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INLINE FLOW INSTRUMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
...Credit is given to Diomy Mota, FDIP piping

design engineer who assembled most of materials presented in the suceeding slides. The preparation of these slides was collaborated with Diomy Mota and reviewed by this presentor who is also an FDIP controls systems engineer. The slides were initially presented to piping department and are used as basis of learning for their design execution.
/Willy Alfaras

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OBJECTIVE:
Become familiar with inline Flow Instruments. Understand Design Requirements for Flow Metering Devices. Learn the proper use of Fluors guides and standards. Understand the practice used for determining straight pipe run needed for various meter run installation.

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COURSE OUTLINE
What is FLOW INSTRUMENTS TYPES of Flow Instrument APPLICATION, FUNCTION and P&ID SYMBOL Design RESPONSIBILITIES How to EFFECTIVELY USE Meter Run Schedules Design REQUIREMENTS STRAIGHT REQUIREMENTS Tables
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WHAT IS FLOW INSTRUMENT?


It is a Measuring Device (fluid flow) installed in piping systems to indicate, record and assist in the control of process and utility media.

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TYPES of INLINE FLOW INSTRUMENT


COMMONLY USED FLOWMETER
ORIFICE FLOWMETER

SPECIALTY METERS
MAGNETIC FLOWMETER FLOW NOZZLE CORIOLIS MAGNETIC FLOW STRAIGHT TUBE CORIOLIS POSITIVE DISP. METER TURBINE FLOWMETER VORTEX METER ANNUBAR (PITOT TUBE) VENTURI TUBE ROTAMETER SONICS METER INSERTION TYPE

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FUNCTION, APPLICATION, INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS and P&ID SYMBOLS

FLOW INSTRUMENTS

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ORIFICE FLOWMETER
FUNCTION
The orifice meter is the most common head-type flow measuring device. An orifice plate is inserted in the line, and the differential pressure across it, is measured. It is utilized extensively in process control because they are simple, reliable, and predictable.

APPLICATION
Used for clean fluids such as gas, steam, water, air, liquid hydrocarbons and chemicals. Straight Run Required. See attachment 1 of 000.250.2710

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ORIFICE FLOWMETER
Upstream Downstream

FE

P&ID SYMBOL

FLOW

DO NOT WELD ANY ATTACHMENT TO PURCHASED METER RUNS. IF ATTACHMENTS ARE REQUIRED, USE CLAMPS

MAGNETIC FLOWMETER
FUNCTION
These meter measure the velocity of an electrically conductive liquid as it cuts the magnetic field produced across the metering tubes. The meter consist of short pipe spool with an electrical coil about the midsection which produces a magnetic field through which the process fluid pass.

APPLICATION
Used for corrosive liquids, slurries, and low pressure loss applications. The magnetic flow is a bi-directional meter. The output of the meter is the same regardless of the direction of the flow. Unaffected by changes in fluid density, viscosity, turbulence of the fluid, or by variations in piping. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710

MAGNETIC FLOWMETER
FE

P&ID SYMBOL
Magnetic flow meters need external power supply, mostly 230 VAC.

MAGNETIC COIL

ELECTRODES

MAGNETIC COIL

FLOW NOZZLE
FUNCTION
The Flow Nozzle works on the same principle as the orifice plate. It is more rigid than the orifice meter and less likely to suffer damage in high velocity or high temperature services. Flow Nozzles are better suited for gas (vapor or steam) service than for liquid service. In general, the meter run requirements, flange ratings, and tap requirements are the same as for orifice plate installations.

APPLICATION
It is used in gas, steam, water and light slurry services. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710
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FLOW NOZZLE
FE

P&ID SYMBOL

DO NOT WELD ANY ATTACHMENT TO PURCHASED METER RUNS. IF ATTACHMENTS ARE REQUIRED, USE CLAMPS or BOLTS

CORIOLIS METER
FUNCTION
The operation of a Coriolis Flow Meter is based upon the measurement of Coriolis reaction forces. Coriolis flowmeters measure directly the mass flow rate of liquids and gases. For gases a minimum density is required to obtain a good measurement result. Coriolis flowmeters are available in sizes from 100 to 150 mm.

