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Case Study on Tunnelling Through Soft Rock

Akshay H Pise 122030014

What is Tunnel?
It

is an artificial underground passage to by pass obstacles safely without disturbing the overburden i.e., land above it.
It

is used to carry freights, passengers, sewage, water, etc.

Advantages of Tunnels
Tunnels Tunnels

are more economical.

avoid the dangerous open cut very near to the structure. avoid interfering with surface life and traffic during construction. is freedom from snow and iceberg hazards.

Tunnels

There

Disadvantages of Tunnels
It

is necessary to have skilled labour and supervision. usually takes a lot of time.

It

No

two tunnels have the same set of problems. conditions are the major

Geological

problem.

Stages in Construction of Tunnels.


Planning.

Geological
Setting Actual

investigation and site survey.

out of tunnel.

construction.

Different Geological Conditions


Geological

conditions determines the use of methodology for the construction. through hard rock is different from that of soft rock which is also different from tunnelling in soils.

Tunnelling

Tunnelling Through Soft Soils


Tunnelling

through soft rock is very difficult unless and until a proper method is used. is not difficult because of the excavation part but after the excavation it needs the proper support in order to prevent from collapse. of underground water creates additional problem.

It

Presence

Gotthard Base Tunnel-Case Study


1.Introduction
Gotthard

Base Tunnel is Being constructed beneath the Swiss Alps from Erstfeld(Uri) to Bodio(Ticino). is the largest tunnel with the length of 57km each of the two tunnels and total length of tunnels and shafts is151.84km.

It

Gotthard Base Tunnel-Case Study


The

cost of tunnel is approx. $10.8 bn USD and the duration is 20 yrs(1996 to 2016 est.) Transit Gotthard AG is responsible for the construction.

Alp

Gotthard Base Tunnel-Case Study


2. Challenges

The main challenge of this project was that the geological condition of the site was unavailable. Also the overburden pressure was immense. Also there was underground water present at some places.

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study

There was the major fault line running parallel to the length of the tunnel. There was the danger of soft rock being collapsed.

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study


3. Construction Procedure
For

this project 4 TBMs were used two for each tunnel and each entering from the ends of tunnels.

Also

at times blasting method is also used.

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study


Movement

of TBMs

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study

TBM used for tunnelling

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study


As

most of the strata was made of the soft rock immediately after boring the tunnel a mesh is used to avoid failure of the above rock strata. meshing is also supported by the arches made up of steel.

This

Also

to ensure more stability they used to drill the long steel rods or anchors which helps stabilise the roof.

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study


Meshing

the tunnel

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study

Anchorage Rods

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study

Everyday there is 6 hr of maintenance shift in which the rock profile of 15-25m ahead of TBM is found out and accordingly instructions are given.

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study


The

rocks produced almost 25 percent of it is used for the preparation of shotcrete which is used for the lining of the tunnel. has to be produced carefully with proper consistency so that there will be no change in the strength of shotcrete. the quantity produced should be exact i.e., no more or no less shotcrete is to be prepared and used.

It

Also

Gotthard Base Tunnel- Case Study

On 15th Oct 2011 the boring of the tunnel completed.

Thank You