Effective Communication



Communication skills are the highest single factor that contribute to building winning associations.

4 .  In our professional as well as personal lives we are constantly using language to convey our thoughts and ideas to others.   Effective communication skills are essential in everything we do or say. the ability to communicate effectively has become increasingly important.In a complex and culturally diverse world.

In any communication at least some of the "meaning“ is lost in simple transmission of a message from the sender to the receiver.The Communication Process Although all of us have been communicating with others since our infancy. the process of transmitting information from an individual (or group) to another is a very complex process with many sources of potential error. 5 .

But it is also common among people of the same culture. 6 . This is most obvious in cross-cultural situations where language is an issue.In many situations a lot of the true message is lost and the message that is heard is often far different than the one intended.

The Communication Process Sender Encoding Feedback Message NOISE Channel Decoding Response Receiver 7 .

Thus it is no surprise that social psychologists estimate that there is usually a 40-60% loss of meaning in the transmission of messages from sender to receiver.Communication is so difficult because at each step in the process there is a major potential for error. 8 . By the time a message gets from a sender to a receiver there are four basic places where transmission errors can take place and at each place. there are a multitude of potential sources of error.

The non-verbal part includes such things as body language and tone. understand and be aware of the potential sources of errors and constantly counteract these tendencies by making a conscientious effort to make sure there is a minimal loss of meaning in your conversation. 9 . It is also very important to understand that a major part of communication is non-verbal. the verbal part of the message actually means less than the nonverbal part. This means that when we attribute meaning to what someone else is saying.It is critical to understand this process.

10 .Barriers to Effective Communication There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the communication process.

Barriers to Communication Physical Barriers Status Barrier Faulty Transmission / Poor Retention Barriers to communication Socio – Psychological Language By-passed instructions Cross – Cultural Barriers 11 .

Physical Barrier Obstacles that prevent a message from reaching the intended recipient and beyond the control of persons concerned. Noise  Time and Distance  Faulty Instruments  12 .

Approx 30% of communication is lost each time it is transmitted. 13 .Faulty Transmission / Poor Retention Successive transmission of the same message are decreasingly accurate. People retain around 50-60% of the communicated message.

(Different meanings/interpretations attached) When the message is badly expressed. repetition.Language Barrier When people belonging to two different language groups try to communicate. Use simple words and clear sentences 14 . poor construction of sentence. lengthy sentences. Vague words.

Week/Weak. Words with dual meaning – ring.By-passed Instructions It is a form of language barrier. Often instructions given by superiors and not clearly understood by subordinates as certain words have double meaning. See/Sea. Similar sounding words – Flour/Flower. fall. 15 .

Cross – cultural barrier Culture is a shared set of values and attributes of a group. Hence when the sender and receiver are from different cultural groups a cross cultural barrier is formed.      Character Language Non verbal behavior Space Paralanguage 16 .

conclusions drawn from evidence Defensiveness. fear of being laughed at. Inferences. Slanting – Reflecting biased thinking. Halo Effect. 17 . shows anxiety to avoid criticism or attack hidden flaws. Closed mind.Socio – Psychological Resistance to change – sticking to old beliefs Unclarified Assumptions – making assumptions based on what we hear “she is untidy”.Rigid mind. Fear – losing job. Abstracting – Selecting some facts & omitting others. “That‟s a good product” Different perceptions. superiors. not open for discussion.Acts or behaves in support of something.

Status Barrier Occurs due to organizational structure. Accounts executive giving suggestions to the CFO may be regarded as insubordination. Each organization has a hierarchy which creates various status levels. 18 . Hence “Status block” is lack of free flow of information between superiors and subordinates due to respective positions. Hence a Jr.


to be accurate. people want to be competent. their own.Constructive Feedback: Developing your Skills Effective feedback is absolutely essential to organizational effectiveness. 20 . Feedback taps basic human needs-to improve. and the organization. People must know where they are and where to go next in terms of expectations and goals-yours. to compete.

if given properly. they include fear of causing embarrassment. 21 . Be aware of the many reasons why people are hesitant to give feedback. discomfort. fear of an emotional reaction.Feedback can be reinforcing. and inability to handle the reaction. feedback is almost always appreciated and motivates people to improve.

