High Speed Machining

Reference using UGX and NX CAM by Siemens PLM Software (formerly known as UGS PLM Software http://www.plm.automation.siemens.com )

Contents


 

Introduction and Background
HSM / Hard Milling Components of HSM


  

HSM aspects outside your CAM system
HSM aspects inside your CAM system Case Study Q&A

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High Speed Machining

What is it?

Very high tool rpm, small depths of cut and high feed rates Mostly used in milling hard mold and die steels (hence term “hard milling”) Also appears in airframe work for different reasons

Different materials (aluminum) Used to reduce heat and material stress during machining
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). D2. H13.  HSM produces high quality finish on milling machine – reduces need for EDM electrodes. burning and hand finishing How to drive HSM machines to capacity without breaking tools Tool makers cutting data ranges from very safe to highly optimistic .High Speed Machining  Value   Maximizes overall productivity – fewer process steps. deep cavities and fine details typically require time consuming EDM processes.“what data do we use and why doesn’t this data always work for me?” 4  Challenges   . etc. faster machining Machining Mold and Dies made of very hard materials (P20.

etc.High Efficiency Hard Milling “It is only as good as the weakest link.” 7 . HSM helps users bypass EDM with out-of-the-box “hard-milling” solutions. D2. HSM Capable Machine Tool Cutting Tool Controller HSM capable CAM System Programming Know-how HSM . deep cavities and fine details typically require time consuming EDM processes.Hard Milling Machining Mold and Dies made of very hard materials (P20. H13.).

)  8 . vertical engagement angle. (chatter. material removal rate. effect of surface speed on the finish.Hard Milling  Do you have all the components you need?  Increasing spindle speed and feed while decreasing chip load is just the beginning step of successful high speed programming. etc. Further understanding of the cutting action is essential.

 9 .Machine HSM Capable Machine Tool  A stable machine capable of running at high speeds and feeds without the machine dynamics coming into the machining equation. High Speed Spindle retrofits are not High Speed Machines.Hard Milling .  The cutting forces and vibration caused by the actual contact between the tool and the material becomes the primary action.

Available High Length to Diameter ratios for reaching into intricate cavities Gold coating TiN High surface hardness Lubricity TiCN Blue-gray coating Moderate temperatures High Temperature applications TiAlN Forms Al Oxide coating -low thermal conductivity Longer tool life 10 .Hard Milling – Cutting Tools Cutting Tool   Tools capable of handling very high surface temperature.

Hard Milling – Cutting Tools  Ball End Mills rough closer to the part than End Mills with small corner radius. 11 .  Original Part and  30mm Blank End Mill with 1mm Corner Radius  30mm Ball End Mill  Ball End Mills produce consistent finish along the entire slope spectrum.

there is no need to use flat end mills for finishing. 12 . ball mills cut more effectively at the tip than end mills. Unless you are cutting flat horizontal faces. While it is correct that ball end mills do not have surface speed at the center. it is true for flat end mills as well. Effective engagement of ball end mills is distributed  Contrary to popular beliefs.Hard Milling – Cutting Tools   End mills always get stressed at the same point.

Example holder standards.Hard Milling . static run-out. 3Gs 13 .Tool Holder  Holders capable of very low run-out at high spindle speeds and acceleration.    HSK Shrink fit „Tribos‟   Dynamic vs.

A type of curve or surface for which the delta (difference) between successive knots need not be expressed in uniform increments of 1. This non-uniformity distinguishes NURBS from other curve types. B-Spline curves are converted to NURBS curves when imported into Industrial Design softwares for example 3D Studio MAX.Machine Controller Controller      Support for various high speed interpolation types Look-ahead Corner acceleration and deceleration curves.Hard Milling . B-Splines are fully approximating: such a curve generally passes through its control points if several of them are in the same location. 14 . B-Spline: A particularly smooth class of approximating curves. Distinction criteria for Linear Vs Spline interpolation. NURBS (Non-Uniformal Rational B-Spline) Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline: This is a mathematical representation for smooth curves and surfaces.

Hard Milling – Machine Controller NURBS 15 .

Machine Controller Smooth Interpolation Exact positioning 16 .Hard Milling .

