III YEAR

V SEMESTER
B.E MECHANICAL
ME2303
DESIGN OF MACHINE
ELEMENTS
STEEL
DESIGNATION OF STEELS
STEELS DESIGNATION –
COMPOSITION BASIS
FITS AND TOLERANCES
1. Clearance fit. In this type of fit, the size limits for mating parts are so
selected that clearance between them always occur, as shown in Fig. 3.5
(a). It may be noted that in a clearance fit, the tolerance zone of the hole is
entirely above the tolerance zone of the shaft. In a clearance fit, the
difference between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum size of
the shaft is known as minimum clearance whereas the difference
between the maximum size of the
hole and minimum size of the shaft is called maximum clearance as
shown in Fig. 3.5 (a).
 2. Interference fit. In this type of fit, the size limits for
the mating parts are so selected that interference
between them always occur, as shown in Fig. 3.5 (b). It
may be noted that in an interference fit, the tolerance
zone of the hole is entirely below the tolerance zone of
the shaft. In an interference fit, the difference between
the maximum size of the hole and the minimum size of
the shaft is known as minimum interference, whereas
the difference between the minimum size of the hole
and the maximum size of the shaft is called maximum
interference, as shown in Fig. 3.5 (b).
 The interference fits may be shrink fit, heavy drive fit and
light drive fit.
 3. Transition fit. In this type of fit, the size limits for
the mating parts are so selected that either a
clearance or interference may occur depending upon the
actual size of the mating parts, as shown in Fig. 3.5 (c). It
may be noted that in a transition fit, the tolerance zones
of hole and shaft overlap.
 The transition fits may be force fit, tight fit and push fit.
LIMIT SYSTEM
•The system of limits and fits comprises 18 grades of fundamental
tolerances i.e. grades of accuracy of manufacture and 25 types of
fundamental deviations indicated by letter symbols for both holes and
shafts (capital letter A to ZC for holes and small letters a to zc for shafts)
in diameter steps ranging from 1 to 500 mm.
• A unilateral hole basis system is recommended but if necessary a
unilateral or bilateral shaft basis system may also be used.
•The 18 tolerance grades are designated as IT 01, IT 0 and IT 1 to IT 16.
These are called standard tolerances.
Failure Theories
 Stress in machine components should be
accurately computed.

 Designer must understand material limits to
ensure a safe design.
Design Factor
 Factor of Safety (N)




 Suitable values depend on inherent danger,
certainty of calculations, certainty of material
properties, etc.
Failure Component at Stress
Stress Expected
N =
Static Stresses - Brittle Materials
 Percent elongation < 5%

 for parts in tension

 for parts in compression

 for parts with general stress

o
t
u
s
N =
o
c
u
s
N =
c t
u u
s s N
2 1
1 o o
+ =
Example
The Gray Cast Iron (Grade 40) cylinder carries an
axial compressive load of 75,000 lbs and a torque of
20,000 in lbs. Compute the resulting design factor.
Ø4.00”
Ø5.00”
R0.25”
R0.25”
Static Stresses - Ductile
Materials
 Percent elongation > 5%
 Distortion Energy Theory
 Define von Mises Stress


 For nominal stress

 For localized stress

' o
y
s
N =
' o
u
s
N =
2 1
2
2
2
1
' o o o o o ÷ + =
Static Stresses - Ductile
Materials
 Percent elongation > 5%
 Maximum Shear Stress Theory

 For nominal stress

 For localized stress

max max
2t t
y ys
s s
N = =
max
t
us
s
N =
Example
Specify a diameter for the middle portion of the rod,
if it is to be made from AISI 1040-hot rolled steel.
5000 lbs
45
0

Example
For the seat support shown, specify a standard
structural tube to resist static loads shown. The
tube has properties similar to AISI 1020 hot-rolled
steel. Use a design factor of 3.
200 lb
400 lb
20”
14”
Repeated Loads
Time
S
t
r
e
s
s
o
alt

o
mean

Example
The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020 steel.
This bar is subjected to a load that varies from
2000 lb to 3000 lb. Determine the mean and
alternating nominal stresses.
0.1” R
1”
1.25”
.75”
Fatigue Strength
 R.R. Moore Test
10
3
10
4