This is especially true in today's fast changing and demanding workplace. and respect for yourself and others.It is crucial that we realize how critical feedback can be and overcome our difficulties. it is very important and can be very rewarding but it requires skill. Withholding constructive feedback is like sending people out on a dangerous hike without a compass. courage. understanding. 22 .

Characteristics of Effective Feedback Effective Feedback has most of the following characteristics:        Descriptive Avoid accusations Describe your own reactions Suggest more acceptable alternative Be specific rather than general. Focus on behavior Takes into account the needs of both the receiver and giver 23 .

honesty. not why It is checked to ensure clear communication Constructive feedback opens the way to a relationship which is built on trust. or how.    Feedback is useful when well-timed Sharing of information. 24 . rather than giving advice It concerns with what is said and done. genuine concern and mutual growth.

Effective communication is an important tool that can help ‘make or break’ our relationships. on the domestic front and in our social lives we all stand to benefit from more effective communication skills. careers and our future irreversibly. 25 . Regardless of what business we are in.

26 . effective business communication professionals understand how to tailor messages for maximum results. Since audiences demand different kinds of communications in different situations and settings.Business Communication in Organizations Business communication defines most organizations. resulting in effective marketing campaigns. productive interpersonal relationships among co-workers and successful customer service resolutions.

using multiple channels for many kinds of desired results.Function Although most casual observers of corporate behavior focus on a company‟s external marketing. business communication happens throughout every organization. 27 .

appropriate. 28 .Effective business communication includes a two-way cycle of messaging and feedback designed to achieve a specific reaction. thoughtful messages often correlate to successful companies staffed by engaged professionals. Efficient.

In addition to speech and written text.Features The feedback cycles required for effective business communication can take different forms. text message and even social media status update. especially when aided by modern technology. business professionals must understand how to communicate effectively via e-mail. 29 .

30 . to help process large amounts of information. Many effective communicators find ways to cut through the clutter of overflowing inboxes with handwritten notes or direct phone calls.New tools allow business professionals to combine personal messages with automated responses. such as vacation auto-responder messages.

31 . making it more challenging when team members speak.Considerations Messages must take on the characteristics of the medium chosen for communication. read and learn differently from each other.

a manager with a highly visual learning style may not respond as intended to a dense report from an employee with strong writing skills. Likewise. a company director accustomed to highly analytical spreadsheets may not appreciate the lack of density inherent in a text message. 32 .For instance.

33 .Misconceptions Despite a cultural trend toward casual communication. studies indicate that spelling and grammar still play major roles in how audiences evaluate business professionals.

Critics of “millennials. Older decisionmakers may refuse to conduct business with young representatives using unprofessional communication. relevance and especially presentation.” workers born between 1977 and 1998. often advise younger professionals to double-check their communication for tone. 34 .

business professionals can craft strong internal partnerships while developing the foundation of a solid client base. images and messages.Effects In most organizations. Using powerful words. effective communication offers the best opportunity to make an outstanding first impression. 35 .

a professional can set up next actions that solidify her commitment to acting on requests or adjusting after responses.However. the second half of the feedback cycle can really cement interpersonal relationships. 36 . By building a reputation as an engaged listener.

global. like personal. religious. financial and so on are within the scope of communication. Thus different kinds of activities.The Scope of Business Communication We are social being. social. 37 . cultural. to live or to exist in the society we have to communicate each other. political. we spend more time in communicating than doing anything else. national.

He or she can achieve his or her goal in life and maintain proper relations with relatives.The Scope of Business Communication The scope of business communication are as follows:  From personal context: An individual can do nothing without communication. 38 . friends and others through effective communication.

