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The Moral Compass: The Dynamics of Ethical Principles
Individual Rights (Karapatanngtao)
Virtue (Kabutihan ng kalooban)
The Common Good – Utilitarianism (Kapakanan ng lipunan)
WHY DO “GOOD” PEOPLE ENGAGE IN “BAD” ACTS?
There are many ways in which responsible decision making can go wrong:
People can simply choose to do something unethical. Well-intentioned people fail to choose ethically. Stumbling blocks to responsible decision-making and behavior Cognitive or intellectual.
EXPLAINING “BAD” ACTS?
According to the model of ethical decision making, a certain type of ignorance can account for bad ethical choices.
Ignorance can be willful and intentional.
After you discover a lost I-Pod, you might rationalize to yourself that no one will ever know, that no one is really going to be hurt, that if the owner was so careless, they deserve to lose their I-Pod.
You might try to justify the decision by telling yourself that you are only doing what anyone else would do in this circumstance. You might choose not to think about it and try to put any guilty feelings out of your mind.
EXPLAINING “BAD” ACTS?
Cognitive barrier: Considering only limited alternatives.
Responsible decision making would require that we discipline ourselves to explore additional methods of resolution.
Simplified decision rules are most comfortable to us.
Having a simple rule to follow can be reassuring to many decisions-makers; even if it may not be the best possible decision.
We often select the alternative that satisfies minimum decision criteria: Satisficing. Other stumbling blocks
perhaps it is critical to begin to make our lines more clearly drawn.DECISION POINT: IF GRISHAM IS RIGHT . . . If Grisham is correct. consider your response to the following questions: What values are most important to you? What are you willing to sacrifice to maintain your own values? What is important? What are your priorities? What do you stand for. and we are destined to unintentionally cross lines. Try this exercise – in your head. . personally and professionally? Are there any values that would you quit a job over? What would you be willing to die for? .
Lack of oversight of corporate executive decisions. Significant distance between decision makers and those they impact.USUAL SUSPECTS FOR EXPLAINING UNETHICAL CONDUCT Enormous amounts of corporate executive compensation. Financial challenges. . Set of ethical values that has not yet caught up to technological advances.
The most serious challenge we all face…. . Making ethically responsible decisions throughout one’s life..
or it can make it difficult for a dishonest person to act unethically.ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING IN MANAGERIAL ROLES Social circumstances can make it easier or more difficult to act in accordance with one’s own judgment. Responsibility for the circumstances that can encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior falls to the business management and executive team. an organization’s context sometimes make it difficult for even the best-intentioned person to act ethically. Within business. .
Personal integrity lies at the heart of such individual decision-making: What kind of person am I? What are my values? What do I stand for? .MANAGERIAL ROLES The decision-making model introduced in this chapter develops from the point of view of an individual who finds herself/himself in a particular situation.
son\daughter. Some are professional: attorneys. Some of our roles are social: friend. accountants. Some are institutional: manager. neighbor. Every individual fills a variety of social roles and these roles carry with them a range of expectations. financial analysts.MANAGERIAL ROLES Within a business setting. student body president. auditors. citizen. individuals must consider the ethical implications of both personal and professional decision making. and duties. responsibilities. . teacher. spouse.
.Roles & Responsibilities Decision-making in these contexts raises broader questions of social responsibilities and social justice.
ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES: APPLICATION Consider how different roles might impact your judgment about the discovery of the iPod. You were a teacher in the class. You were a member of the student government. Your judgment about the iPod might differ greatly if: You knew that your friend had lost it. .
ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES IN BUSINESS In a business context. board members. managers. they have a responsibility to promote organizational arrangement that encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. Hence. executives. senior executives. Managers. . individuals fill roles of employees. board members have the ability to create and shape the organizational context in which all employees make decisions.
will it improve the situation of the least advantaged persons? GENERAL WELFARE Utilitarianism Who benefits from the act? Who are burdened? Does the act maximize the total net benefit to everyone concerned (stakeholders)? Does the act respect the moral rights of everyone concerned? Does it treat everyone as persons and not merely as things? CARE Does the act show proper care to people we have special relationships with? Will it earn the trust of people we value? VIRTUE Will the act help me develop my character? Will it make me a better person? Adapted by B. Teehankee from Business Ethics by Manuel Velasqu .*Key principles and questions about the ethics of an act JUSTICE HUMAN DIGNITY & COMMON GOOD Does the act promote dignity and allow total human development for everyone? RIGHTS Will the act lead to a fair distribution of benefits and burdens? If it will cause inequality.
