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1. DAC

In an electronic circuit, a combination of high voltage (+5V) and low voltage (0V) is usually used to represent a binary number. For example, a binary number 1010 is represented by

Weighting

Binary Digit State

23

1 +5V

22

0 0V

21

1 +5V

20

0 0V

DACs are electronic circuits that convert digital, (usually binary) signals (for example, 1000100) to analog electrical quantities (usually voltage) directly related to the digitally encoded input number.

DACs are used in many other applications, such as voice synthesizers, automatic test system, and process control actuator. In addition, they allow computers to communicate with the real (analog) world.

Input Binary Number Analog Voltage Output

Register

Voltage Switch

Amplifier

Register: Use to store the digital input (let it remain a constant value) during the conversion period. Voltage: Similar to an ON/OFF switch. It is closed when the input is 1. It is opened when the input is 0.

Resistive Summing Network: Summation of the voltages according to different weighting.

Amplifier: Amplification of the analog according to a pre-determined output voltage range. For example, an operation amplifier

The two most popular types of resistive summing networks are: Weighted binary resistance type, and Ladder resistance (R-2R) type

2. ADC

Numerous methods are used for converting analog signals to digital form. Five most commonly used methods are listed below:

Staircase ramp Successive approximation Dual slope Voltage to frequency Parallel (or flash)

Type of ADC

Speed

Price

Noise Immunity

2n Tm ax f Constant n T f Constant

Successive approximation

In practice, an ADC is usually in form of an integrated circuit (IC). ADC0808 and ADC0809 are two typical examples of 8-bit ADC with 8-channel multiplexer using successive approximation method for its conversion.

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Start Clock

Block Diagram

8-bit ADC

End of Conversion

8 Analog Inputs

S.A.R.

8-bit Output

Switch Tree 3-bit Address Address Latch Enable Address Latch and Decoder 256R Resistor Ladder

-Vref

Output Enable

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When this ADC is connected to a computer, the sequence of operation is listed below: 1. The computer reads the EOC to check the ADC is busy or not. 2. If the ADC is not busy when the computer selects the input channel and send out the Start signal. Otherwise, step (1) is repeated. 3. The computer monitors the EOC. 4. When the EOC is activated, the computer reads the digital output. When there is more than one ADCs being linked to the computer, they can be connected in parallel. Using the output enable can do the selection of ADC output.

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3. Selection of DAC

For the selection of an IC DAC, there are several parameters that can determine the suitability of a particular device.

Resolution

The number of bits making up the input data word that will ultimately determine the output step voltage as a percentage of fullscale output voltage. Example: Calculate the resolution of an 8-bit DAC. Solution: Resolution = 8 bits Percentage resolution = 1 1 100% 100% 0.391% 8 2 256

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This is the difference between the maximum and minimum output voltages expressed in volts.

Example:

Calculate the output voltage range of a 4-bit DAC if the output voltage is +4.5V for an input of 0000 and +7.5V for an input of 1111. Solution:

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Accuracy

The accuracy is usually expressed by the error in output voltage compared with the expected output voltage. The higher the accuracy, the lower will be the error. Due to the incremental nature of the digital input word, an error can be tolerated but it should not exceed LSB or resolution. Example. The error at full-scale for an 8-bit DAC with 10V maximum output is 50mV. Calculate the error and compare it with the resolution.

0.05 100% 0.5% Solution: Error = 10 1 100% 0.391% Resolution = 256

; Resolution = 0.195%

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The accuracy is not as good as the error = resolution, but for many applications, it is quite satisfactory. Some commercially available DACs have their accuracy specified as worse than resolution. Sources of errors may be broadly classified under four categories: Non-monotonicity Non-linearity Scale-factor error Offset error

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Settling time

The time taken for the applied digital input to be converted to an analog output. Typical period can be as low as 100ns, making DA conversion a very fast process compared with those of AD conversion.

Input coding

The digital input can be in binary format or it can be in binary coded decimal format depending on the application. Binary format is more commonly used.

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Binary-coded decimal, or BCD, is a method of using binary digits to represent the decimal digits 0 through 9. A decimal digit is represented by four binary digits, as shown below:

BCD 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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It should be noted in the table above that the BCD coding is the binary equivalent of the decimal digit. However, BCD and binary are not the same. For example, 4910 in binary is 1100012, but 4910 in BCD is 01001001BCD. Each decimal digit is converted to its binary equivalent.

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4. Selection of ADC

The parameters used in selecting an ADC are very similar to those considered for a DAC selection. Error/Accuracy: Quantising error represents the difference between an actual analog value and its digital representation. Ideally, the quantising error should not be greater than LSB. Resolution: DV to cause 1 bit change in output Output Voltage Range Input Voltage Range Output Settling Time Conversion Time Output Coding (usually binary)

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To measure an AC voltage at a particular instant in time, it is necessary to sample the waveform with a sample and hold (S/H) circuit.

Hold

Sample Input

Output to ADC

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5. Worked Examples Question 1. Calculate the maximum conversion time of (a) a 8-bit staircase ramp ADC and (b) a successive approximation ADC, if the clock rate is 2MHz.

Solution:

(a) For a 8-bit staircase ramp ADC, the maximum number of count is

nc = 28 = 256

Therefore, the maximum conversion time is

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(b) For a 8-bit successive approximation ADC, the conversion time is constant and equal to

n 8 Tc 4 10 6 s 4 s f 2 10 6

It can be noted that the conversion speed of successive approximation ADC is much faster than the staircase ramp type.

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Question 2.

Find out the percentage resolution of a DAC of n bits, and hence determine the value for n = 12. Solution: Percentage resolution = For n = 12, Percentage resolution =

1 100% 0.0244% 244ppm (part per million) 12 2

1 100% n 2

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