 From organizational context: Communication involves proper planning. coordinating etc. 39 . and plays a role to achieve organizational goals. From social context: Men in societies communicate with each other on various occasions such as meetings. decision making. controlling. functions etc. and contribute for social development. directing.

press conference are used to communicate. From political context: Political parties depend on various media of communication to face their opposition and get power. meeting. television. public gathering. newspaper. Radio. 40 .

41 . From religious context: Without proper communication it is not possible to give perfect concept about each religion to their followers. Religious group depend on interpersonal. intergroup and mass communication to preach their religion.

SAARC. NAFTA. From global context: Every nation of present world depends on each other in different affairs. conferences & so on are formed to maintain international communication. 42 . EU. & all other international summits. For this reason UN.

 From national context: Effective communication system helps general public to participate various government activities through their elected representatives and coordinate among the various government authorities and departments to develop socio-economic condition of the country. 43 .

 From financial context: All financial matters of various organizations and parties are settled under effective communication system.e. 44 . sales. and profit of the business or industry. employees) and external parties to maximize production. From the context of business: Effective communication helps management or owners to maintain good relation between internal (i.

Objectives Of Communication  Information  Requests  Instructions  Orders  Advice/Suggestions  Education/Training  Warning  Motivation 45 .

Studies have found a strong relationship between the levels of communication in an organization and job performance and satisfaction. flow in various directions and make use 46 of various media. . Organizational communication can be formal or informal.Organizational Communication Organizational communication refers to the forms and channels of communication among members of organizations such as corporations. nonprofits or small businesses.

in short.Directions of Communication/ Channels of Communication An organization is a body of people working together for a well defined goal & to achieve its goal each member of the organization has to be in a state of constant touch with the others. There are TWO types of communication in organizations.Internal & External 47 . each member needs to communicate effectively.

vertical & consensus. official mode of discussion. horizontal. Internal formal communication has a serious. downward. 48 .Internal Communication Internal communication is classified under Formal & Informal communication. Such type of organizational communication takes place upward.

opinion surveys. suggestions. rules and regulations and organizational charts.Downward communication. it frequently takes the form of a initiated by staff and directed at executives. . a request. This creates a sense of 49 participation in the employees.It flows from the managerial and executive levels to the staff through formal channels such as policy manuals. Upward communication.

It occurs when colleagues ( between equals at any level) in an organization meet to discuss issues of common interest. resolve problems & conflicts. share information and develops team spirit. 50 .Horizontal communication.This is also known as lateral communication.

Enlightened management have realized that communication is essentially interactive in nature. 51 . the lines of communication are kept open. The top management sends information to the employees and also devises ways of eliciting information from their employees.This combines both downward and upward communication. demanding the interchange of roles of the sender & the receiver. Thus.Vertical Communication. This keep the organization in a healthy state.

This gives the employees a sense of participation & involvement in the affairs of the organization.This is a method of coming to a decision or to a solution of a problem after a free and frank discussion between members of an organization. They commit themselves to the policy arrived at by consensus and work with greater dedication. 52 .Consensus.

53 . It is called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Despite existence of formal channels in an organization. It exists more at lower levels of organization. the informal channels tend to develop when he interacts with other people in organization. Man as we know is a social animal.Informal Communication Informal communication in an organization is termed as ‘Grapevine’.

Examples of grapevine communication include lunch break conversations between co-workers and car pool dialogues. helps to support formal methods of business communication. or informal organizational communication. Grapevine communication. 54 .Internal business communications play a vital role in the functioning of a workplace.

55 . The term can be traced back to the United States Civil War in the 1860s.The 'grapevine' is the informal communication network found in every organization. somewhat like wires used to support grapevines. Since battlefronts moved frequently. army telegraph wires were strung loosely from tree to tree across battlefields.

56 . the resulting communication tended to be garbled and confusing. Since the lines often were strung hastily during battle.The wires were used to carry telegraph messages created in Morse code (the electronic alphabet. invented in 1844) because the telephone wasn‟t invented until 1876. Soon. and messages were composed in a hurry. any rumor was said to have been heard 'on the grapevine'.

at times employees do not have self-confidence due to which they form unions.Grapevine generally develops due to various reasons. the employees sense uncertainty. 57 . One of them is that when an organization is facing recession. Also. Sometimes the managers show preferential treatment and favor some employees giving a segregated feeling to other employees.

