Biochemistry of Substances

Week 1

Objectives

Learn how, in general, drugs affect the body Learn about how drugs enter and exit the body Learn about drug schedules, uses and addictive potential

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Overview

The following is a useful reference table for identifying drugs, their schedules, modes of ingestion effects and much more.

http://www.drugdetection.com/table.html

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How Drugs Enter

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Absorption (through the skin such as Myoflex cream or transdermal patches, or through mucus membranes such as nose and lips) Oral: Caffeine, cough syrup, pills Inhalation: fumes, smoke Injection: epidural, vaccinations, allergy shots
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Completion

Which of the following is typically administered through absorption?
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Birth Control Nicotine Caffeine Pain medication Cocaine

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Answers

All of the above drugs except caffeine are regularly administered through absorption. Although most people believe they “inhale” cocaine when it is snorted, actually it is absorbed through the mucous membranes in the nose
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How Drugs Exit

Half-Life:

The length of time for half of the substance to be excreted from the body Urine Exhalation Defecation Sweat Saliva Breast Milk (nursing mothers)
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Routes of Excretion
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Factors Determining Physiological Impact

Drug Interactions 1+1=3
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Sedative + Sedative Sedative + Stimulant Stimulant + Stimulant Opiate+ Sedative Opiate + Stimulant

Cross-Tolerance

tolerance to one drug leads to tolerance of similar drugs CEUs available at
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Factors cont…

Individual Differences
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Weight/Body Fat Gender Ethnicity Physiological Responsiveness Setting/Expectations

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The Nervous System

CNS

Consists of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system

Sympathetic you)

(Has sympathy for

Excitatory/Fight or Flight Inhibitory/calming/relaxing
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Parasympathetic

Neurons, Synapses
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Neurons contain neurotransmitters When a neuron in stimulated an action potential moves to the end and triggers a series of chemical changes Calcium Ions flow into the neuron causing the release of the neurotransmitter into the space between 2 neurons (synaptic space) The neurotransmitter molecule then binds, like a lock and key, with the receptor on the other neuron which causes a characteristic reaction
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How drugs affect neurotransmission

Increase the amount of the neurotransmitter released By blocking the postsynaptic receptors In a few minutes you will be directed to a website that illustrates these points.
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Neurochemicals and Hormones
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Acetylcholine Norepinepherine Dopamine Endorphins GABA Serotonin

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Online Reading

Tutorial on How Drugs Affect the Brain

Go to the website and review the 5 lessons. They are relatively short

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Drug Types

Stimulants
(After you read the first page, the “next” button is located at the bottom of the page)

Depressants (includes Anxiolytics)
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Inhalants Benzodiazepines Barbiturates Alcohol

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Opiates Hallucinogens Marijuana Steroids
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Drugs and Athletic Performance

Overview Some psychoactive drugs have actual performance-enhancing side effects. However, many actually decrease performance, primarily because of adverse cardiovascular effects and impaired coordination and judgment. Athletes and nonathletes alike may be knowingly or unknowingly exposed to psychoactive substances if they use over-thecounter, recreational, or at prescription drugs. CEUs available
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Drug Schedules (Web Link)

Schedule I
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High potential for abuse. No medical uses Heroin, LSD, PCP High potential for abuse. Some medical uses Codeine, morphine, methadone, amphetamines Some potential for abuse. Some medical uses Codeine cough syrups, long acting barbiturates, No Refills allowed
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Schedule II
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Schedule III
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Schedules cont…

Schedule IV

Low Potential for abuse. Many medical uses, Some limits on refills Antianxiety drugs Low potential for abuse, Many uses. No limits on prescription refills

Schedule V

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