APPLICATION
Coriolis flow meters are used mainly in liquid service including slurries. Unaffected by changes in fluid temperature, pressure, density, and viscosity. The instrument is suitable for bi-directional flow. They can be applied to handle flow such as peanut butter, oil/sand mixture, and liquid containing gases. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710

CORIOLIS

FT FE C

P&ID SYMBOL

This tube is mostly U or W shaped, but also circular (coiled) and straight tubes exist.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METER


FUNCTION
The PD Meter traps a fixed volume of process fluid and transfer it from the inlet to the outlet of the meter.

APPLICATION
It is used in refinery gas and liquid services ranging from LPG to asphalt. Strainers will be required if there is potential for entrained solids. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710

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POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METER

FQI

P&ID SYMBOL

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METER

TURBINE FLOWMETER
FUNCTION
A turbine meter consists of a multi-bladed rotor suspended in the fluid stream on a free-running bearing. The flowing fluid causes the rotor to turn at a speed proportional to the amount of the flow. Meters (turbine/propeller) are generally use to meter the flow which is done by a counter (like gas meter).

APPLICATION
Used in measurement of cryogenic liquids (liquid oxygen and nitrogen), high-pressure water injection to oil wells, aircraft fuel metering, test rig duty, and road tanker filling. Most of the time they are installed in a product line leaving the plant. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710

TURBINE FLOWMETER
FE

P&ID SYMBOL

It is generally installed in horizontal lines on a sleeper way. Special bearings and calibration may be required for vertical installation.

VORTEX METER
FUNCTION
The Vortex meter is used to measure the flowing velocity of any substance. A fluid, flowing with a certain velocity, will generate vortices when passing an obstruction. The frequency of the vortices is directly proportional to the velocity. The sinus pressure/ velocity waves generated are measured by sensors such as differential pressure sensors, thermistor sensors, piezo electrical sensors or variable capacitance sensors. Each vendor has his own favorite sensor technology.

APPLICATION
It can be used on both gas and liquid. Unsuitable for use on viscous or dirty fluids. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710

VORTEX METER
V

FE

P&ID SYMBOL
Vortex meters can be installed in any orientation, however care must be taken to ensure that liquid meters are running full. Vortex meters are susceptible for oscillating flow and mechanical vibrations.

It should not be installed directly downstream of a pump. Great care is needed when a positive displacement pump is used in the system.

ANNUBAR (PITOT TUBE)


FUNCTION
Pitot Tubes are used to measure the velocity head of liquids in relatively large pipes. It incorporates an impact hole on the upstream side of the mast and 2 smaller static holes on each side of the pitot tube head. It is applied to clean liquids with velocities above 7 ft/sec. Volume flows can be determined by locating the pitot at the maximum velocity position in the pipe usually at the center.

APPLICATION
Can be used for a variety of difficult fluid services, including high temperature, high pressure, and corrosiveness.. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710

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ANNUBAR (PITOT TUBE)

FE

P&ID SYMBOL

It can be used in horizontal or vertical lines with proper attention to the impulse line installation as for an orifice plate.

VENTURI TUBES
FUNCTION
The venturi tube is a length of straight pipe that contracts to a smaller diameter cone and then expands back to the full diameter of the pipe. There is a high pressure tap in the full diameter upstream section and a low pressure tap at the throat. These tubes use specially designed and engineered shapes to give a low head loss. They are, however, considerably larger, heavier, and more expensive than the orifice plates. Installation is also more difficult. These tubes are largely used to reduce capital expenditure on pumping equipment and save pumping energy costs. Its purpose is to accelarate the fluid and temporarily lower its static pressure. Can make greater pressure recovery.

APPLICATION
Used on dirty fluids and slurries. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710

VENTURI TUBE
FE

P&ID SYMBOL

DO NOT WELD ANY ATTACHMENT TO PURCHASED METER RUNS. IF ATTACHMENTS ARE REQUIRED, USE CLAMPS or BOLTS.

ROTAMETER
FUNCTION
The rotameter is a variable-area-type flowmeter. It consist of a tapered metering tube and a float which is free to move up and down within the tube. The fluid to be measured enters at the bottom of the tube, passes upward around the float, and out at the top. It provide a reading calibration scale on the tube and flow rate can be determined by direct observation of the position of the float in the metering tube.