Thus. They discuss rumors about promotion and transfer of other employees. Grapevine spreads like fire and it is not easy to trace the cause of such communication 58 . the subordinates talk about their superior‟s attitude and behavior and exchange views with their peers. Generally during breaks in cafeteria. when employees sense a need to exchange their views. they go for grapevine network as they cannot use the formal channel of communication in that case.

Instead. 59 .How to deal with grapevine If managers and supervisors don‟t attend to the communication needs of their staff. frequently putting a destructive slant on organizational happenings when employees are uncertain. the informal avenue of rumors grows. Some people say that up to 70% of the information employees receive is via the grapevine. there is no vacuum of information.

Emails have now joined the grapevine communication channels. This is its greatest attribute.Information via the grapevine invariably moves much faster than through formal communication channels. making it even faster. 60 .

They tend to fill the gap during 61 times of ambiguity .  'Wedge-drivers' .Four Types of Grapevine Rumors  Wish fulfillment .  'Bogey rumors' .aggressive.  'Home-stretchers' .identifying the wishes and hopes of employees. They split groups and dissolve allegiances.anticipating final decisions or announcements. unfriendly and damaging.exaggerating employees' fears and concerns.

Research shows that grapevine information tends to be about 80% accurate. Since many rumors start from someone's account of an actual event, there are strong elements of truth in many rumors. However, grapevine information often contains big errors as people put their own interpretation onto an event or information they have seen, and then pass it on in a process of partial or selective recall. 62

Why do people spread rumors? Humans are social animals – we need to talk to others. Chat about others helps to strengthen existing relationships. Besides entertainment value, gossiping can raise people's self esteem – we feel more important by getting information first and by the interest it creates.

It is rare to find people at different levels discussing rumors or gossiping with each other. When two people share a rumor or gossip it has the effect of putting them on a relatively equal footing. The grapevine can play an important part in the „management by walking around‟ approach.

65 . they can pick up relevant rumors. Managers can sometimes purposely send messages through the grapevine to test the likely reaction to a possible management decision.When managers move around the office without a particular objective. This information would not have become available if the manager had stayed in their office all day. This can allow feedback to take place and adjustments made before final decisions are made.

Thus the grapevine can contribute to a more inclusive workplace. The appropriate manager should confirm true rumors or true parts of rumors to staff as soon as possible. Management should avoid playing word games with the truth or parts of the truth in order to minimize bad news. Their credibility will suffer massively if they try this 66 .

Thus. As soon as an employee gets to know some confidential information. Thus.  The managers get to know the reactions of their subordinates on their policies. the feedback 67 . he becomes inquisitive and passes the details then to his closest friend who in turn passes it to other.Pros & Cons of Grapevine Communication Advantages of grapevine communication:  Grapevine channels carry information rapidly. it spreads hastily.

Thus.obtained is quick compared to formal channel of communication. grapevine helps in developing group cohesiveness.  The grapevine is a supplement in those cases where 68 formal communication does not work.  The grapevine creates a sense of unity among the employees who share and discuss their views with each other.  The grapevine serves as an emotional supportive value. .

 The grapevine is not trustworthy always as it does not follows official path of communication and is spread more by gossips and unconfirmed report. 69 .Disadvantages of Grapevine Communication:  The grapevine carries partial information at times as it is more based on rumours. it does not clearly depicts the complete state of affairs. Thus.

70 . The productivity of employees may be hampered as they spend more time talking rather than working.  The grapevine leads to making hostility against the executives.  The grapevine may hamper the goodwill of the organization as it may carry false negative information about the high level people of the organization.

always keep in mind the 7Cs of effective communication:  Completeness  Clarity  Conciseness  Concreteness  Correctness  Courtesy  Consideration 71 .7Cs of Communication When you are writing or reading.

backgrounds. needs. Thus. . status & emotions. experiences.Completeness Your business message is termed complete when it contains all facts that the reader or listener needs for the reaction you desire. Several differences exist between senders & receivers since they differ in their mental filters-such as differing viewpoints. attitudes. communication senders need to assess their messages through the eyes of receivers to be sure 72 they have included all relevant information.