Ethical Frameworks Utilitarian: Directs us to decide based on overall consequences of our acts. Rights: An individual’s entitlement to something Justice and Fairness: Comparative treatment given to members of a group .
or obstruct. .Ethical Frameworks The Ethics of Care: Obligation to exercise special care toward those person with whom we have close relationships Virtue Ethics: Directs us to consider the moral character of individuals and how various character traits can contribute to. a happy and meaningful human life.
We should act in ways that produce better consequences than the alternatives we are considering. .*UTILITARIANISM: MAKING DECISIONS BASED ON ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES Utilitarianism has been called a consequentialist approach to ethics and social policy.
A decision that promotes the greatest amount of these values for the greatest number of people is the most reasonable decision from an ethical point of view. . respect of all the people affected. integrity. freedom.*UTILITARIANISM: MAKING DECISIONS BASED ON ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES What is meant by “better consequences”? Better consequences are those that promote human well-being: the happiness. health. dignity.
” The economy and economic institutions are utilitarian: They exist to provide the highest standard of living for the greatest number of people. They do not exist to create wealth for a privileged few. .” OR DECISIONS BASED ON ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES “The greatest good for the greatest number.* UTILITARIANISM: MAKING Utilitarianism is identified with the principle of: “Maximize the overall good.
theories/2..e. http://www. maximum profits) for all persons affected by the action and wrong if it fails to maximize utility.html .phgfoundation.Utilitarianism An action is right if it produces the greatest total amount of good (i.org/t utorials/moral.
Consider also the consequences to the entire society.*UTILITARIANISM: EXAMPLES Child labor Compare the problematic consequences of child labor to the consequences of alternative decisions. one might argue on utilitarian grounds that child labor practices are ethically permissible because they produce better overall consequences than the alternatives. Thus. .
*UTILITARIANISM: LESSONS FROM EXAMPLES Utilitarians tend to be very pragmatic thinkers: They decide on the basis of consequences. No act is ever absolutely right or wrong in all cases in every situation. The consequences of our actions will depend on the specific facts of each situation. it will always depend on the consequences. .
.*DEONTOLOGY: AN ETHICS OF RIGHTS AND DUTIES Deontological ethical theories are principle-based. It tells us that there are some rules that we ought to follow even if doing so prevents good consequences from happening or even if it results in some bad consequences. It supplements the utilitarian approach.
* DEONTOLOGY: AN ETHICS OF RIGHTS AND DUTIES Legal rules Rules which are derived from various institutions in which we participate. Role-based rules (Business) Professional rules What rules should we follow? The above mentioned roles are described as gatekeeper functions. which insure the integrity and proper functioning of the economic. or financial system. legal. . or from various social roles that we fill.
and to protect those choices (e.. right to worship) .Rights and Duties Devices used to enable individuals to choose freely whether to pursue certain interests or activities.g.
German philosopher. .Rights and Duties According to Immanuel Kant. there is essentially one fundamental ethical principle that we should follow: Respect the dignity of each individual human being.
theories/4 .phgfoundation.html .Rights and Duties Kant’s Categorical Imperative Act so as your action can be universal Act so that you treat humanity not as a means but as an end in itself http://www.o rg/tutorials/moral.
Positive Rights Duty of providing holder of right with whatever is needed to pursue interests Shelter Food Employment Health Care Education .
Negative Rights Duties others have not no interfere in certain activities of the person who holds a given right Life Participation Due Process Free Speech Physical Security .
. Kantian Duty Utilitarianism Rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by looking at the consequences of the action Kantian Duty Golden Rule: Do unto others what you want others to do unto you. Close relationship to legal analysis Close relationship to economics as a Because it is my duty. I moral view have a stringent requirement which I am The end justifies the bound to obey even if consequences are not means best for me.Utilitarianism vs.
. and when people are punished for the wrongs they have done or compensated for the wrongs they have suffered.Justice and Fairness Justice and fairness are concerned with the comparative treatment given to the members of a group when benefits and burdens are distributed when rules and laws are administered.
Every person should be given exactly equal shares of a society’s benefits and burdens.Justice and Fairness Categories Distributive Justice . . Treat equals equally and unequals. unequally. Egalitarianism .Allocating scare benefits and undesirable burdens in ways that are just and that resolves the conflict in a fair way.
to each as they are chosen.Workers paid in proportion to the work they have contributed Socialism .From each according to his ability. Justice as Freedom: Libertarianism From each as they choose. to each according to his needs. .Justice and Fairness Categories Capitalist Justice .
Justice and Fairness Categories Retributive Justice .Justice of restoring to a person what the person lost when he or she was wronged by someone else.Justice of blaming or punishing persons for doing wrong Compensatory Justice . .