APPLICATION
The mass rotameter can be used only for low-viscosity fluids such as raw sugar juice, gasoline, jet fuels, and other light hydrocarbons. They can be installed vertically with the flow upward. Size Range: 1/4 to 3 (flanged or threaded fittings). Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.270.2710

ROTAMETER
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
If possible, install them in a riser so that the glass does not collect dirt. Allow 3 diameters to smooth out the flow. Also provide breakout spool if the shaft removal is out the bottom and check to see if the shaft projection interferes with the pipe. Since the shaft can also be removed from the top on some models, allow room for this if the rotameter is this type.

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ROTAMETER
FI

P&ID SYMBOL

SONIC METER
FUNCTION
Ultrasonic flow meters are suitable to measure the volumetric flow of gases and liquids. It is used to measure the sound velocity.

APPLICATION
Used on clean liquids with little or no solids or bubbles; gases. The instruments are suitable for bi-directional flow. The presence of some solids will not affect the meter performance. Sonic flow meters are suitable to handle pulsating flows. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710
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SONIC METER
FE

P&ID SYMBOL

INSERTION TYPE
FUNCTION
The insertion turbine meter is a set of small turbine meter internals mounted on a probe in a larger diameter pipe. Insertion meters can be hot-tapped into existing pipelines through a valving system without shutting down the pipeline. The meter only measures the fluid velocity at a single point on the cross-sectional area. It does, however provide a very low cost metering system for large-diameter gas or liquid pipelines where accuracy is not important

APPLICATION
Insertion meters can be used on pipelines above 4 inches. Straight Run Required. See attachment 2 of 000.250.2710 10/9/2012

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INSERTION TYPE

DESIGN RESPONSIBILITIES
PROPER SELECTION, APPLICATION and CLEARANCE ALLOTMENT FOR FLOW INSTRUMENTS PIPING.
FABRICATION and INSTALLATION CLEARANCES for LINE MOUNTED FLOW TRANSMITTER ORIFICE TAP BLOCK VALVES SIZE and ORIENTATION INTERFACING with CONTROL SYSTEM for REQUIREMENTS
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FLUOR DANIEL PRACTICES


FOR DETERMINING STRAIGHT PIPE RUN REQUIREMENT FOR VARIOUS METER RUN INSTALLATION: PRACTICE No. 000.270.1301
This practice establishes and defines guidelines for the use and selection of flow instruments

PRACTICE No. 000 250 2710 & 2711


These practice includes information on meter runs for orifices, flow nozzles and venturi tubes.

These practices will be used as a design guide by Control systems and Piping Designers. Exceptions to its use will be only with the approval of the Control Systems Engineer.

EFFECTIVE USE OF METER RUN SCHEDULES


Guidelines:
Understand Notes and Instructions. Proper use of Schedules and Design Requirements. Understanding Fluor Daniel Practices and Standards.

(Refer to Attachments)

ATTACHMENTS
ATTACHMENT 01 (000-250-2710)
METER RUNS FOR ORIFICES Meter Run Table General Notes

ATTACHMENT 02 (000-250-2710)
SPECIALTY METERS Straight Run Requirements

ATTACHMENT 03 (000-250-2710)
METER RUNS FOR ORIFICES, FLOW NOZZLES, AND VENTURI TUBES General Notes
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ATTACHMENTS
ATTACHMENT 04 (7 Sheets) (000-250-2710)
METER RUN FOR ORIFICES, FLOW NOZZLES and VENTURI TUBES

Schedule 1 through 8
FIGURE 1 to 4 (SCHEDULE 1 through 4)
For Orifice and Flow Nozzles (All Fittings in Same Plane)

FIGURE 5 (SCHEDULE 5)
For Orifice and Flow Nozzles (with Reducers and Expanders)

FIGURE 6 (SCHEDULE 6)
For Orifice and Flow Nozzles (in Atmospheric Intake)

FIGURE 7 (SCHEDULE 7)
Valves

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ATTACHMENTS
FIGURE 8 (SCHEDULE 8)
For Venturi Tubes

FIGURE 9
Typical Piping Arrangement With Fittings or Bends In The Same Plane.

FIGURE 10
Typical Piping Arrangement With Fittings or Bends Not In The Same Plane.

FIGURE 11
Typical Piping Arrangement At Boiler Outlet

ATTACHMENT 05 (000-250-2711)
INSTRUMENT PIPING - ORIFICE FLANGE TAP PIPING Fabrication and Installation Packages Clearances for Line Mounted Flow Transmitter
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