Guidelines for completeness:  Provide all necessary information-5Ws & 1H  Answer all questions asked  Give something extra. when desirable 73 .

by eliminating messages are inherently more interesting to recipients.Conciseness Conciseness is saying what you have to say in the fewest possible words. Conciseness is a prerequisite to effective business communication. 74 . Conciseness contributes to emphasis. A concise message is complete without being wordy.

To achieve conciseness. observe the following suggestions:  Eliminate wordy expressions  Include only relevant material  Avoid unnecessary repetition 75 .

Three specific ways to indicate considerations are:  Focus on “you” instead of “I” & “We”  Show audience benefit or interest in the receiver  Emphasize positive.Consideration Consideration means preparing every message with the message receivers in mind. pleasant facts 76 . try to put yourself in their place.

The following guidelines will help make your messages concrete:  Use specific facts and figures  Put action in your verbs  Choose vivid. definite and vivid rather than vague and general.Concreteness „Concrete‟ communication means being specific. image-building words 77 .

this is the purpose of clarity. Guidelines for clarity in messages: Choose precise.accurately.Clarity Clarity is to get your meaning across just as intended. concrete and familiar words Construct effective sentences and paragraphs Length Unity Coherence 78 Emphasis   o o o o .

Courtesy in communication is politeness that grows out of respect and concern for others. The following are suggestions for generating a courteous tone:  Be sincerely tactful. thoughtful.Courtesy Courtesy stems from a sincere you-attitude. and appreciative  Use expressions that show respect  Choose nondiscriminatory expressions 79 .

Correctness Correctness is correct expression by way of proper grammar. punctuation. and words  Maintain acceptable writing mechanics 80 . Three characteristics of „correctness‟ are:  Use the right level of language  Check accuracy of figures. and spelling. facts.

Listening 81 .

not one way listening .Developing Communication Skills: Listening Skills Active. effective listening is a habit. body language. not just words. as well as the foundation of effective communication. listen between the lines Take control of your emotional state 82 Practice supportive listening. As a listener we can work on the listening process in the following ways:         Focus on the subject content Avoid distractions Keep your prejudices & opinions aside Ask questions Listen with empathy & do not interrupt the speaker Attend to non-verbal cues.

He/she reviews his/her understanding of the subject 83 before reacting.We focus on the listening but not on verifying. and recapitulates it in .Basic Modes of Listening There are three basic modes of listening:  Passive listening.  Combative listening: We listen for weak points when we may attack the speaker.  Active listening: This involves the process of feedback  The listener is genuinely interested in what the speaker is feeling & thinking.

advise. He/she does not evaluate. We all act and respond on the basis of our understanding. With active listening. and too often there is a misunderstanding that neither party in the conversation is aware of.their own words. offer opinions. 84 . analyze or interrogate. a misunderstanding is immediately known and can be rectified. and then responds to it.

There is a distinction between hearing words and listening for the message. We are effective listeners only in the latter case. You need to place yourself in the speaker‟s shoes and look at the world through the speaker‟s eyes in order to understand his/her perspective. You cannot remain a passive listener if you wish to be an active participant. You need to be actively involved in the 85 communication process.

