A training and evaluation program for managers and supervisors


Abhishek Gautam
Ashutosh Vatsa Kr. Pramendra Sinha

• Research in India in indicated that most supervisors spent less than 50% of their activities on effective tasks and more than 50% on the ineffective tasks.
• Research also indicated that around 28% of the time the supervisor is busy moving work from one operator to another or doing the operator's job and making repairs, while 20% of the time was spent on alterations and additions. • A major concern in this research was that less than 5% of the supervisors spent time on boosting operator performance and developing sewing skills.

Developing job skills through a training program
• Short term inventory control
• Operator capacity checking

• Operator performance boosting
• Line balancing

Qualities required for a good supervisor
• Good sewing skills, above average 75% performer
• Consistent quality • Numerate and literate • High dominance level and high influence with operators

Status of Managers and Supervisors in the Garment Industry
• The analysis is based upon the survey conducted by the Methods Apparel Consultancy.
• Ten factories were rated and 300 people were assessed during the surveys in November-December, 2007 commissioned by the Garment Technical Cooperation (GTC) in association with Okhla Garment and Textile Cluster (OGTC) to analyse current systems and advise ways to improve overall productivity. • A comprehensive checklist was developed which covered various parameters of managerial and supervisory characteristics and each point on the checklist was awarded a value of 1 to 5 points.

Evaluation Criteria
• Communication skills were found to be grossly lacking among both managers and
supervisors. Many of them still believe that the louder you shout the more you produce. Effective communication skills if not inborn can be acquired by professional training and can be a major tool for the managers. • • • The discipline to manage a to-do list can be a vital asset in organizing one's work. Leadership Techniques must be mastered by the managers/supervisors to get productive results from their employees. Only a good leader can steer its team and motivate them. Effective and logical decision making (57.8%) is another important requirement which was lacking in a large percentage of the people.

Planning and organization scored 56%. The managers/supervisors should be trained in
effective planning strategies by utilizing the data available through various management/ supervision techniques. The most talented people of the organization are mostly busy with fire fighting and shipment delivery.

Evaluation Criteria
• To further increase the level of technical expertise, the managers/supervisors should be encouraged to continuously upgrade themselves by training and attending seminars on various new products and procedures. It was surprising to note that many managers/supervisors had no knowledge of the innovative techniques which can be used to simplify their work • Work Study has come up as one of the most important areas for training requirements.

Quality and Productivity - The repair and rejection rate is at times as high as 70% and
many times it goes unrecorded. The efficiency rating of the industry is also at a level of 33% only.

• • •

SOPs were not present in many factories and in most cases wherever present were only for decorative purposes for the buyers. Computer Knowledge. A refresher course in basic usage of computers can help managers. General industry knowledge This cannot be taught but has to be inculcated by the mangers themselves.

Managerial Training Needs

Statistical Analysis 61 managers were evaluated 96% were unable to achieve the required level of communication skills 92% need knowledge of the techniques required in todays demanding and competitive production scenario. Only basic computer knowledge is present with some of the managers.

Suggested course Communication for Managers How to get the best out of your staff Conflict management Team building General Management techniques Work Study Garment engineering Computer knowledge

• None of the supervisors have professional education in garment manufacturing; their knowledge is based on their work experience only. • Most of the supervisors had no idea about the basics of supervision. In most cases good machinists were put on the job of a supervisor without any prior training or education. • It is extremely important to teach them a more professional approach to supervision.

Supervisor Training Needs

Statistical Analysis Out of 204 total supervisors 65% need extensive training.

Suggested course Supervisors Course Includes communication, planning, team work, workstudy, garment engineering, quality and productivity.