10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8

Endurance Strength, s
n

Cycles to Failure, N (log)
Alternating Stress, o
a

Motor
Endurance Strength
 s
n
= Endurance strength
- Listed in tables

- If no information is available, use
 s
n
~ 0.5 s
u
(Steel)
 s
n
~ 0.4 s
u
(Aluminum)

Adjusted Endurance Strength
 The data from the standard R.R. Moore
test is adjusted for a particular
application.

 s
n
’ = Adjusted endurance strength
= (C
s
) (C
m
) (C
st
) (C
R
) (s
n
)

Size and Stress Type Factors
 C
s
= Size Factor
 D< 0.4 in C
s
= 1.0
 0.4 < D 2.0 in C
s
= (D/0.3)
-0.068

 2.0 < D 10.0 in C
s
= D
-0.19
For rectangular sections, D=.808(h b)
1/2


 C
st
= Stress Type Factor
 = 1.0 for bending
 = 0.80 for axial tension
 = 0.50 for torsion

Material and Reliability Factor
 C
m
= Material Factor
 = 1.0 for wrought steel
 = 0.80 for cast steel
 = 0.70 for cast iron

 C
R
= Reliability Factor
 50% C
R
= 1.0
 90% C
R
= 0.90
 99% C
R
= 0.81
 99.9% C
R
= 0.75

Example
The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020 steel.
This bar is subjected to a load that varies from
2000 lb to 3000 lb. Determine the endurance limit
of the material.
0.1” R
1”
1.25”
.75”
Repeated Stresses - Ductile
Materials
 Distortion Energy Theory
 Define repeated von Mises Stress



 Solderberg criterion

n
a t
y
m
s
K
s N '
' ' 1 o o
+ =
m m m m m 2 1
2
2
2
1
' o o o o o ÷ + =
a a a a a 2 1
2
2
2
1
' o o o o o ÷ + =
Repeated Stresses - Ductile
Materials
 Maximum Shear Stress Theory
sn
a t
sy
m
s
K
s N '
) ( ) ( 1
max max
t t
+ =
• s
sy
= 0.5 s
y
• s’
sn
= 0.5 s
n
Example
The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020 steel.
This bar is subjected to a load that varies from
2000 lb to 3000 lb. Comment on the robustness of
the design.
0.1” R
1”
1.25”
.75”
Example
Comment on the robustness of a 1-1/4” round bar
made from AISI 1213 C-D steel. It carries a
constant tensile load of 1500 lbs, a bending load
that varies from 0 to 800 lbs at the senter of the 48”
length and a constant torque of 1200 in lbs.
48”
Shafts
 Connect power transmission components.





 Inherently subjected to transverse loads and
torsion.


Shaft Forces
 Gears
As before
W
r

W
t

T
Shaft Forces
 Chains
F
slack
= 0
F
tight

D
T
F
tight
2
=
D
T
Shaft Forces
 V-belts
F
slack

F
tight

D
T
F
tight
5 . 2
=
D
T
D
T
F
slack
2
=
Shaft Forces
 Flat belts
F
slack

F
tight

D
T
F
tight
3
=
D
T
D
T
F
slack
=
Material Properties
 For steady load (torsion)
s
ys
=.5s
y


 For fatique load ( bending)
s
n
’=c
s
c
R
s
n
c
T
= 1 (bending)
c
m
= 1 (wrought steel)
Stress Concentrations
 Keyseats
 Sled Runner K
t
= 1.6


 Profile K
t
= 2.0


 Woodruff K
t
= 1.5


Stress Concentrations
 Shoulders
 Sharp, Bearing (r/d ~.03) K
t
= 2.5
 Round, Gear Bore (r/d ~.17) K
t
= 1.5
 Grooves
 Retaining Rings K
t
= 1.5
Try not to let K
t
’s overlap.
Leave .10 - .15” between
Strength Analysis
 Bending stress