Active listening
Active listening has three phases:

 

Listening Understanding Responding

There are four main responses:
  

To reflect on the feelings or the underlying feelings To restate what was heard in other words and then reflect on the content of what was said Asking appropriate questions 86 Summarizing what was heard

1) Reflection involves focusing on the speaker’s

feelings: “You sound so upset.” “ I guess that made you rather annoyed.” 2) Restatement involves absorbing what you just heard and expressing it in your own words: Speaker: “ The child is frightened.” Listener: “ It appears that the school authorities are too strict.” If your understanding is wrong, the speaker will correct you. This technique helps in exploring the problem. 3) Questioning helps the person talk and opens the path to communication: Always remember, feelings come before facts, and the person is more important than

” “How often does this happen?” Place hypothetical questions such as: “ Suppose we did this project in …. There are several types of questions that elicit subjective answers and mostly cannot be answered by “yes” or “no”.the problem.manner. 88 how would the boss react!” . Ask open-ended questions such as: “Can you explain what you meant by……” “Do you mean that….

and agreeing on the problem/situation and the next course of action.4) Summarising: Summarising is assimilating what has been heard.  Active listening helps people become less afraid 89 . Some of the benefits of active listening are:  It helps people to spot the flaws in their reasoning when they hear it played back without criticism. briefly going over it together.

 Sometimes a person just needs to be heard and acknowledged before he/she is willing to consider an alternative or soften his/her position.  If we accurately understand the other person‟s view. It promotes a warm relationship between people and helps to solve problems. we can be more effective in helping.  Active listening helps identify areas of agreement 90 .of negative feelings.

so that the areas of disagreement are put in perspective and are diminished rather than magnified.  Next time. after your conversation. test your ability to benefit from listening to that conversation. Analyze and ask yourself:  Who did more listening?  What did I learn from the other person?  What questions should I have asked? 91 .

 What questions should I have answered more       thoroughly? Was I absolutely certain I understood everything? Did I ask for clarification? Did I practice acknowledgement? Did he/she practice acknowledgement? Were both parties attending? Was the conversation balanced? 92 .

This skill can and will improve all your relationships with friends. colleagues and superiors. 93 partners. . Did anyone keep changing the subject?  Did anyone get angry?  Did anyone appear sad or unhappy?  Was everyone paying attention?  What will I do different in my next conversation? The ability to listen is a SKILL that can be honed with practice & time.

94 .

95 . we derive from the non-verbal cues that the other person gives.Reading Nonverbal Communication Cues A large percentage (studies suggest over 90%) of the meaning we derive from communication. Often a person says one thing but communicates something totally different through vocal intonation and body language.

Mixed messages create tension and distrust because the receiver senses that the communicator is hiding something or is being less than candid. Most often.These mixed signals force the receiver to choose between the verbal and nonverbal parts of the message. 96 . the receiver chooses the nonverbal aspects.

Vocal 4. Use of time. and image 97 .Nonverbal communication is made up of the following parts: 1. Visual 2. space. Tactile 3.

The face is the biggest part of this.Visual. eye movement. 98 .Kinesics This often called „body language‟ and includes facial expression. posture. Of course we can easily misread these cues especially when communicating across cultures where gestures can mean something very different in another culture. and gestures. All of us "read" people's faces for ways to interpret what they say and feel. This fact becomes very apparent when we deal with someone with dark sunglasses.

99 .For example. a sideto-side head movement might mean the same thing. in American culture agreement might be indicated by the head going up and down whereas in India.

100 .pleasure. and submission. surprise. mask.  Tense expression.fear.Facial Expressions There are five basic physical descriptions of facial expressions:  Neutral expression.  Relaxed expression. thoughtful. pleasure. respect. & extreme interest. contempt. and quiet attention.

 Uplifted expression- happiness, anxiety, love,

rage, astonishment, and attention.  Droopy expression- distress, suffering, grief, dismay, and shock. Facial expressions portray the actual emotions felt by an individual & accurately accompany the spoken words. Sometimes, facial expressions, as with other body language and non-verbal components,

may contradict the verbal expressions, and may give the real message. Facial expressions may be practiced and may be used to complement the spoken message. Facial expressions convey the attitude/mood of the communicator. The face has the capability to produce messages and at the same time facial expressions are open to various interpretations of the receiver.

Mouth movements give away various clues. We purse our lips, sometimes twist it sideways when we are thinking. We use this also on the occasion of holding back an angry comment. We use our mouth to extend it from chin to chin (right to left) to indicate smile. We also use our mouth by twisting it sideways to indicate sarcasm.

clenching the jaw. swallowing nervously. smiling broadly – these voluntary and involuntary facial expressions supplement or entirely replace the verbal message.Raising or lowering the eyebrows. yawning. Yet all convey information. squinting the eyes. 104 . sneering. The human face is most complex & versatile. serving many different functions.

