barrier is down and also when fully up.
PLC connections Ladder diagram
The basic features of the Canon EOS model, automatic, auto-
focus, reflex cameras is shown in the Figure (a) .
The cameras have interchangeable lenses. There is a main microcontroller in the lens housing, the two
communicating with each other when a lens is attached to the camera body.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM
The metering sensor has six light sensors as shown in the Figure.
Signal conditioning is used to obtain the average value of C1, C2, C3, and C4; the A, B and average C value are then analysed to find the required exposure value. This, for example, reveals whether the scene is a scene with a relatively constant luminosity or perhaps a close up of a person so that there is bright central zone surrounded by a dark background. The type of program that is used is:
If B is equal to A and C minus B is less than 0 then exposure set on value of A
if B is equal to A and C minus B is 0
then exposure set on value of C
For the main microcontroller
Send start command to lens microcontroller Take input from range sensor Calculate lens movement required Send lens movement data to lens microcontroller Wait for verification of lens movement from microcontroller Send in-focus signal to viewfinder display
For the lens microcontroller
Wait for start command from main microcontroller Determine the initial lens position Wait for lens movement data from main microcontroller Read lens movement data Calculate new lens position While lens is not in new position drive the motor Send verification signal of in-focus to main microcontroller
This information is translated by the microcontroller into an appropriate shutter speed and aperture value. If the camera is operated with the shutter speed preselected by the photographer then only the aperture value is supplied; similarly if the aperture is preselected then only the shutter speed is supplied. The range sensor has two 48-bit linear arrays of photo detectors. The light from the object, after passing through the camera lens, falls on this array (Figure). When the image is in focus the spacing of the images on the detector array is a particular value, the spacing deviating from this when the image is out of focus. The amount of this deviation is used to give an error signal, which is fed to the lens microcontroller and used to give an output to adjust the focusing of the lens. An encoder is used to provide feed back of this adjustment so that the microcontroller knows when the focusing has been completed. The program is thus of the form:
The diaphragm drive system is a stepper motor, which opens or closes a set of diaphragm blades. The focusing involves two forms of drive, the arc form drive and the ultrasonic motor. The arc form drive uses a brushless permanent magnet d.c.motor, Hall sensors being used to detect the position of the rotor. The drive from the motor is transmitted through gears to move the focusing lens along the optical axis. The ultrasonic motor has a series of piezoelectric elements in the form of a ring (Figure (a). When a current is supplied to the piezoelectric element it expands or contracts according to the polarity of the current. By switching the current to the piezoelectric elements in the appropriate sequence a displacement wave can be made to travel around the piezoelectric ring of elements in either a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction and consequently rotate a rotor which is in contact with its surface, hence driving the focusing element The control system for the ultrasonic motor is of the form shown in Figure (b)
CAR ENGINE MANAGEMENT
The modern car is likely to include many electronic control systems involving micro controllers, the engine control system being one.
Figure below shows a generalized block diagram of such a
system, its aim being to ensure that the engine is operated at its optimum settings.
The system consists of sensors supplying, after suitable signal
conditioning, the input signals via drivers to actuate actuators. Figure below shows some of these elements in relation to an engine; only one cylinder is being shown.
BAR CODE ENCODER
The familiar scene at the check-out of a supermarket is of the
purchases being passed in front of a light beam or a hand-held wand being passed over the goods so that the bar code can be read and the nature of the purchase and hence its price automatically determined. The code consists of a series of black and white bars of varying widths.
The bar code represents a series of numbers. There is a prefix which identifies the coding scheme being used; this is a single
digit for the regular Universal Product Coding (UPC) used in the United States and two digit for the European Article Number (EAN) scheme used in Europe. prefix is from 00 to 09 and is such that the UPC code can be read within the EAN code.
The UPC uses a 0 prefix for grocery and a 3 for pharmaceuticals. The EAN
This is followed by five digits to represent the manufacturer, each
manufacturer having been assigned a unique number. This brings up the center of the code pattern, which is identified by two taller bar patterns.
The five-digit number that then follows represents the product. The final
number is a check digit, which is used to check that the code has been correctly read. to frame the bars.