We cannot exist in isolation from caring relationships with others. with specific persons.Ethics of Care We exist in relationships. and should preserve and nurture relationships we have. .
and by responding positively to these needs. particularly of those who are vulnerable and dependent on our care.Ethics of Care We each should exercise special care for those with whom we are concretely related by attending to their particular needs. desires. . values.
Justice. not the individual’s welfare. Standards of justice consider distributive issues. Utilitarian standards consider only aggregate social welfare. and the Ethics of Care No single framework captures all factors for making judgments. but ignore social welfare and the individual. Rights. Standards of caring consider the individuals close to us but ignores the demands of impartiality. but not aggregate well-being and distributive considerations. .Integrating Utilitarianism. Moral rights consider the individual.
edu/ethics/practici ng/decision/ethicsandvirtue. They enable us to pursue the ideals we have adopted. dispositions. or character traits that enable us to be and to act in ways that develop this potential.html . http://www.Virtue Ethics "Virtues" are attitudes.scu.
These ideals are discovered through thoughtful reflection on what we as human beings have the potential to become. toward which we should strive and which allow the full development of our humanity.Virtue Ethics There are certain ideals. such as excellence or dedication to the common good. .
Virtues are habits . A person who has developed virtues will be naturally disposed to act in ways that are consistent with moral principles. Once they are acquired. The virtuous person is the ethical person. they become characteristic of a person.
rather than at ethical duties and rules.Person vs. or the consequences of particular actions. Action Based Virtue ethics is person rather than action based: it looks at the virtue or moral character of the person carrying out an action. .
forbearance. and moderation Courage or Fortitude .able to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time Justice .practicing self-control. endurance.Cardinal Virtues Prudence . abstention.proper moderation between self-interest and the rights and needs of others Restraint or Temperance . and ability to confront fear and uncertainty. or intimidation .
Examples of Virtues Honesty Courage Compassion Generosity Fidelity Integrity Fairness Self-control Excellence http://www.co m/virtuesdef.html .virtuesproject.
. It includes the whole of a person's life.Good points of virtue ethics It centers ethics on the person and what it means to be human.
Bad points of virtue ethics It doesn't provide clear guidance on what to do in moral dilemmas although it does provide general guidance on how to be a good person presumably a totally virtuous person would know what to do and we could consider them a suitable role model to guide us No general agreement on what the virtues are and it may be that any list of virtues will be relative to the culture in which it is being drawn up. .
.D. 4. compassion)? Did I do more good than harm? 2. Ph.*How did I live today? 1. Did I practice any virtues (e. Markkula Center for . S. honesty.J. 3.. integrity. Did I treat others with dignity and respect? Was I fair and just? Was my community better because I was in it? Was I better because I was in my community? Thomas Shanks. 5.g..
What facts are not known? iii. Can I learn more about the situation? iv. Determine the facts i.*A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR BUSINESS ETHICS REVISITED 1. Do I know enough to make a decision? . What are the relevant facts of the case? ii.
Is there conflict that could be damaging to people? to animals or the environment? to institutions? to society? iii. Is there something wrong personally.*A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR BUSINESS ETHICS REVISITED 2. and hopes for a better life together? . interpersonally. Does the issue go deeper than legal or institutional concerns? What does it do to people as persons who have dignity. Identify the ethical issues involved i. or socially? ii. rights.
Identify stakeholders i..g. Are there other important stakeholders in addition to those directly involved? . Do some have a greater stake because they have a special need (e.*A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR BUSINESS ETHICS REVISITED 3. those who are poor or excluded) or because we have special obligations to them? iii. What individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? What is at stake for each? ii.
*A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR BUSINESS ETHICS REVISITED 4. Consider the available alternatives i. Present at least three alternative courses of action (ACAs) .
*A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR BUSINESS ETHICS REVISITED 5. How are people being treated? c. Consider how a decision affects stakeholders a. rights. Which principles are most obligatory? iv. Consequences i. Are there professional duties involved? iii. principles i. Duties. Will the stakeholders be treated fairly? . Justice and Fairness a. Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm? b. What does the law say? ii.
Consider how a decision affects stakeholders d. What type of person am I becoming through this decision? ii. Can I live with public disclosure of this decision? . Ethics of Care i. What are my own principles and purposes? iii. Am I exhibiting proper care to those I am in relationships with? e. Implications for personal integrity and character i.*A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR BUSINESS ETHICS REVISITED 5.
Make a Decision .* A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR BUSINESS ETHICS REVISITED 6.
How did my decision turn out and what have I learned from this specific situation? . Monitor and Learn from the Outcomes i.* A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR BUSINESS ETHICS REVISITED 7. How can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders? ii.
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