Continuous Improvement

Quality level

Check

Do

Act

Plan

Time

Learning Objectives

Lead a Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) process improvement initiative. Use quality tools for analysis and problem solving. Compare and contrast the corporate programs for quality improvement.

Quality and Productivity Improvement Process
Foundations of Continuous Improvement - Customer Satisfaction - Management by Facts - Respect for People  Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle  Problem Solving (10 steps)

Quality Tools

 


   

Check Sheet Run Chart Histogram Pareto Chart Flowchart Cause-and-Effect Diagram Scatter Diagram Control Chart

Check Sheet
Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Total Lost Departure Mechanical Overbooked Other Luggage Delay 1 2 3 3 1 3 3 0 1 0 2 5 3 2 3 5 4 4 0 2 4 7 2 3 0 3 8 1 1 1 6 6 3 0 2 7 9 0 3 0 4 7 3 0 2 3 11 2 3 0 2 10 1 0 0 4 12 2 0 1 44 84 24 16 12

Run Chart
14

12

10

Departure Delays

8

6

4

2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Months

Histogram of Lost Luggage
3.5

3

2.5

Frequency

2

1.5

1

0.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Occurrences per Month

Cause-and-Effect Chart for Flight Departure Delay (Fishbone Chart)
Equipment Personnel
Aircraft late to gate Late arrival Gate occupied Gate agents cannot process passengers quickly enough Too few agents Agents undertrained Agents undermotivated Agents arrive at gate late Late cabin cleaners Late or unavailable cabin crews Late or unavailable cockpit crews

Other
Weather Air traffic

Mechanical failures Late pushback tug

Poor announcement of departures Weight and balance sheet late Late baggage to aircraft Late fuel Late food service Delayed checkin procedure Confused seat selection Passengers bypass checkin counter Checking oversize baggage Issuance of boarding pass Acceptance of late passengers Cutoff too close to departure time Desire to protect late passengers Desire to help company’s income Poor gate locations

Delayed Flight Departure

Material

Procedure

Pareto Analysis of Flight Departure Delay Causes
Cause Late passengers Waiting for pushback Waiting for fuel Late weight and balance sheet Percentage of Incidents 53.3 15.0 11.3 8.7 Cumulative Percentage 53.3 68.3 79.6 88.3

Flowchart
Passenger Arrives

Ticket For Flight

No

Wait for Appropriate Flight

Yes

Check Luggage

Yes

Excess Carry-on No Issue Boarding Pass

Passenger Boards Airplane

Scatter Diagram
12

10

Departure Delays

8

6

4

2

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Late Passengers

Control Chart of Departure Delays
Percentage of flights on tim e

100 90 80 70 60
1998 1999 expected Lower Control Limit

p (1  p UCL  p  3 n

p (1  p LCL  p  3 n

Corporate Programs for Quality Improvement

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Marriott Personnel Programs Zero Defects (Crosby) Deming’s 14 Point Program Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award ISO 9000 Six-Sigma

Mega Bytes Restaurant
1.

2.

3.

How is the Seven-Step Method (SSM) different from Deming’s PDCA cycle? Prepare a cause-and-effect or fishbone diagram for a problem such as “Why customers have long waits for coffee.” Use Figure 6.30 as a guide. How would you resolve the difficulties that study teams have experienced when applying the SSM?

The Seven-Step Method
Step 1: Define the project  Step 2: Study the current situation  Step 3: Analyze the potential causes  Step 4: Implement a solution  Step 5: Check the results  Step 6: Standardize the improvement  Step 7: Establish future plans

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