51% out of a total of 204 supervisors need specialized training on work study and garment engineering

Work Study/Garment Engineering These are specialized courses focusing on the vital needs of the industry

Out of 38 cutting room supervisors Cutting Room evaluated 74% need further training Specialized training course for cutting room supervisors. 42% out of a total of 129 quality supervisors need specialized training Quality This includes invaluable inputs on quality and repair monitoring and measuring techniques

Content and design of the Supervisory Skills Training Program
• The main goals of the SST program are to teach leadership skills, including how to communicate effectively, maintain and project a positive attitude, and discharge their duties in a firm and fair manner that balances the interests of the factory with those of the staff.
• The main objectives of the training course are to “equip supervisors with knowledge, supervising skills and a positive attitude,” eventually professionalizing them so that they can cope with the many problems that arise on factory production floors.

Designing Training and Development Programme
Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues • Who participates in the programme? Supervisors • Who are the trainers? Industry Experts

• What methods and techniques are to be used for training? Personnel /skills inventories, Efficiency indices, Quality circles • What should be the level of training? Extensive
• What learning principles are needed? • Where is the program conducted? On the job, Vestibule

Vestibule training
• Training would take place in a location that is separate from the main productive areas of the plant (Classroom type environment). • This technique enables the trainees to concentrate on learning new skill rather than on performing on actual job.
• This type of training is efficient to train semi-skilled personnel, particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind of work at the same time.

Pre-evaluation of supervisors before training program
• Questionnaire
− Analytical skills − Mathematical Abilities

• Personal Interviews
− Communication skills

• Stimulation Program
− Hypothetical situation and reactions

Training Program
• 15-20 days duration
• Admin
− Immediate supervisors − Members of the personnel staff, − Specialists in other parts of the company, − Outside consultants, − Industry associations, and faculty members at universities.

Training Program
• Methodology • Acting upon Pre-Evaluation test
− Personal attention − Improving key problem areas

Post Evaluation after training
• Very similar to the pre-evaluation testing techniques
• Assigning scores for the two evaluations • Comparing results • Taking action upon those who fail to Improve.

On the job Training
• This type of training is planned and structured and takes place mainly at the shop floor of the factory.
• Learning takes place using the equipment which could be actually used.
− Job-instruction training − Coaching

Training Program
• Quality and the supervisor
− Responsibility − Machine quality − Causes of poor quality

• Cutting faults
− − − − − Housekeeping Needle problems, Sewing seaming & assembly defects Roving quality control How garments should be examined

Training Program
• Work study and Pro-SMV
− Efficiency, − Use a stop watch, − Allowances, − Productivity, − Helping poor performers, − Garment engineering, − Workplace layout, − Pro-SMV Practical session

Training Program
• Line balancing and production planning,
− − − − − − − What is it? Throughput time, Progressing work, How to balance a line, Setting up a line, Running the line, Production reports

• Communication,
− Motivation for the supervisor.

On the job Training
• Trainee to apply the techniques in production
lines learnt during vestibule training phase. • Problems faced in real situations and their solutions. • Coaching wherever required.

• 3600 Feedback from sub-ordinates, immediate
bosses and people working under.

Reason for evaluation
• To monitor the quality of training
• Provide feedback • To appraise the overall effectiveness of the investment in training • To assist the development of new methods of training • To aid the individual evaluate his or her own learning experience

Methods of Evaluation
• Questionnaires: Comprehensive questionnaires could be used to obtain opinion & reactions.
• Tests: Standard tests could be used to find out whether trainees have learnt anything during and after the training. • Interviews: Interviews could be conducted to find the usefulness of training offered to operatives.

Methods of Evaluation
• Studies: Comprehensive studies could be carried out eliciting the opinions and judgments of trainers, superiors and peer groups about the training.
• Human resource factors: Training can also be evaluated on the basis of employee satisfaction, which in turn can be examined on the basis of decrease in employee turnover, absenteeism, accidents, grievances, discharges, dismissals, etc.

