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The Sun, a Yellow dwarf, is the Star at the center of the solar system. The Earth and other matter (including other planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets, and dust) orbit the Sun, which by itself accounts for about 99.8% of the Solar System's mass. The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately 149,600,000 kilometers, or 92,960,000 miles, and its light travels this distance in 8.3 minutes. Energy from the Sun, in the form of sunlight, supports almost all life on Earth via photosynthesis, and drives the Earth's climate and weather.
The Sun is a yellow main sequence star comprising about 99% of the total
mass of the Solar System. It is a near-perfect sphere, with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths, which means that its polar diameter differs from its equatorial diameter by only 10 km (6 mi). As the Sun exists in a plasmatic state and is not solid, it rotates faster at its equator than at its poles. This behavior is known as differential rotation. The period of this actual rotation is approximately 25 days at the equator and 35 days at the poles. However, due to our constantly changing vantage point from the Earth as it orbits the Sun, the apparent rotation of the star at its equator is about 28 days. The centrifugal effect of this slow rotation is 18 million times weaker than the surface gravity at the Sun's equator. The tidal effect of the planets is even weaker, and does not significantly affect the shape of the Sun.
The Sun does not have a definite boundary as rocky planets do, and in its
outer parts the density of its gases drops approximately exponentially with increasing distance from its center. Nevertheless, it has a well-defined interior structure, described below. The Sun's radius is measured from its center to the edge of the photosphere. This is simply the layer above which the gases are too cool or too thin to radiate a significant amount of light, and is therefore the surface most readily visible to the naked eye. The solar core comprises 10 percent of its total volume, but 40 percent of its total
Parts---An illustration of the structure of the Sun: 1. Core 2. Radiative zone 3. Convective zone 4. Photosphere 5. Chromosphere 6. Corona 7. Sunspot 8. Granules 9. Prominence
The Sun is composed primarily of the chemical elements hydrogen and helium; they
account for 74.9% and 23.8% of the mass of the Sun in the photosphere, respectively.  All heavier elements, called metals in astronomy, account for less than 2 percent of the mass. The most abundant metals are oxygen (roughly 1% of the Sun's mass), carbon (0.3%), neon (0.2%), and iron (0.2%).
The Sun inherited its chemical composition from the interstellar medium out of which
it formed: the hydrogen and helium in the Sun were produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. The metals were produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in generations of stars which completed their stellar evolution and returned their material to the interstellar medium prior to the formation of the Sun. The chemical composition of the photosphere is normally considered representative of the composition of the primordial Solar System. However, since the Sun formed, the helium and heavy elements have settled out of the photosphere. Therefore, the photosphere now contains slightly less helium and only 84% of the heavy elements than the protostellar Sun did; the protostellar Sun was 71.1% hydrogen, 27.4% helium, and 1.5% metals.
In the inner portions of the Sun, nuclear fusion has modified the composition by
converting hydrogen into helium, so the innermost portion of the Sun is now roughly 60% helium, with the metal abundance unchanged. Because the interior of the Sun is Radiative, not convective (see Structure above), none of the fusion products from the core have risen to the photosphere.
The solar heavy-element abundances described above are typically measured both
using spectroscopy of the Sun's photosphere and by measuring abundances in
The parts of the Sun above the
photosphere are referred to collectively as the solar atmosphere. They can be viewed with telescopes operating across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio through visible light to gamma rays, and comprise five principal zones: the temperature minimum, the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona, and the heliosphere. The heliosphere, which may be considered the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, extends outward past the orbit of Pluto to the heliopause, where it forms a sharp shock front boundary with the interstellar medium. The chromosphere, transition region, and corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun. The reason why has not been conclusively proven; evidence suggests that Alfvén waves may have enough energy to heat the corona
The visible surface of the Sun, the photosphere, is
the layer below which the Sun becomes opaque to visible light. Above the photosphere visible sunlight is free to propagate into space, and its energy escapes the Sun entirely. The change in opacity is due to the decreasing amount of Hions, which absorb visible light easily. Conversely, the visible light we see is produced as electrons react with hydrogen atoms to produce H- ions.  The photosphere is actually tens to hundreds of kilometers thick, being slightly less opaque than air on Earth. Because the upper part of the photosphere is cooler than the lower part, an image of the Sun appears brighter in the center than on the edge or limb of the solar disk, in a phenomenon known as limb darkening. Sunlight has approximately a black-body spectrum that indicates its temperature is about 6,000 K, interspersed with atomic absorption lines from the tenuous layers above the photosphere. The photosphere has a particle density of about 1023 m−3 (this is about 1% of the particle density of Earth's atmosphere at sea level).
