This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Basic Relationships

l

**Model the hull as a Free-Free box beam.
**

§ Beam on an elastic foundation

l

**Must maintain overall Static Equilibrium. L L § Force of a ( x ) dx = g = Weight of the Ship ρ g ∫ Buoyancy m ( x ) dx ∫
**

0 0

L L § LCB must be in line with the LCG

ρ g ∫ x a ( x ) dx = g ∫ x m ( x ) dx

0 0

Basic Relationships

l

l

From Beam Theory – governing equation for bending moment: d 2m Where f(x) is a distributed = f ( x ) vertical load. dx 2 Beam is experiencing bending due to the differences between the Weight and Buoyancy distributions

f ( x) = b( x ) − w( x)

Net Load Buoyancy ρg a(x) Weight g m(x)

Basic Relationships

buoyancy curve b(x) weight curve w(x)

net load curve - f(x) = b(x) - w(x)

+ f

**Sign Convention Positiv
**

e Upwar ds

Basic Relationships

l l

The solution for M(x) requires two integrations: The first integration yields the transverse shear force distribution, Q(x)

§ Impose static equilibrium on a differential element f Q + f dx − Q + dQ

(

) =0

M Q dx

Q + dQ

M + dM

x 0

dQ f = dx

Q ( x ) = ∫ f ( x ) dx + C

But ships are “Free-Free” Beams - No shear at ends! Q(0) = 0 and Q(L) = 0, so C = 0

**Finding Shear Distribution
**

Net Load f

Sign Convention

+ f:

Shear Force Q

Positiv e Upwar ds

+ Q Q

+ Q:

Positive Clockwis e

Basic Relationships

l

**The second integration yields the longitudinal bending moment distribution, M(x):
**

§ Sum of the moments about the right hand side 0 f 0 = dx

M + Q dx + f dx

M Q dx

Q + dQ M + dM

2 dM Q= dx

x 0

− M − dM = 0

M ( x ) = ∫ Q ( x ) dx + D

Again, ships are “Free-Free” Beams - No moment at ends! M(0) = 0 and M(L) = 0, so D = 0

**Finding Bending Moment Distribution
**

Shear Force Q

Sign Convention + Q Q + Q: Positive Clockwis e

Bending Moment M

M

+M :

Positiv e Saggin g

**Shear & Moment Curve Characteristics
**

l l l l

l

Zero shear and bending moments at the ends. Points of zero net load correspond to points of minimum or maximum shear. Points of zero shear correspond to points of minimum or maximum bending moment. Points of minimum or maximum shear correspond to inflection points on bending moment curve. On ships, there is no shear or bending moments at the forward or aft ends.

Still Water Condition

l l

Static Analysis - No Waves Present Most Warships tend to Sag in this Condition Putting Deck in Compression Putting Bottom in Tension

**Quasi-Static Analysis
**

l l

Simplified way to treat dynamic effect of waves on hull girder bending Attempts to choose two “worst case”conditions and analyze them.

§ Hogging Wave Condition

» Wave with crest at bow, trough at midships, crest at stern.

**§ Sagging Wave Condition
**

» Wave with a trough at bow, crest at midships, trough at stern.

l

**Wave height chosen to represent a “reasonable extreme”
**

§ Typically:

l

Ship is “balanced” on the wave and a static analysis is done.

H = 1.1 LBP

**Wave Elevation Profiles
**

l

The wave usually chosen for this analysis is a Trochoidal wave. It has a steeper crest and flatter trough. Chosen because it gives a better representation of an actual sea wave than a sinusoidal wave. Some use a cnoidal wave for shallow water as it has even steeper crests.

l

l

**Trochoidal vs. Sine Wave
**

20 Trochoidal Wave Sinusoidal Wave 15

10

Wave Height (ft)

5

0 0 -5 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

-10

-15

-20

Lenght (ft)

Sagging Wave

Excess Weight Amidships - Excess Buoyancy on the Ends

Compression

Tensio n

Hogging Wave

Excess Buoyancy Amidships - Excess Weight on the Ends

Tensio n

Compression

**Weight Curve Generation
**

l l l l l l

The weight curve can be generated by numerous methods: Distinct Items (same method as for LCG) Parabolic approximation Trapezoidal approximation Biles Method (similar to trapezoidal) They all give similar results for shear and bending moment calculations. Select based on the easiest in your situation.