 Keep your head level both horizontally and vertically upright.Visual-Posture. or anxiety. The Right Posture. posture can indicate self-confidence. guilt.Get your posture right & you will automatically feel more confident & start feeling better. This straight head positionauthoritative & serious. aggressiveness. 105 . We also look to posture to provide cues about the communicator. fear.

 The angle of the body in relation to others gives an indication of our attitudes & feelings towards them.  Legs need to be kept as still as possible in most situations. 106 . tilt your head just a little to one side. You can shift the head from left to right at different points in the conversation. receptive mode. If you want to be in the listening.

A few postures & the message they convey:  Slumped posture. high spirits & energy  Lean forward.low spirits. willingness to listen 107 .openness. lack of confidence  Erect posture.defensive  Uncrossed arms.defensive or disinterested  Crossed and interested  Lean away.

However. Gestures make a large portion of your message. 108 . A speaker simply standing & talking with no movement is dull. Gestures such as a wave of a hand have a specific & intentional meaning such as a hello or a goodbye. it does not mean that all gestures enhance communication. some can be detrimental.Gestures Gestures are observed actions.

a person‟s gesture should flow with the vocal channel so as to enhance the content. 109 . Use of good gestures at the proper time lends credibility.There is no „correct‟ gesture for any given situation. they should agree with the vocal message. And. Ideally.

Beneficial gestures: They are usually performed with the hands. They should be used to emphasize a point.Unnatural gestures: Playing around with clothing. arms. Gestures must be used to show dynamism & 110 participation. foot tapping. Finger tapping. Use of hand & arm gestures. touching the body and so on hurt credibility. . lip licking and smiling too often show lack of confidence. and head. pen etc.

locate physical space o Beat gestures-baton like movements that do not change in form with the content of the accompanying speech. 111 .spatialize.Types of gestures:  Conscious gestures  Spontaneous gestures: 4 types o Iconic gestures.representational o Deicitics.some feature of the action o Metaphoric gestures.

Oculesics. It has different connotations in a cross-cultural context. 112 . Oculesic movement if frequently associated with kinesic movements.Eye contact This includes eye contact or the avoidance of eye contact. Eye contact. A major feature of social communication is eye contact.a powerful & direct form of non-verbal communication.

and expressive. monitoring. cognitive.Types of eye contact:  Direct eye contact  Downward glances  Shifty glances  Fleeting glances Eye behaviour is usually divided into two categories: Gaze & Mutual Gaze Gazing serves 4 functions.regulatory. 113 .

feelings. a pat on the back. a kiss. . respect. and so on. relationship.both positive & negative. We use the tactile form of non-verbal communication many-a.touch suggests dominance.time while talking to people. 114 In business.Tactile.Haptics This involves the use of touch to impart meaning as in a handshake. Touch can convey many factors such as intentions. an arm around the shoulder. or a hug.

harsh.Vocaliscs. pleased.Paralanguage Your voice quality & the extra sounds you make while speaking are also a part of nonverbal communication called „paralanguage‟. boisterous etc)  Inflection (spread-narrow). loud. rage. commanding. sharp. volatile. Paralanguage includes:  Tone ( direct. scheming. disguised. soft.changing tone of our voice to emphasize key words 115 . gentle.

I‟ve got a BIG project  Stretching. the higher the pitch. Inflections vary by:  Stressing.  Tempo/Pacing-rate at which someone speaks 116 . the faster the rate of vibration and the lower the pitch. the slower the rate of vibration.I‟ve got-----a big project  Pitch(high-low).determined by the speed of vibration of the vocal folds.I‟ve got a b---i---g project  Pausing.

