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Jonathan M. Carretas, RN., Ll.B.

(c)

It is an interpersonal process arising from disagreements over the goals to attain or the methods to be used to accomplish goals. (John Newstrom, 2007)


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Method Goals Task Interdependence Ambiguity of Roles Ambiguity of Policies, Rules Personality Differences Ineffective Communication Competition over Scarce Resources Personal Stress Underlying differences in Attitudes, Beliefs, and Experiences

Causes of Conflicts •Organizational Change •Different Values •Threat to Status •Contrasting Perceptions •Personality Clashes Perception of Conflicts •Constructive •Destructive Participants’ Intentions •Winning •Losing Resolution Strategies •Avoiding •Smoothing •Forcing •Compromising •Confronting

Conflict Outcome END •Lose-Lose •Lose-Win •Win-Lose •Win-Win

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Soft words win hearts Come now and let us reason this thing together The arguments of the strongest always have the most weight You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours The best way of handling conflicts is to avoid them When one hits you with a stone, hit him with bread If you cannot make a person think as you do, make him do as you think

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Better have a half loaf than no bread at all If someone is ready to quarrel with you, he isn’t worth knowing Smooth words make smooth ways By digging and digging, truth will surface He who fights and runs away, lives to run another day A fair exchange brings no quarrel Kill enemies with kindness Avoid quarrelsome people, they will make life miserable

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Be Yourself – Cultivate desirable qualities Be Alert – Look for opportunities to express yourself Be Positive – Determine your goal and the route to it Be Systematic – Take one step at a time Be Persistent – Hold you course J. Maurus

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Be a Worker – Work your brain more than your body Be a Student – Know your work Be Fair – Treat others as you would like to be treated Be Temperate – Avoid excess in anything Be Confident – Have faith in yourself and in God J. Maurus

Activity: Me and My Conflicts and Resolutions Answer the following questions honestly.
(3 Questions)

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Identify / narrate the conflicts or problems you encountered since 1st Year College up to the present. Include your recent experiences before or during Intrams/College Week. How did you resolve the conflicts? What lessons did you learn from it?

The consequence of real or perceived differences in mutually exclusive goals, values, ideas, attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or actions

Intrapersonal conflict: Within one individual • Interpersonal conflict: Between two or more individuals • Intragroup conflict: Within one group • Intergroup conflict: Between two or more groups

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Conflict is dynamic It can be positive or negative A certain amount of conflict is beneficial to an organization Aggressive behavior can occur Scapegoating may occur Conflict may be covert and inappropriate

Competitive conflict is a victory for one side and a loss for the other side Disruptive conflict does not follow any mutually acceptable set of rules and does not emphasize winning

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Increasing sensitivity to an issue Inspiring people to develop new ideas or identify new methods for solving problems Helping people become more aware of tradeoffs, especially costs versus benefits Motivating people to improve performance, effectiveness, and satisfaction


Associated with increases of conflict Propel a situation toward conflict Based on incompatible goals
Most important antecedent condition to conflict  Individuals and organizations have multiple goals that change over time

Role conflicts

Defined as other people’s expectations regarding behavior and attitudes Task interdependence is another potential source of conflict

Structural conflict

Structural relationships (superior to subordinate, peer to peer) provoke conflict because of poor communication Competition for resources, opposing interests, or lack of shared perceptions or attitudes

Competition for resources

Can be internal or external Result from an individual’s socialization experience

Values and beliefs

 Distancing mechanisms or differentiation

serve to divide a group’s members into small, distinct groups, thus increasing the chance for conflict.  Unifying mechanisms occur when greater intimacy develops

Parties involved view situations or issues from differing perspectives Perceived conflict

Each party’s perception of the other’s position Negative feelings between two or more parties

Felt conflict

Result from the parties’ perceived or felt conflict May take the form of aggression, competition, debate, or problem solving May include covert behavior

Indirect tactics, such as scapegoating, avoidance, and apathy

Resolution: A mutually agreed-upon solution that both parties commit themselves to Suppression: One person or group defeats the other Optimal solution: Both parties see themselves as winners and the problem is solved

Win-lose

One party exerts dominance, the other party submits and loses Neither side wins
Focuses on goals and meeting the needs of both parties Consensus involves attention to facts and the position of the other parties

Lose-lose

Win-win
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Focuses on the means of solving a problem rather than the ends Most useful when the needs of the parties are polarized

Confrontation
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Considered the most effective means for solving conflicts Problem-oriented technique in which the conflict is brought out into the open Attempts are made to resolve it through knowledge and reason Goal is to achieve win-win solutions Delivered in private as soon as possible

Negotiation
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Involves give-and-take on various issues among the parties Seeks to achieve agreement even though consensus will never be reached Can be guided by Levenstein’s ten commandments for negotiators

Other Strategies

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Clarify the common purpose. Keep the discussion relevant. Get agreement on terminology. Avoid abstract principles; concentrate on the facts. Look for potential tradeoffs. Listen. Avoid debating topics; use persuasive tactics. Keep in mind the personal element. Use logic logically. Look for solutions that satisfy the other person’s real interests.

Collaboration  Mutual attention to the problem, in which the talents of all parties are used.  The most effective method of conflict resolution. Compromise  Used to divide the rewards between both parties.  Neither gets what he or she wants  Lose-lose atmosphere happens because they are only partially satisfied Competition  An all-out effort to win, regardless of the cost. Uses authority-obedience approach. Enforces rule of discipline.

Accommodation


An unassertive, cooperative tactic used when individuals neglect their own concerns in favor of others’ concerns Self-sacrifice

Suppression
In situations where conflict is discouraged  Could include elimination of one of the conflicting parties through transfer or termination

Other Strategies

Avoidance  Participants never acknowledge that a conflict exists  Used by groups who do not want to do something that may interfere with their relationships.  Neutrality is maintained Withdrawal  Simply removes one party Smoothing  Complimenting opponent, downplaying differences, focusing on areas of agreement

Other Strategies

Forcing

Method that yields an immediate end to the conflict but leaves the cause of the conflict unresolved Can be positive or negative

Resistance

Other Strategies

Conflict management begins with a decision regarding if and when to intervene Sometimes it is best to postpone intervention

Increased intensity can motivate participants to seek resolution

Protect each party’s self-respect Do not put blame or responsibility for the problem on the participants Allow open and complete discussion of the problem from each participant Maintain equity in the frequency and duration of each party’s presentation


Encourage full expression of positive and negative feelings in an accepting atmosphere Make sure both parties listen actively to each other’s words Identify key themes in the discussion Encourage the parties to provide frequent feedback

Help the participants develop alternative solutions At an agreed-upon interval, follow up on the progress of the plan Give positive feedback to participants

Bullying involves abuse of power Several strategies to confront bullies
Don’t blame yourself  Learn how to bully-proof yourself  Confront the bully  Avoid the bully if possible  Keep a record