 Torsion stress


S
M K
I
c M K
t t
= = o
S
T
J
r T
2
= = t
32
3
D
S
t
=
c
I
r
J
2 =
For round sections
For round sections
Strength Analysis
 Mohr’s circle and Solderberg
( ) ( )
S
s T s M K
N
y n t
2 2
/
4
3
' /
1
+
=
Suggested Design Factors:
• N=2 smooth operation
• N=3 typical industrial operation
• N=4 shock or impact loading
Minimum Acceptable Diameter
 The designer must size the shaft.
 Solve for appropriate diameters
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
2 2
/
4
3
' /
32
y n t
s T s M K
N
D
t
Example
Determine a suitable diameter for a shaft made
from AISI 1144 OQT 1000. It is subjected to a
reversing bending moment of 3000 ft lbs and a
steady torque of 1800 ft lbs. The shaft has a profile
keyway.
Example
The shaft shown is part of a grain drying system
 At A, a 34 lb. propeller-type fan requires 12 hp
when rotating at 475 rpm.
 A flat belt pulley at D delivers 3.5 hp to a
screw conveyor handling the grain.
 All power comes to the shaft through the v-
belt at C.

Using AISI 1144 cold drawn steel, determine the
minimum acceptable diameter at C.
Example
12”
10” 10”
4”
A
B
C
D
E
Sheave C
15
0

Sheave D
Shafts Accessories
 Components used to securely mount power
transmitting elements on a shaft.


Axial
Rotational
Keys
 Allow torque to be transferred from a shaft to a
power transmitting element (gear, sprocket,
sheave, etc.)
Key Design
 Use a soft, low strength material
(ie, low carbon steel)


 Standard size H=W=1/4 D
 Design length
based on strength

H
L
W
Standard Key Sizes
Shaft Dia. (in) W (in)
2
2 2
W D H D
S
÷ + ÷
=
T
S
H
W
. 005 .
2
2 2
in
W D H D
T +
÷ + +
=
Key Design


 Key Shear

 Failure Theory

 Length
y
DWs
TN
L
4
=
DLW
T
A
F 2
= = t
TD
LW s s
N
y y
4 2
= =
t
D
T
D
T
F
2
2 /
= =
Example
Specify a key for a gear (grade 40, gray cast iron)
to be mounted on a shaft (AISI 1144, hot rolled)
with a 2.00 in. diameter. The gear transmits 21000
lb-in of torque and has a hub length of 4 in.
Retaining Rings
 Also known as snap rings
 Provides a removable shoulder to lock
components on shafts or in bores.
 Made of spring steel, with a high shear strength.
 Stamped, bent-wire, and spiral-wound.
Retaining Ring Selection
 Based on shaft diameter & thrust force
Set Screws
 Setscrews are fasteners that hold collars, pulleys,
or gears on shafts.
 They are categorized by drive type and point
style.

Standard Set Screw Sizes
Set Screw Holding
Pins
 A pin is placed in double shear
 Holds torsion and axial loads

y
s D
N T
d
t
8
=
D
d
Hole is made slightly smaller than the pin
(FN1 fit)

Example
Specify a pin for a gear (grade 40, gray cast iron) to
be mounted on a shaft (AISI 1144, hot rolled) with a
2.00 in. diameter. The gear transmits 21000 lb-in of
torque and has a hub length of 4 in.

Roll Pins
 Easier disassembly
Collars
 Creates a shoulder on shaft without increasing
stock size.
 Held with either set screw or friction (clamped)
Mechanical Couplings
 Couplings are used to join two shafts
 Rigid couplings are simple and low cost. But they
demand almost perfect alignment of the mating
shafts.

 Misalignment causes undue forces and
accelerated wear on the shafts, coupling, shaft
bearings, or machine housing.

Mechanical Couplings
 In connecting two shafts, misalignment is the rule
rather than the exception. It comes from such
sources as bearing wear, structural deflection,
thermal expansion, or settling machine
foundations.

