POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Prof. Hani Obeid
PhD EE, SMIEEE, P.Eng.

Department of Electrical & Computer
Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Applied Sciences University
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PARAMETERS OF TRANSMISSION LINES
CHAPTER ONE
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DEVELOPMENT OF AC TRANSMISSION LINES
16-5-1888 TRANSMISSION LINE PATENT GIVEN
FIRST LINE 25 kV LINE LAUFFEN TO FRANKFURT
IN GERMANY
1912 110 kV LINE LAUCHLAMMER TO RIESA
17-4-1929 220 kV LINE BRAUWEILER TO FRANKFURT
TOWERS DESIGNED FOR 380 kV
5-10-1957 380 kV LINE ROMERSKIRCHEN TO LUDWIGSBURG-
HOHENECH
1967 735 kV LINE IN HYDRO QUEBEC
1982 1200 kV LINE IN SOVIET UNION
EXTREMEMELY HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION BEYOND 2000 kV NOT
PREFERED DUE TO HIGH CORONA DISCHARGELOSSES MORE THAN LOSSES
DUE TO LINE RESISTANCE

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GENERATION
Energy is the capability to produce motion ,force, work ,change in shape change in form etc….
Conventional Energy Sources:-

Coal , fire wood, water at high level ,Radioactive substances & Petroleum
Classification (Energy conversion)

1.Hydro Electric power station
2.Steam power station
3.Diesel power station
4.Nuclear power station.

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Nuclear power station
Heat energy -----steam energy-----mechanical
energy-----electrical energy.

Site selection factors
• Availability of water.
• Distance from populated area
• Nearness to load centre.
• Availability of space for waste proposal

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Reactor---fuel rod(uranium),Moderator (Graphite
rods) , Control rods (Cadmium) & coolant (sodium
metal)
Heat exchanger---Coolant gives up the heat to heat
exchanger which is utilize in raising the steam.
After giving up heat the coolant is again fed to
the reactor.

Nuclear
reactor
Heat
Exchanger
Turbine
alternator
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Advantages:-
The amount of fuel required is very small.
Less space is required
Can be located near the load centre.
Most economical.

Dis Advantage.
Capital cost is very high.
The fuel is expensive and difficult to recover.
The disposal of radio active waste is a big problem.
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Steam power station
Heat energy -----Electrical energy.
Site selection factors.
• Nearness of the load centre.
• Supply of water
• Availability of coal
• Land requirement
• Transportation Facility
• Availability of fuel.

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HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER STATION
POTENTIAL ENERGY—ELECTRICAL ENERGY.
SITE SELECTION FACTORS
 1. Adequate water available at good head.
 2.continuous water during summer ,therefore convenient
accommodation for a erection of dam must be available.
 3.The reservoir must have a large catchment area ,so that level of
water in the reservoir may not fall below the minimum requirement.
 4.The land should be cheap in cost and rocky in order to stand the
weight of large building and heavy machines.
 5.Sufficient transportation facility must be available.
 6.There should be possibility of steam diversion during period of
construction

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Hydro plant general block diagram






Turbine: P.E -----M.E
Alternator: M.E----E.E

Dam Turbine alternator Power house
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Non Conventional Sources:-
• 1.Geo-thermal energy
• 2.Tidal Energy
• 3.Wind Energy
• 4.Magneto Hydrodynamic
generation.
• 5.Solar energy.

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Advantages of utilizing renewable energy
sources
• 1.These resources are locally available and
everlasting.
• 2.The conversion does not involve in emission
of green houses
• 3.The power generation is at local level and
does not involve in T&D losses.
• 4.The systems are modular in nature.

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Geo Thermal energy:-
• Heat energy of interior earth -----Electrical energy.
Line Diagram:-
• Earth surface/pipe line output steam separator
steam Turbine Alternator inverter D.C
Advantages:-
• It is versatile in its use.
• It is cheaper
• The plants have highest annual load factor (85-90%)
• Pollution less.

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Tidal Energy:-
• Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of
sea which are carried by the action of sun and
moon on the water of the earth.
• Tide can be used to produce electrical power
which is known as tidal power.
• The water is above the mean sea level is called
Flood tide.
• The water level is below the mean sea level is
called EBB tide.
• The average tide range is 8.5m and maximum
tide is 13.5m

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Wind Energy
• It is indirect solar electric technology.
• It is energy from the WIND
Site selection consideration:-
• 1. High annual average wind speed.
• 2. Availability of anemometer data.
• 3. Availability of wind curve at the proposed site.
• 4. Local Ecology.
• 5. Distance to road or railway.
• 6. Nature of ground.
• 7. Favorable land cost
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Advantages
• It is renewable sources of energy
• Non polluting system
• Avoid fuel provision and transport.
• On large scale costs can be competitive with
conventional electricity and lower costs could be
achieved by mass production.
• It is clean and plentiful source of energy.
• It produces hundreds of mega watts.
• It’s also used for water pumping,
telecommunication power supply and irrigation.