**Distinct Item Method
**

Each component is located by its l, t and v position and weight Can be misleading for long components

ITEM Material GROUP C - JOINERY WORK Forward cabin berth flat mattress shelf p&s verticals p&s desk supports and hardware hanging locker rod & hardware cabinet door blkhd drawers sole overhead units wt/unit WT LCG VCG LMOM VMOM

composite

35 35 composite w/veneer 12 composite w/veneer 34 composite w/veneer 4 composite w/veneer 27 composite w/veneer composite w/veneer wood plywood & teak honeycomb/vynal 17 25 10 29 24

0.77 3.00 1.02 1.02 1.28 1.28 1.02 1.85 5.00 2.50 0.50

27 105

10.50 10.50

1.25 1.50

12 35 5 5 35

10

12.00 12.00 14.50 14.50 15.00

15.00

2.50 1.00 2.50 2.50 2.00

3.00

17 46 50 71 12

16.75 17.25 15.00 16.40 17.00

3.00 2.00 0.50 -0.50 6.25

282.98 1102.50 146.88 416.16 74.24 72.50 518.40 150.00 290.45 791.43 750.00 1168.50 204.00

33.69 157.50 30.60 34.68 12.80 12.50 69.12 30.00 52.02 91.76 25.00 -35.63 75.00

**Example Weight Curve
**

120K Bbl TAO Weight Curve

120

Weight Curve Displacement = 27450 LT

100

LCG = 299.3 ft aft FP 1/19/99

Distributed Weight (LT/ft)

80

60

40

20

0 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100

Feet from FP (+ Aft)

Weight Item Informati on each weight item, need W, lcg, fwd and aft l For

W

fwd lcg aft FP

Trapezoi d Method

l l l

Models weight item as a trapezoid Best used for semi-concentrated weight items Need the following information:

§ § § § Item weight – W (or mass, M) Location of weight centroid wrt FP - lcg Forward boundary wrt FP - fwd Aft boundary wrt FP - aft

l

lcg must be in middle 1/3 of trapezoid

Trapezoid Method

l l

**Find l and x Solve for wf and wa so trapezoid’s area equals W and the centroid is at the lcg
**

x

lcg

FP

W Wx wa = + 6 2 l l W Wx wf = − 6 2 l l

wa

G

w f l aft

l/2

fwd

Biles Method

l l l l

Used for weight items which are nearly continuous over the length of the ship. Assumes that weight decreases near bow & stern. Assumes that there is a significant amount of parallel middle body. Models the material with two trapezoids and a rectangle.

Biles Method

x

lcg

G

wa

l 3

1.2h

wf

l 3 l 3

aft

FP

**The Three Types of Structure
**

Characteristics In-plane rigidity Loading Stresses Primary Structure Secondary Structure Quasi-infinite In-plane Finite Normal Tertiary Structure Small Normal

Tension, Bending and ShearBending, Shear Compression and and Membrane Shear Hull shell, deck, blkhd, tank top Undetermined Stiffeners on blkhd, shell Unstiffened shell

Examples Boundaries

Primary structure Secondary Structure

- Risk Based Methodology for Safety Improvements in Ports
- Thesis on Shear Locking in FEM
- Methods of Longitudinal Weight Distribution of Ship
- FFT Tutorial NI
- Short Term Statistics
- Form
- Fatigue Lecture 1 2009
- Fatigue Lecture 3 2012 (1)
- How to Make Pretty Figures With Matlab
- 2 D Stresses
- 2 D Stresses
- Axial Force, Shear Force, Torque and Bending Moment
- Normal Distribution

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Guia Para La Evaluacion de La Viga-casco Fuerza Residual Para Camiones Cisternaby Jesus Nebuay
- Bending analysis of partially restrained channel-section purlins subjected to up-lift loadingsby Nuno Pedrinho
- STAAD_ Bending Moment in Plate Elements - Structural Analysis and Design - Forum - Structural Analysis and Design - Bentley Communitiesby som_bs79
- Continuous Beam 1by lektime

- Hull Structure
- Stability and Global Strength
- Shear Force Diagram - Bending Moment Diagram
- influence lines for static
- Tese SEA
- Beam Analysis2d
- Pages From Ship Construction -5th Edition- D.J.eyres-2
- Chapter17[1]
- 313-Assign-1
- Ce 1302 - Structural Analysis - Classical Methods
- Beam Design
- . Modelling and Analysis
- r5310105-structural analysis - ii
- Numerical Uncertainity prediction
- RP-F205
- Modern Structural Analysis
- Analysis of Straight and Skewed Box Girder Bridge by Finite Strip Method
- 09a52103 - Aerospace Vehicle Structures-II
- Advanced Structural Analysis
- Approximate Analysis of Builfing.pdf
- ECS 238 - Chapter 2b (Bending and Shear Stresses and in Symmetrical Beams)
- p66
- 547
- International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES)
- Guia Para La Evaluacion de La Viga-casco Fuerza Residual Para Camiones Cisterna
- Bending analysis of partially restrained channel-section purlins subjected to up-lift loadings
- STAAD_ Bending Moment in Plate Elements - Structural Analysis and Design - Forum - Structural Analysis and Design - Bentley Communities
- Continuous Beam 1
- QB-SOM-HE306-2015-2016
- p6
- Hull Girder Response