Uh-huh.  Dysfluency.not appreciated in business communication. such as throat clearing and sighing.Phew.break in fluent speech. Hah-uh. Shhh 117 . used in oratory commonly to express emotions  The other sounds you make. Mmmm. Intensity or Volume (loud-soft)  Articulation(precise-imprecise)  Rhythm(smooth-jerky). Ahhah! Uh-oh.

in another. Think of how many ways you can say "no"-you could express mild doubt. anger.The meaning of words can be altered significantly by changing the intonation of one's voice. 118 . and anger among other emotions. Vocal meanings vary across cultures. Intonation in one culture can mean support. amazement. terror.

Physical Space. We like to protect and control our territory. paper. For Americans.Proxemics For most of us. or in a classroom with our coat. the "intimate zone" is about two feet. etc. someone standing very close to us makes us uncomfortable. We tend to mark our territory either with permanent walls. This 119 . this can vary from culture to culture. pen. We feel our "space" has been invaded. People seek to extend their territory in many ways to attain power and intimacy.

The social zone (4-12 feet) is where most business transactions take is reserved for our closest friends. The "public zone" (over 12 feet) is used for lectures. The "personal zone" from about 2-4 feet usually is reserved for family and friends. 120 .

121 . Monochronic & Polychronic time & cultures.Use of Time. Think about how a subordinate and his/her boss would view arriving at a place for an agreed upon meeting.Chronemics Use of time can communicate how we view our own status and power in relation to others. Use of time communicates about how you respect time and value it.

we use "things" to communicate. etc. Things Similarly. neat or messy things. photographs. Image: We use clothing and other dimensions of physical appearance to communicate our values and expectations. 122 .Artifacts. This can involve expensive things. plants.

A "majority" of the meaning we attribute to words comes not from the words themselves. The tone of your voice will probably have a greater impact on how your message is interpreted than the actual words. movements. body language.The use of gestures. material things. time. but from nonverbal factors such as gestures. and space can clarify or confuse the meaning of verbal communication. . facial 123 expressions. tone. etc.

a person's eyes can often convey a far more vivid message than words and often do Complementing: they may add to or complement 124 a verbal message.Non-verbal cues play 5 roles Repetition: they can repeat the message the person is making verbally Contradiction: they can contradict a message the individual is trying to convey Substitution: they can substitute for a verbal message. . For example.

For e. can underline a message 125 . A boss who pats a person on the back in addition to giving praise can increase the impact of the message Accenting: non-verbal communication may accept or underline a verbal message.g. Pounding the table. for example.

Skillful communicators understand the importance of nonverbal communication and use it to increase their effectiveness. But one must also consider the differences that exist in non-verbal communication across cultures. as well as use it to understand more clearly what someone else is really saying. 126 .

It is therefore essential to hone our oral communication skills.Verbal Communication The importance of speaking effectively in public is extremely crucial for professional success. With the latest communication technology at hand. 127 . professionals now spend more time speaking than writing.

3-T Principle The effectiveness of written communication is dependent on three key factors: thinking. planning and executing. All communication works on the 3-T principle: Tell them about what you are going to tell them Tell them Tell them that you have told them 128 .

Then go on to talk about the main relevant ideas and thoughts in an interesting. lucid and informative manner. body and conclusion. When concluding.Organize your material into an introduction. In the opening statement give your speakers/ readers an overview of the topic. 129 . reiterate the main points and make a lasting impression.

data must be organized to create information. help the reader understand. To be meaningful.e.Importance of logical thinking In communication it is essential to recognize the importance of logical thinking. i. Precise data (facts) by themselves are insufficient. 130 .

131 .There are two important tests to apply when converting data into information:  Relevance Is a particular piece of data really needed? Unnecessary data damages understanding and ultimately undermines confidence. any data that do not either aid understanding or promote confidence should be eliminated. Therefore.

When data are widely separated. To ensure that a logical link is clear. Misconceptions The logical link between data must be made explicit to prevent the reader from coming to false conclusions. place the two pieces of data as close to each other as possible. 132 . their logical relationship is masked and the reader is unlikely to make the connection. preferably right next to each other.

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