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Line diagram:-
Wind----turbine-----alternator----electrical energy.

Types:-
• 1. Vertical axis machines
(The axis of rotation is vertical, the blades also be
vertical)
• 2. Horizontal axis machines
(the axis of rotation is horizontal and in the
aeroturbine plane is vertical facing the wind.

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Wind direction
To
Grid
Wind


ws speed csignal
temp


o/p
Aero
turbine
Gearing coupling
Electric
Generator
Controller
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Solar Energy:-
• It is energy from the sun.
• The energy in the form of heat and light.
• It is defined as the energy produced by the sun
and collected on earth.
Solar –Components:-
• 1.solar collector
• 2.storage unit.
Line diagram
Solar----solar rays----solar collector----
electricity/heat.

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Types:-



• 1.Solar photovoltaic system power plants.
• 2.Solar concentration thermionic power plants
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Solar photovoltaic system:-
• It is a direct conversion of light to electricity.
• Solar radiation-----PV cell---dc current.
• (Each PV cell generate the electricity
approximately 6-12volts)
Basic photovoltaic system for power generation.
• 1.Solar array.(rays---DC power)
• 2.Blocking diode.
• 3.Battery storage.
• 4.inverter/converter
• 5.Appropriate switches and circuit breaker
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Basic Photovoltaic system integrated with power grid


Blocking
Diode
Solar cell
array
Inverter/
Converter
From Utility
Feeder
Battery Storage
Local Load
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Advantages:;
• It is free pollution.
• The plant requires little maintenance or help
after setup
• It is Economical
• When it is connected to the grid, solar energy
can overtake the highest cost electricity at
peak demand and can also reduce grid
loading,apart from getting rid of the need for
local battery power in darkness.
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Distributed Generated System:-
• Distributed generation generates electricity from many
small energy sources.
• It is defined as the integrated use of small generation
units directly connected to a distribution system or
inside the facilities of a customer.
• It has also been called
• On site generation
• Dispersed generation
• Embedded generation
• Decentralized generation


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DG is a another approach ,It reduces the
amount of energy lost in transmitting
electricity because the electricity is
generated very near where it is used
,perhaps even in the same building..This
also reduces the size and number of
power lines that must be constructed.

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Example—DG
1.Micro turbine,Small Wind turbine
2.Photovolatic cell ,solar water heating.
3.Small gas turbine.
Benefits-DG
1.Enhance the reliability of the power supply.
2.Reduce the need for T & D investments to serve
the growing demand.
3.Encourage efficient investments in electricity
reliability by offering a cost effective alternative
in many situations.



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MAIN COMPONENTS
1. CONDUCTOR

2. CONDUCTOR ACCESSORIES
a) REPAIR SLEEVES b) COMPRESSION JOINTS
c) VIBRATION DAMPERS d) SPACERS / SPACER
DAMPERS
3. EARTH WIRE
a) COMPRESSION JOINTS
b) VIBRATION DAMPERS
c) COPPER EARTH BONDS

4. INSULATORS

5. EARTHING/ COUNTER POISE EARTHING SETS
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6. INSULATOR STRING HARDWARE
a) SUSPENSION STRING HARD WARE
b) TENSION STRING HARD WARE

7. OPGW

8. EARTH WIRE /OPGW HARDWARE

9. TOWERS

10. TOWER ACCESSORIES
a) PHASE PLATES b) DANGER BOARDS
c) BIRD GAURDS d) ANTI CLIMBING DEVICES
e) STEP BOLTS


MAIN COMPONENTS contd..
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CONDUCTORS
1. COPPER
2 .COPPER CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED
3. ALUMINIUM
4. ALL ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTORS(AAAC)
5. ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTOR STEEL
REINFORCED(AACSR)
5. ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED(ACSR)
6. ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR ALUMINIUM CLAD STEEL
REINFORCED - ACSR(AS)

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ADVANTAGES OF ACSR
1. MORE SPAN-LESS SAG
2. LARGER DIA -LESS CORONA LOSS FOR UHV LINES