From about 0.2 to about 0.7 solar radii, solar
material is hot and dense enough that thermal radiation is sufficient to transfer the intense heat of the core outward. In this zone there is no thermal convection; while the material grows cooler as altitude increases, this temperature gradient is less than the value of adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection. Heat is transferred by radiation—ions of hydrogen and helium emit photons, which travel a brief distance before being reabsorbed by other ions. In this way energy makes its way very slowly (see above) outward. Between the radiative zone and the convection zone is a transition layer called the tachocline. This is a region where the sharp regime change between the uniform rotation of the radiative zone and the differential rotation of the convection zone results in a large shear—a condition where successive vertical layers slide past one
In the Sun's outer layer (down to approximately
70% of the solar radius), the solar plasma is not dense enough or hot enough to transfer the heat energy of the interior outward via radiation. As a result, thermal convection occurs as thermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. Once the material cools off at the surface, it plunges back downward to the base of the convection zone, to receive more heat from the top of the radiative zone. Convective overshoot is thought to occur at the base of the convection zone, carrying turbulent downflows into the outer layers of the radiative zone. The thermal columns in the convection zone form an imprint on the surface of the Sun, in the form of the solar granulation and supergranulation. The turbulent convection of this outer part of the solar interior gives rise to a "small-scale" dynamo that produces magnetic north and south poles all over the surface of the Sun. The Sun's thermal columns are Bénard cells and therefore tend to be hexagonal prisms.
CORE of the sun
The core of the Sun is considered to extend
from the center to about 0.2 solar radii. It has a density of up to 150,000 kg/m³ (150 times the density of water on Earth) and a temperature of close to 13,600,000 Kelvin (by contrast, the surface of the Sun is around 5,800 Kelvin). Recent analysis of SOHO mission data favors a faster rotation rate in the core than in the rest of the radiative zone. Through most of the Sun's life, energy is produced by nuclear fusion through a series of steps called the p–p (proton–proton) chain; this process converts hydrogen into helium. The core is the only location in the Sun that produces an appreciable amount of heat via fusion: the rest of the star is heated by energy that is transferred outward from the core. All of the energy produced by fusion in the core must travel through many successive layers to the
The Sun lies close to the
inner rim of the Milky Way Galaxy's Orion Arm, in the Local Fluff or the Gould Belt, at a hypothesized distance of 7.62±0.32 kpc (24,800 light-years) from the Galactic Center. The distance between the local arm and the next arm out, the Perseus Arm, is about 6,500 light-years. The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in what scientists call the galactic habitable zone
When observing the Sun with
appropriate filtration, the most immediately visible features are usually its sunspots, which are well-defined surface areas that appear darker than their surroundings because of lower temperatures. Sunspots are regions of intense magnetic activity where convection is inhibited by strong magnetic fields, reducing energy transport from the hot interior to the surface. The magnetic field gives rise to strong heating in the corona, forming active regions that are the source of intense solar flares and coronal mass ejections. The largest sunspots can be tens of thousands of kilometers across
The number of sunspots visible on
the Sun is not constant, but varies over an 11-year cycle known as the solar cycle. At a typical solar minimum, few sunspots are visible, and occasionally none at all can be seen. Those that do appear are at high solar latitudes. As the sunspot cycle progresses, the number of sunspots increases and they move closer to the equator of the Sun, a phenomenon described by Spörer's law. Sunspots usually exist as pairs with opposite magnetic polarity. The magnetic polarity of the leading sunspot alternates every solar cycle, so that it will be a north magnetic pole in one solar cycle and a south magnetic pole in the next
Sunlight is very bright, and looking directly
at the Sun with the naked eye for brief periods can be painful, but is not particularly hazardous for normal, nondilated eyes. Looking directly at the Sun causes phosphene visual artifacts and temporary partial blindness. It also delivers about 4 milliwatts of sunlight to the retina, slightly heating it and potentially causing damage in eyes that cannot respond properly to the brightness. UV exposure gradually yellows the lens of the eye over a period of years and is thought to contribute to the formation of cataracts, but this depends on general exposure to solar UV, not on whether one looks directly at the Sun. Long-duration viewing of the direct Sun with the naked eye can begin to cause UV-induced, sunburn-like lesions on the retina after about 100 seconds, particularly under conditions where the UV light from the Sun is intense and well focused; conditions are worsened by young eyes or new lens implants (which admit more UV
We certainly know that our universe exists, however, this knowledge alone
has not satisfied mankind's quest for further understanding. Our curiosity has led us to question our place in this universe and furthermore, the place of the universe itself. Throughout time we have asked ourselves these questions: How did our universe begin? How old is our universe? How did matter come to exist? Obviously, these are not simple questions and throughout our brief history on this planet much time and effort has been spent looking for some clue. Yet, after all this energy has been expended, much of what we know is still only speculation. We have, however, come a long way from the mystical beginnings of the study of cosmology and the origins of the universe. Through the understandings of modern science we have been able to provide firm theories for some of the answers we once called hypotheses. True to the nature of science, a majority of these answers have only led to more intriguing and complex questions. It seems to be inherent in our search for knowledge that questions will always continue to exist. Although in this short chapter it will be impossible to tackle all of the questions concerning the creation of everything we know as reality, an attempt will be made to address certain fundamental questions of our being. It will be important to keep in mind that all of this information is constantly being questioned and reevaluated in order to understand the universe more clearly. For our purposes, through an examination of what is known about the Big Bang itself, the age of the universe, and the synthesis of the first atoms, we believe that we can begin to answer several of these key questions.