M251.Machine Controller  Discrepancy between actual and requested high feed rate. M252Makino) Bi-directional copy-mill example 18 . roughing and non-cutting moves (M250. Is SuperGI (Geometric Intelligence) or similar algorithm turned on ? Is SuperGI disabled due to programming/post errors?     Subroutines within a Super GIMakino block Cutter Compensation  Using multiple Super GI modes for finishing.Hard Milling .

Consistent finish in both steep and non-steep areas. Leave uniform amount of stock after every tool. Smooth. Do not exceed the intended Metal Removal Rate.CAM HSM capable CAM System Programming Know-how        Consistent use of chatter free machining parameters.Hard Milling . continuous cutting. Do not apply templates to the entire part. 19 . Fine tuned HSM data for CNC controllers Divide and conquer.

Chatter   Chatter is the #2 cause of tool failure in hard milling applications. (It is also the most overlooked) Process for avoiding chatter Chatter Zone 20 .Hard Milling .

Proven Integrated Machining Data Integrated. customizable machining database enables storing. P20 in NX3 More materials coming up in NX4. 21 . NX-CAM for example includes proven machining data for commonly used raw materials. retrieving and associatively using the data in tool path operations.

managing tool embedding    Z-level plus path Enhanced trochoidal paths   Efficiently locate the optimum machining areas Use the in-process workpiece The key issue is achieving a constant rate of material removal 22 .NX Milling – what can you do?  Avoid over-loading the tool while maintaining high feed rates Controlling tool step-over.

Trochoidal Toolpath 23 .

Roughing  Typical roughing path exceeds requested metal removal rate at corners and fully embedded first cuts.Material Removal Rate . 24 .

you are not cutting efficiently. if you are not breaking the tool.Metal Removal Rate .Roughing  Without trochoidal. 25 .

MRR & Vertical Engagement Angle 26 .

MRR & Vertical Engagement Angle 27 .

Metal Removal Rate  Order your flowcuts 28 .

Uniform Blank  Cut between your Z-Levels 29 .Metal Removal Rate .

MRR & Z Level Operations  Easy control of vertical and horizontal engagement angles. 30 . Z-lock provides much better Super-GI performance at the controller.  Watch out for Z level passes near horizontal corners.

Metal Removal Rate & Finish On part stepover option enables constant metal removal rate and uniform surface finish 31 .

Level based Rest Milling is faster too. 32  .Cleaner Toolpath  Too many engages and retracts are unsafe and should be avoided.

Constant Surface Speed ??  Varying RPM as the effective cutting diameter changes.   34 . This is important for good surface finish. Chatter characteristics could be ignored since the depth of cut is really small.

Even in big tools this makes a difference.Tool Length     Keep the tool length as short as possible. Even if there is insignificant un-measurable deflection.) 35 . (which is very bad for the coating. Increased tool length causes increased deflection. you need only a small disturbance to start vibration.

Divide and Conquer   Different machining regions require different strategies. 36 . Mass machining of the entire part does not produce efficient HSM tool path.

HSM on Connecting Rod Die Measurement Operations required Rest mill path generation time Overall Programming Time   NX2 11 4:30 6 hr NX3 7 1:30 2 hr How did we do it?    Improved In-process work-piece performance Automatic cut levels in cavity milling New Z-level Plus path to contour floors while roughing Trochoidal cutting to avoid over-embedding tool Holder checking for multiple tools 37 .Case Study .

Case Study .HSM on Connecting Rod Die Measurement Operations required Rest mill path generation time Overall Programming Time   NX2 11 4:30 6 hr NX3 7 1:30 2 hr How did we do it?    Improved In-process work-piece performance Automatic cut levels in cavity milling New Z-level Plus path to contour floors while roughing Trochoidal cutting to avoid over-embedding tool Holder checking for multiple tools 38 .

by Edwin Gasparraj Customer facing presentation – “Die/Mold and HSM” 39 . presentations    “Faster and Finer” “Is Your HSM Investment Paying You Dividends” .by Edwin Gasparraj by Edwin Gasparraj “Constant Material Removal – The Key to Hard Milling” -   “Critical Machining Data for HSM Process Specification” . papers.Articles.

com/UHSHM/UHSHM.vibrafree.siemens. .com • Vibrafree.com http://www. There a lot of case studies about HSM in pdf format.com.Website reference • UGS PLM Software http://www.automation.plm.htm •For more case studies please visit Vibrafree.

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