A guard pattern of two taller bars at the start and end of the bar pattern is used
Each number is coded as seven 0 or 1 digits.
The codes used on either side of the centerline are different so that the direction of the
scan can be determined.
To the right the characters have an even number of 1s and so even parity; for UPC, to the
left an odd number of 1s and so odd parity; the EAN coding for the left being a mixture. using both left A and left B character codes.
Table below shows the UPC and EAN codings, UPC being the left A coding and the EAN
Left A Characters
Left B Characters
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0001101 0011001 0010011 0111101 0100011 0110001 0101111 0111011 0110111 0001011
0100111 0110011 0011011 0100001 0011101 0111001 0000101 0010001 0001001 0010111
1110010 1100110 1101100 1000010 0011100 0001110 1010000 1000100 1001000 1110100
Each 1 is entered as a dark bar and
thus the right-hand character 2 would be represented 1101100 and, with the adjacent dark bars run together, it appears as a doublewidth dark wide bar followed by a narrow space and then another double-width dark wide bar followed by a double-width space. This is illustrated in Figure below.
The guard pattern at the ends of the
code represents 101 and the central band of bars is 01010.
PROCEDURE FOR USING CHECK CODE DIGIT
Starting at the left, sum all the characters, excluding the check digit, in the odd positions, i.e. first, third, fifth, etc. and then multiply the sum by 3. Starting at the left, sum all the characters in the even positions.
Add the results of steps 1 and 2. The check character is the smallest number which when added to this sum produces a multiple of 10
INVERTED PENDULUM SYSTEM: ROTARY AND ARMDRIVEN
The inverted pendulum is a popular mechatronic application
that exists in many different forms. The common thread among these systems is their goal: to balance a link on end using feedback control. Two rather challenging inverted pendulum systems are the rotational and the arm-driven systems.
These use a link rotating about an axis to balance a second link
on end. In the rotary (horizontal) configuration, the first link, driven by a motor, rotates in the horizontal plane to balance a pendulum link, which rotates freely in the vertical plane. The arm-driven (vertical) or “stick-on-a-stick” configuration uses a driven link rotating in the vertical plane to balance the pendulum link, which also rotates in the vertical plane.
The inverted pendulum system is unique in that it can be transformed
from the horizontal to vertical configuration by replacing the links and setting the base on its side, as shown in Figure
Figure: Inverted Pendulum System Configurations: (a) Horizontal and (b) Vertical
Physical System : It consists of two links: a motordriven
horizontal link and an un-actuated vertical pendulum link. The horizontal link is driven by a permanent-magnet, brushed DC motor. A DC power supply together with a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) servo-amplifier, operating in the current mode, supply power to the motor.
Angular position and velocity of the two links are measured
with two rotary incremental optical encoders having a resolution with quadrature decoding of 2048 pulses per revolution.
A slip-ring assembly, mounted between the housing and the
motor shaft, is used to connect power to the pendulum optical encoder and read the signal from the three channels of the encoder. The horizontal link is counter-weighted and there are leveling screws on the housing base. System testing for parameter identification and control system design is performed in a MatLab / Simulink / dSpace real-time control environment. This allows for rapid control system development and testing. Physical Model Several simplifying assumptions were made in developing a physical model:
1. rigid links 2. two degrees of freedom 3. negligible sensor dynamics
Control System design: Balancing and swing-up
The swing-up control is based on the work of Astrom
and Furuta and the balancing controller is a full statefeedback regulator. The swing up controller calculates the total system energy based on the kinetic energy of both links, and the potential energy of the pendulum.
This calculated value is compared to a defined quantity
of energy when the pendulum is balanced. The difference between desired energy and actual energy is multiplied by an "aggressivity" gain and applied to the motor.
Figure : MatLab/Simulink Block Diagram of Control System Design
Figure : MatLab/Simulink Block Diagram of Control Selection Subsystem
The objective of the swing-up control exercise is to move the system from the stable equilibrium position to the unstable equilibrium position. Hence, energy has to be added to the system to achieve this swing-up action. The manipulated input to realize the above idea is given by the following control law: V = KA (E – EO) sign(ɑcos ɑ)
The velocity term causes the input
to change directions when the pendulum stops and begins to swing in the opposite direction. The cosine term is negative when the pendulum is below horizontal and positive above horizontal. This helps the driven link to get under the pendulum and catch it as shown in Figure below. By controlling on energy feedback, the system automatically stops inputting excess energy and allows the system to coast to a balanced position.