About 15 billion years ago a
tremendous explosion started the expansion of the universe. This explosion is known as the Big Bang. At the point of this event all of the matter and energy of space was contained at one point. What exisisted prior to this event is completely unknown and is a matter of pure speculation. This occurrence was not a conventional explosion but rather an event filling all of space with all of the particles of the embryonic universe rushing away from each other. The Big Bang actually consisted of an explosion of space within itself unlike an explosion of a bomb were fragments are thrown outward. The galaxies were not all clumped together, but rather the Big Bang lay the
The facts……. hidden somewhere The story….….. unrevealed The truth….. not known exactly The path…. untraced An attempt to explore the way!!! An effort to blend biology, chemistry, and physics in the search to identify and understand the origin of life in the universe It’s a “
Journey Back In Time”…
ORIGIN OF LIFE
BIG BANG Cosmic dust and gases+ H2O Ocea ns Haldane soup
Reducing atmosphere(gases like CH4,NH3,N2,CO2,H2O responsible for abiotic synthesis of organic compounds)
Complex Molecules (building blocks)
Aggregates (coacervates and microspheres)
Protocells( proprimitive stage before formation of true cell Proto cells + nucleic acid = self replicating system
Energy Yielding System • Chlorophyll developmentPhotosynth esis O2 evolved
Ozone Formation (shielding effect) • Atmosphere changed to oxidizing from reducing.
of photosynthesis which is followed by respiration.
Organic compounds arrived from outer space It states that hydrocarbons and other organic molecules (molecules that organisms contain or that might lead to the genesis of life) have been found in meteorites – It means that at least prebiotic chemistry that leads to the primordial soup might be going on there.
In 1969, a meteorite landed in Australia that was 12%
water and contained traces of 92 amino acids. Inference- It points to not only the presence of organic compounds in outer space, but also the capacity of such compounds to reach earth.
Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe have
argued persistently since the 1970s that complex organic substances, and perhaps even primitive organisms, might have evolved on the surface of comic dust grains in space and then been transported to the Earth's surface by comets and meteorites.
There is an ongoing debate regarding the most probable site of
The prevailing paradigm - life began near the ocean's surface,
bathed in sunlight.
Miller and Urey found
Current Research - life arose near deep hydrothermal vents which
is still under investigation.
"Scientists have long suspected that life on Earth originated in the ocean and strong evidence now suggests that the earliest life on our planet occurred in the depths of the ocean in the absence of heat and light." -- Pulse of the Planet, American Museum of Natural History
Time since Big Bang
< 10-43s ~ 10-35s - 10-33s ~ 10-6s
Quantum era Inflationary epoch 1013K Quark --> Hadron transition
Time since Big Bang
1011K · The Universe expands rapidly, scale is doubled every 0.02s. · it cools, T ~ 1/R. · Temperature is below threshold for creation of electron/positron pairs. · e+/ e- annihilate · The Universe is "reheated" about 35% by annihilation. Era of Nuclear Reactions · Nuclei begin to hold together
3 x 109K
Time since Big Bang
3 &1/2 min
108K End of Nuclear Reactions neutrons have been "used-up" forming 4He Universe is now 90% H nuclei( p+) & 10% He nuclei 4000K Era of Recombination nuclei & electrons "recombine to form atoms Era of Galaxy Formation
•Galaxies are moving away from us at speeds
proportional to their distance. This is called "Hubble's Law," named after Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) who discovered this phenomenon in 1929 •The abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins •Cosmic Background Radiation predicted by Cosmologist George Gamov in 1948 and discovered by Arno Penzias & Robert Wilson of Bell Labs in 1965.
http://scienceweek.com www.nationalgeographic.com QUR FAVOUTATE NIL SIR .. Google.com Microsoft Encarta AND OF’COZ XLRI and MY COMPUTER