 When misalignment is expected, a flexible
coupling must be used.
Mechanical Couplings
 Selection factors include:
- Amount of torque (or power & speed)
- Shaft Size
- Misalignment tolerance
Helical thread screw was an important invention.
Power Screw, transmit angular motion to liner motion
Transmit large or produce large axial force
It is always desired to reduce number of screws
Fasteners, Powers Screws,
Connections
Definition of important
Terminologies
Major diameter d, Minor diameter d
r
Mean dia or pitch diameter d
p
Lead l, distance the nut moves for one turn rotation

Single and Double threaded
screws
Double threaded screws are stronger and moves faster
Screw Designations
 United National
Standard UNS
 International
Standard
Organization

Roots and crest can be either flat or round
Pitch diameter produce same width in the thread and space,
Coarse thread Designated by UNC
 Fine Thread UNF, is more resistance to
loosening, because of its small helix angle.
 They are used when Vibration is present
 Class of screw, defines its fit, Class 1 fits have
widest tolerances, Class 2 is the most
commonly used
 Class three for very precision application
 Example:1in-12 UNRF-2A-LH, A for Ext.
Thread and B for Internal, R root radius
 Metric M10x1.5 10 diameter mm major
diameter,1.5 pitch
Some important Data for UNC,
UNF and M threads
 Lets Look at the Table 8-1 on Page 398
Square and Acme Threads are
used for the power screw
d, in 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4
p,in 1/16 1/14 1/12 1/10 1/8 1/6 1/6 1/5 1/5
Preferred pitch for Acme Thread

Mechanics of Power Screws
Used in design to change the angular motion to linear motion, Could
you recall recent failure of power screw leading to significant
causalities


What is the relationship between
the applied torque on power
screw and lifting force F

Torque for single flat thread
)
sec
sec
(
2 o t
o t
fl d
fd l Fd
T
m
m m
R
÷
+
=
) (
2
) (
2
f l d
l f d Fd
T
f l d
f d l Fd
T
m
m m
L
m
m m
R
+
÷
=
÷
+
=
t
t
t
t
If the thread as an angle α, the torque will be
Wedging action, it
increases friction
Stresses in the power Screw
p n d
F
A
V
p n d
F
p n d
F
d
T
t r
t r
b
t m
B
t
t
t
o
t
o
t
t
3
2
3
6
2 /
16
3
= =
=
÷ =
=
Shear stress in the base
of the screw
Bearing stress
Bending stress at the root
of the screw
Shear stress in the thread
n
t
number of engaged
thread

Loading to the fasteners and their
Failure considerations


Bolts are used to clamp two or more parts

It causes pre tension in the bolt
Grip length is the total thickness of parts
and washers
l
l
l
d
t
>
t
2
l
d
h
L’ effective grip= h+t
2
if t
2
<d

=h=d/2 for t
2
d
l
t
=L’- ld
Failure of bolted or riveted joints
Type of Joints

 Lap Joint (single Joint) But Joint
Example 1
Example 2
Example 2
Example 3
Weld
Weld under Bending
Springs
Used to:
 Exert force
 Store energy
Flexible machine elements
Spring Rate
 Effective springs have a linear deflection curve.
 Slope of the spring deflection curve is the rate
Force
Deflection
k
1
L
F
k
A
A
=
Example
A compression spring with a rate
of 20 lb/in is loaded with 6 lbs
and has a length of 1.5 in.
Determine the unloaded spring
length (free length)
Geometry
 Wire diameter, D
w
(Standard gages)
 Mean Diameter, D
m

