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802.

11: Introduction
Reference: “IEEE 802.11: moving closer to practical wireless LANs”; Stallings, W.; IT Professional, Volume: 3 Issue: 3, MayJune 2001; Page(s): 17 –23 (802.11Intro-1.pdf)
Chapter 4, sections 2-4, Wireless Communications and Networks, by William Stallings, Prentice Hall

802.11 Terminology

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11 Architecture 3 .802.

11 Architecture (cont) 4 .802.

11 station Provided between BSS ( in an AP) 5 .802.11 Services Implemented in every 802.

it establishes an association with an access point – The access point can then communicate this information to other access points. it must make its identity and address known – To do so.802. which makes it easier to route and deliver addressed frames • Disassociation – Makes it possible for either a station or an access point to notify other access points that an existing association is terminated 6 .11 Services (cont) • Association – Before a station can transmit or receive frames on a wireless LAN.

802.11 does not mandate any particular authentication scheme. which could be anything from relatively unsecure handshaking to public-key encryption – It does specify two authentication algorithms.11 Services (cont) • Authentication – Stations must use an authentication service to establish their identity with other stations – IEEE 802. which vendors can decide to include in their products  Open-system authentication  Shard-key authentication 7 .

11 Services (cont) • Distribution – The primary service used by stations to exchange MAC frames when the frame must traverse the DS (Distribution System) to get from a station in one BSS to a station in another BSS • Integration – Enables transfer of data between a station on an IEEE 802.11 LAN an a station on an integrated IEEE 802.802.x LAN 8 .

IEEE 802. the WEP algorithm uses an encryption scheme based on the RC4 encryption algorithm – The idea in RC4 is that two communicating parties must share a 40-bit key which encrypts and decrypts all frames – For much stronger protections. some 802.802.11 provides for the optional use of encryption by specifying a scheme based on the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm – To provide both privacy and data integrity.11 vendors offer optional 128-bit encryption 9 .11 Services (cont) • Privacy – To ensure privacy.

802.11 Protocol Architecture 10 .

11 Protocol Architecture (cont) 11 .802.

IEEE 802.11 MAC Logic 12 .

11 MAC Timing Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA-CA) 13 .IEEE 802.

used as a minimum delay for asynchronous frames contending for access 14 .IEEE 802. used by the centralized controller in the PCF scheme when issuing polls • DIFS (distributed coordination function IFS) – The longest IFS. used for all immediate response actions • PIFS (point coordination function IFS) – A mid-length IFS.11 MAC Timing (cont) • SIFS (short inter-frame space) – The shortest IFS.

or timeout – Poll response  For PCF 15 . responds with a CTS frame  All other stations defer using the medium until they see a corresponding CTS.IEEE 802.11 MAC Timing (cont) • SIFS is used for – Acknowledgment (ACK)  MAC-level ACK provides for efficient collision recovery – Clear to send (CTS)  Sender sends Request to Send (RTS) frame  If receiver is ready to receive.

11 MAC Timing (cont) 16 .IEEE 802.

11 MAC Timing (cont) 17 .IEEE 802.

IEEE 802.11 MAC Timing (cont) 18 .

802.11 MAC Frame Format 19 .

20 .802.11 Physical Layer Spec.

802.11 Physical Layer Spec. (cont) 21 .