A Trained supervisor’s qualities:
• Skill Matrix training
• Team Building • Style Management • Failure Mode And Effects Analysis [FMEA] • Quality Circle

• Communication Skills and
Personality Development

A Trained supervisor’s qualities:
• Industrial Engineering

• Managerial / Leadership Skills
• Waste Management • Total Productive Maintenance [TPM]

• Health, Safety and First aid • Supervisory Skill Management/ Shop Floor Management
• Lean Management, Finance Management Service [FMS], Capacity Planning, Computerised Performance System [CPS], Time and Action Calendar [TAC], Multimedia Management Service [MMS]

Major Goals
• Efficiency of direct labour work force to exceed 100%: − Average direct labour worker earns more than 60 Standard Allowed Minutes (SAM) per hour.
• Meet or beat scheduled workloads: − Total Produced SAM = < Total Scheduled SAM. • Quality rejects not to exceed 1/4 of 1% of total production: − Total Defective Units ÷ Total Production Units x 100; Limited to sewing rejects discovered at final Quality Audit.

• Total Direct Labour Variances − Time work, make-up, overtime premium not to exceed 15% of Total Incentive Payroll

Major Goals
• Annual direct labour turnover, not to exceed 30%:
− Labour Turnover % = Number of Separations x 100% ___________________________ Average Direct Labour Work Force

• Absenteeism not to exceed 3%:
− Total number of available work days [all direct labour employees] ÷ Total number of annual absence days [all direct labour employees]

• Tardiness not to exceed 2%:
− Total number of available annual minutes [all directlabour employees] ÷ Total number of annual tardiness minutes [all direct labour employees]

Purpose of SST Program
Installing supervisors with following behaviours and principle: • Enforce high work standards • Communicate effectively with superiors and workers • Coach and give feedback to workers • Solve work problems as they arise • Enforce discipline fairly • Respect and uphold workers’ rights

Program benefits
• Better results due to active supervisory performance
• More highly motivated managers, supervisors and staff • Improved staff-management relations • Improved supervisor-manager relations

• Improved problem-solving and fewer errors due to more open and constructive communication
• Better communication and cooperation between sections • Higher employee morale due to more respectful communication

Program Outcomes
• Understand and perform the roles and responsibilities of a manager/supervisor
• Motivate staff through effective interpersonal relations • Enforce discipline professionally in the work place

• Delegate work efficiently and ensure it is completed on time
• Correct staff in a way that builds performance • Communicate better with superiors and staff • Use an appropriate style of leadership and demonstrate authority appropriately

MANAGER INTERVIEW AT X YZ GARMENTS Name: Designation: Age: Department:

Q 1- How often do you have a style changeover? A-……………………………………………………………………………………
Q2- How many skilled, semi-skilled & unskilled operators are employed? Skilled-………………….% Semi-skilled-…………....% Unskilled-…………...….%

Q3- If unskilled operators are more than skilled and semiskilled operators then what is the reason behind it? A-………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………....

Q4- What is the rate of attrition amongst operators? 5 – 10% 10 – 15% 15 – 20% 20 – 25%
Q5- Do you consider this high rate of attrition? Yes No

Q6- How often is the recruitment of operators held? Once a week Once a fortnight Once a month Once in two months Q7- What is the training period for a new operator? 7 days 10 days 14 days

Q8- Do you provide refresher training to semi-skilled & skilled operators? Yes No
Q9- How often is the refresher training program held? Every two months Every six months Once a year

Q10- How many trainers you have? 1 2 3 4

Q11- What are tests the operators undergo for selection? Personal interview Peg board dexterity Pin board test Visual accuracy test Ball & tube test Color perception test Intelligence test Mental concentration test
Q12- How often do you encounter acts of indiscipline amongst operators? Daily Often Rarely

Q13- What kind of in-disciplinary acts occur? Operators quarrelling amongst each other Operators misbehaving with female operators Operators misbehaving with senior staff Operators wasting working hours Q14- How do you motivate your operators to produce on-time better quality? Paycheck Peer recognition Promotion Field opportunity Other please specify………………………………………………… Q15- What problems do you face in managing the operators? A-………………………………………………………………………………….

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