D
m
= D
o
- D
w
D
o

D
i

D
w

L
D
w

Spring Parameters
 Spring index

C > 5 (manufacturing limits)
 Active coils, N
a
= N for plain ends
= N-1 for ground ends
= N-2 for closed ends
w
m
D
D
C =
Deflection
 Deflection for helical springs
w
a
w
a m
GD
N FC
GD
N FD
3
4
3
8 8
= = o
Spring rate for helical springs
a
w
N C
GD
k
3
8
=
G = Shear modulus
Example
A helical compression spring is formed from 35
gage music wire with 10-1/4 turns and an O.D. if
0.850 in. It’s ends are squared. The free length is 2
inches. Determine the force to press the spring
solid.
Stress Analysis
 Spring wire is in torsion
F
V
T
2
8
w
D
C F K
J
r T
t
t = =
Wahl factor, K
Accounts for the
curvature of the wire
C C
C
K
615 .
4 4
1 4
+
÷
÷
=
Example
A helical compression spring is formed from 35
gage music wire with 10-1/4 turns and an O.D. if
0.850 in. It’s made from A228 and the ends are
squared. The free length is 2 inches.
If the spring is repeatedly compressed to 1.3 in, do
you expect problems?
Design Procedure
 Select a material
 Compute required spring rate
 Estimate D
m
based on size constraints
 Determine required D
w
(use K=1.2)
 Select standard wire
 Verify actual stress is satisfactory.
 Compute number of coils required.
Example
Design a helical compression spring to exert a
force of 22 lbs when compressed to a length of
1.75 in. When its length is 3.0 in, it must exert 5 lb.
The spring will be cycled rapidly. Use ASTM A401
steel wire.
Rolling Element Bearings
 Provides support for machine elements, while
allowing smooth motion.
µ=0.001 - 0.005
Types
Single-row
Radial Ball
Angular
Contact Ball
Radial Roller
Angular
Roller
Types
Spherical
Roller
Needle
Thrust
Tapered Roller
Ball Bearings
Stress Analysis
 Contact Stress
o
c
=300,000 is not unusual
 Balls, rollers and races are made from extremely
high strength steel
ex. AISI 52100
s
y
= 260,000 psi
s
u
=322,000 psi
Bearing Load/Life
 Test (fatigue) data
L
10
Life (cycles)
Radial Load (lbs)
k
P
P
L
L
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
2
Empirical relationship:
•k=3.0 (ball)
•k=3.33 (roller)
Example
A bearing is mounted on a shaft rotating at 1200
rpm. The bearing has been tested to have a L
10
life
of 300 hrs, when loaded with 500 lbs. Determine
the expected L
10
life, if the load is increased to 700
lbs.
Manufacturer’s Data
 Vendors publish the Basic
Dynamic Load rating (C) of a
bearing at an L
10
life of 1
million cycles.
Bearing Selection
 Determine the design life (in cycles)
 Determine the design load
P
d
= V R

 Calculate the required basic dynamic load


 Select a bearing with (C > C
req’d
) and a bore that
closely matches the shaft diameter.
k
d
d d req
L
P C
1
6
'
10
|
.
|

\
|
=
• V=1 for inner race rotation
• V=1.2 for outer race rotation
Example
Specify suitable bearings for a shaft used in an
grain dryer. The shaft rotates at 1700 rpm. The
required supporting loads at the bearing are

and the minimum acceptable diameter is 2.16”.
R
Bx
=589 lb
R
By
=164 lb
Mounting of Bearings
 Shaft/bearing bore has a light interference fit.
 Housing/outer race has a slight clearance fit.
Check manufacturers catalog

 Match maximum permissible fillet radius.
 Shaft or housing shoulders not to exceed 20% of
diameter.
Mounted Bearings
 Pillow block




 Bearing is inserted into a cast housing, with base
or flange slots, which can be readily attached to a
machine base.
Bearings with Varying Loads
 Compute a weighted average load based on duty
cycle.
( ) | |
p
i
i
p
i
m
N
N F
F
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
¿
¿
F
m
=equivalent load
F
i
= load level for
condition i
N
i
= cycles for
condition i
p = exponent for
load/life
Example
Bearing 6211 is carrying the following load cycle,
while rotating at 1700 rpm.
Stage Load (lbs) Time (min)
1 600 480
2 200 115
3 100 45
Compute the bearing L
10
life in minutes.
Radial & Thrust Loads
 Calculate an equivalent load
P=VXR +YT
T=thrust load
X factors depending
Y on bearing
=
Thrust factors, Y
 Deep -groove, ball bearings
X = 0.56 for all values of Y
Example
A bearing is to carry a radial load of 650 lb and a
thrust load of 270 lb. Specify a suitable single-row,
deep-groove ball bearing if the shaft rotates at 1150
rpm and the design life is 20,000 hrs.

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