Figure : Sign function effect on swing up
From Figure below, when the remaining potential energy
required is equal to the kinetic energy, the feedback will become very small and the pendulum will coast to vertical position.
Figure : Swing up diagram
Figures below show the simulation results for the swing-up and balance
controllers. The angles plotted are normalized angles.
Figure : Normalized Pendulum angle Versus Time
Figure : Normalized Driven Link angle Versus Time
DESIGN OF AN ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE
atomic force microscope (AFM) is a mechatronic instrument that has had a revolutionary impact in the last decade on the ability to image the topography of surfaces in the micron to subnanometer range. AFM’s form images of surface properties by scanning a cantilevered probe with a sharp tip over the surface of a sample in an x-y raster pattern.
The deflection of the probe caused by repulsive (or
attractive) forces between atoms of the tip and sample is used to quantitatively map the topography or determine other properties of the surface .
AFM’s are used extensively by researchers across the
disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, material science, and others to image surface properties, measure fundamental force interactions, and understand mechanical properties of materials.
AFM’s are also being used as metrology instruments
particularly in the semiconductor industry.
The main subsystems that comprise an AFM are:
the cantilever probe, the scanner, the
the controller, the data acquisition the processing system, and the mechanical assembly
Figure : Schematic diagram of an atomic force microscope (AFM).
Figure (a) shows AFM
cantilevers: shows typical rectangular or triangular shapes of cantilevers. The rectangular cantilever on the left is 200-_m long and 20-_m wide.
Figure (b) and (c) shows a
close-up view of the tip of a cantilever. AFM cantilevers are made using IC fabrication and silicon micromachining processes
Figure : Cantilever deflection
(a) shows the optical lever approach, where deflection of the cantilever causes the reflected laser beam to illuminate one photodetector cell more than the other. The motion of the beam, hence the deflection of the cantilever, can be quantified by taking the difference of the photocurrents from the two cells and
(b) shows the piezoresistive
cantilever approach, where a specially fabricated cantilever is connected as one leg of a Wheatstone bridge. The deflection of the cantilever is sensed by a change in the output voltage of the bridge.
Mechatronic Design of the Hewlett-Packard DESKJET 560C Printer
The mechatronic related design objectives for this printer are shown in Table below.
illustrates the mechatronic design of the printer. printer uses three motors: a dc motor drives the scanning carriage, one permanent magnet “tincan” stepper motor drives the paper feed system, and a second permanent magnet stepper motor actuates the print cartridge service station.
Figure : HP deskjet Mechatronic System
All three of these motors are controlled with less than
10% of the bandwidth of an inexpensive 8-bit Z-80 microprocessor
Figure : Control System Block Diagram
Modern Trends of MS Development
Machine-tool construction and equipment for automation of technological processes; Robotics;
Office equipment; Computer facilities; Photo and video equipment;
Modern Trends of MS Development
Aviation, space and military
techniques; Motor car construction
Modern Trends of MS Development
Simulators for training of
pilots and operators; Show-industry; Control and measuring devices and machines; Micro machines; Non-conventional vehicles.
Structural integration of mechanical, electronic and
information departments into a uniform creative staff; Education and training of engineers specialized in mechatronics and managers able to organize integration and supervise work of strictly specialized experts with different qualifications; Integration of information technologies from various scientific and technical fields into a uniform toolkit to provide computer support of mechatronic problems; Standardization and unification of all used elements and processes at designing and manufacturing MS.
Levels of Mechatronic Systems’ Integration
The First Level
conveyors, rotary tables, auxiliary manipulators
Levels of Mechatronic Systems’ Integration
The Second Level
operated power machines (turbines and generators), machine tools and industrial robots with numerical program management
Levels of Mechatronic Systems’ Integration
The Third Level
Synthesis of new precise information and measuring high technologies gives a basis for designing and producing intellectual mechatronic modules and systems.
The Mechatronic Approach
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