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STANDARDS
1. IS:398 IEC-1098-1991:
SPECIFICATION FOR ALUMINIUM
CONDUCTORS FOR OVERHEAD
TRANSMISSION LINES
2 IS-398 PART-II : ACSR
3. IS-398 PART-V : ACSR FOR 400 kV AND ABOVE
4. IEC-1232 : ALUMINIUM CLAD STEEL WIRES FOR
ELECTRICAL PURPOSES
5.IS-1778 :REELS AND DRUMS FOR BARE
CONDUCTORS

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PRINCIPAL PARAMETERS OF ACSR
1. APPLICABLE STANDARDS
2. NO./WIRE DIA.AL./STEEL
3. SECTIONAL AREA OF ALUMINIUM (SQ,mm)
4. TOTAL SECTIONAL AREA (SQ,mm)
5. OVERAL DIA.(mm)
6. APPROXIMATE WT(.KG / KM)
7. DC RESISTANCEAT 20 DEG.C( OHM/KM)
8. ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH ( KN)
9. FINAL MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (KG/cm)
10. COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION (PER DEG.C)
11.LAY RATIO( MAX./MIN.)
12.TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF STEEL AND AL.STRANDS
a) strand dia. b) cross sectional area c) wt./km d) min.breaking load befor stranding
and after stranding KN e)zinc coating of steel wire f) joints in strands g) chemical
composition of steel wire




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INSULATOR STRINGS
TYPES OF INSULATORS
1. PORCELAIN DISC INSULATORS,LONG ROD INSULATORS
2.TOUGHENED GLASS
3.POLYMER SILICON RUBBER/ALLOY OF SILICON RUBBER AND EPDM

NORMAL SIZES

1.254 X 145 mm 70KN/90KN EMS. 280mm CREEPAGE

2.280 X 170 mm 120 KN/160KN,

280mm/330mm/430mm CREEPAGE

3.305 X 145 mm 120 KN,

280mm /330mm/430mm CREEPAGE

4.305 X 170 mm 160 KN

280mm /330mm/430mm CREEPAGE

BALL DIA--16mm, 20mm




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INSULATOR STRINGS---- CONTINUED
TYPES OF STRINGS
1.SINGLE SUSPENSION
2.DOUBLE SUSPENSION
3.SINGLE TENSION
4. DOUBLE TENSION
5.V-SRTING

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COST COMPONENTS
1. TOWERS AND ACCESSORIES 28%
2. ACSR CONDUCTOR AND ACCESSORIES 36%
3. EARTH WIRE AND ACCESSORIES 01%
4. INSULATOR AND STRINGS 06%
5. FOUNDATIONS 04%
6. ERRECTION 14%
7. CENTAGES 11%

PARAMETERS OF TRANSMISSION LINES
THE TRANSMISSION LINE HAS FOUR PARAMETERS:
1. Resistance

2. Inductive reactance

3. Capacitive reactance

4. Shunt conductance
R
L
X
C
X
g
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For usual spacing of overhead lines at 50 Hz, the
Proximity effect is neglected.

The effective resistance is found from power loss:
2
I
Loss Power
R
ac
=
| |
| | m x
m x
Al
copper drawn hard
. 10 83 . 2
. 10 77 . 1
8
8
O =
O =
÷
÷
µ
µ
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The standard temperature for resistance is 20 degrees,
Therefore R depends on temperature in normal range
As per the following equation:

( ) | | 20 1
20 20
÷ + = T R R
t
o
20
o
00932 . 0
20
= o
Temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 degrees
For copper
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LINE INDUCTANCE
Inductance of a single phase two wire line
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TRANSPOSITION OF LINE CONDUCTORS

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BUNDLE CONDUCTORS
Where S is the spacing between sub-conductors.
A is the bundle radius.
Bundle conductor
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Reichman has shown that the spacing of conductors
In a bundle affects voltage gradient and the optimum
Spacing is of the order of 8-10 times the conductors
Diameter irrespective of the number of conductors
In the bundle.

Regarding the bundle radius, usually

( ) mm A 530 200 ÷ =
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LINE CAPACITANCE
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SURGE MPEDANCE LOADING SIL
C
produced
X
KV
M
2
var =
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L used
X I M
2
var =
2
2
2
2
I
V
X X or
X
V
X I
C L
C
L
=
=
137
The term
C
L
In the above equation is by definition
The “surge impedance”.
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( )
impedance surge
KV
MW in SIL
L L
2
÷
=
139
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