Waste Management




What are Wastes?

Definition of Wastes
“substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law”

Disposal means
“any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses”

Kinds of Wastes

Solid wastes: domestic, commercial and industrial wastes
especially common as co-disposal of wastes Examples: plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash

Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid form
Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources








wood. fruits and others) Non-biodegradable cannot be degraded (plastics. cans.7 Classification of Wastes according to their Properties Bio-degradable can be degraded (paper. bottles. old machines. styrofoam containers and others) .



or in transit through.10 CLASSIFICATION OF WASTES ACCORDING TO THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT Hazardous wastes Substances unsafe to use commercially. any part of the territory of the Philippines Non-hazardous Substances safe to use commercially. industrially. or in transit through. transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal in. agriculturally. or economically that are shipped. any part of the territory of the Philippines . or economically that are shipped. industrially. agriculturally. transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal in.


Sources of Wastes Households Commerce and Industry 12 .

Sources of Wastes Agriculture Fisheries 13 .

Of these. . biological sludges. infectious wastes. only about 3. lubricants and intractable wastes are disposed of on land or into water courses.400 tons are collected and transported to existing sites.000 m3 of solvents and 22.000 tons of solid wastes are generated daily.000 tons of heavy metals. 4. Almost 2.Waste Generation in the Philippines 14 In Metro Manila:    It is estimated that 25 million m3 of acid and alkaline liquid waste is disposed of annually from the electronics industry.

15 EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY     Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate .

and water supplies. animals. Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and change precipitation and other local climate conditions. Changing regional climates could alter forests. causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface ocean temperature to rise. Deserts might expand into existing rangelands.     . and features of some of our national parks might be permanently altered. crop yields. and many types of ecosystems. This could also affect human health.EFFECTS OF WASTE… 16  GHGs (Green House Gases) are accumulating in Earth‟s atmosphere as a result of human activities.

Some countries are expected to become warmer. . although sulfates might limit warming in some areas. more intense rainstorms. and drier soils.Whether rainfall increases or decreases cannot be reliably projected for specific areas. . but there is likely to be an overall trend toward increased precipitation and evaporation.EFFECTS OF WASTE… 17 . .Scientists are unable to determine which parts of those countries will become wetter or drier.

the US emitted about one-fifth of total global GHGs.18 EFFECTS OF WASTE…. - N02 (Nitrous Oxide) is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities. as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. - CH4 (methane)is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills. Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere: C02 (Carbon Doxide) is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels. and the production and transport of coal. In 1977. wood and wood products. and oil. natural gas. the raising of livestock. and solid waste. - .

19 Diseases from Improper Waste Management DENGUE .

headache. nausea and vomitting.DENGUE 20     Most common arthropod borne viral Caused by mosquitoes classified as aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus Symptoms include fever. characteristic rash A tourniquet test is one of the basic test performed to distinguish dengue .

21 Diseases from Improper Waste Management LEPTOSPIROSIS .

dogs. Headache. Cough. Fever. Vomitting. Jaundice.LEPTOSPIROSIS 22    Is caused by the bacteria “Leptospira” which came from urine of cats. some other symptoms include. Chills. but most commonly by rats It is commonly seen in tropical countries Symptoms maybe the same with Flu and Dengue. Abdominal Pain .

23 Diseases from Improper Waste Management DIARRHEA .

DIARRHEA 24    is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day the loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte disturbances such as potassium deficiency or other salt imbalances. Diarrhea is most commonly due to “viral gastroenteritis” with ”rotavirus” .

Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while maintaining strength. . .Improve product design to use less materials. .Work with customers to design and implement a packaging return program. .Purchase products in bulk.25 WHAT SHOULD BE DONE  Reduce Waste .Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by making training manuals and personnel information available electronically. .Switch to reusable transport containers. .

. tablecloths. file folders. dishes.Use durable towels. .Reuse office furniture and supplies.Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather than purchase new ones. and paper. and glasses. .WHAT SHOULD BE DONE 26 Reuse . such as interoffice envelopes.Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally. .Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments. napkins. . cups.

old books .old computers .old clothes .excess building materials .old equipment to local organizations .WHAT SHOULD BE DONE 27 Donate/Exchange .

.Conduct an ongoing training process as new technologies are introduced and new employees join the institution.Develop an “office recycling procedures” packet.Send out recycling reminders to all employees including environmental articles. .Train employees on recycling practices prior to implementing recycling programs. . .WHAT SHOULD BE DONE 28 Employee Education .

. quarterly newsletters.education campaign on waste management that includes an extensive internal web site. promotional signs and helpful reference labels within the campus of an institution. daily bulletins.WHAT SHOULD BE DONE 29 Employee Education .

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE 30 Preventing Waste .packaging waste reductions and changes in the manufacturing process .use biodegradable materials .

31 WHAT SHOULD BE DONE Conduct outreach program adopting an ecologically sound waste management system which includes:  waste reduction  segregation at source  composting  recycling and re-use  more efficient collection  more environmentally sound disposal .

. construction of backyard compost pit construction of storage bins where recyclable and reusable materials are stored by each household construction of storage centers where recyclable and reusable materials collected by the street sweepers are stored prior to selling to junk dealers maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets greening of their respective areas encouraging others to join 2.Residents are organized into small groups to carry out the following: 32 1. 6. 3. 5. 4.

. It follows the basic model: Plan > Do > Check > Act This facilitates cost-effective environmental performance by defining and continuously improving the process and actions that an organization undertakes to meet its environmental goals.ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: EMS 33 What is an EMS? An EMS is a formal set of policies and procedures that define how an organization will evaluate. and track its environmental impact. manage.

the organization implements it following the model. .   Once a policy statement is in place. Managerial endorsement of the policy statement demonstrates the organization‟s commitment to the effort and willingness to allocate resources for implementation.EMS Development 34  A Policy Statement that communicates an organization‟s environmental priorities to employees.

Stages in the Implementation of EMS 35 1. The organization then evaluates each aspect according to a variety of criteria:     understanding of eco-ethics environmental and health effects economic impacts liabilities After establishing a complete list of significant aspects. Plan Identify all environmental aspects: any environmental or health and safety impacts resulting from activities and services. . the organization sets environmental goals and develops a plan to achieve those goals.

2. 4. 3. another environmental aspect will replace it on the priority list. Do 36 The „do-phase‟ of the model involves implementation of the environmental plan through employee training and establishment of operation controls. . if an organization makes significant progress on one environmental aspect. Check Evaluates progress toward meeting program goals through ongoing monitoring and measuring and periodic EMS audits. For example. Act Involves taking corrective action to update and improve the environmental plan.

and pollution prevention. Improve environmental performance It helps monitor energy and water conservation.Why Should an Organization Adopt an EMS? 37 1. 3. Better regulatory compliance Increase regulatory compliance which is especially important for organizations that spend time and resources with regulatory violations. . Certification and recognition EMS implementation can enhance an organization‟s image and improve public community relations. resource efficiencies. 2.

 .EMS Certification 38  EPA encourages organizations to use recognized EMS frameworks to improve compliance. and other measures of environmental performance. Third-party certification can also add credibility to an organization‟s EMS. pollution prevention.

Several organizations which offer certification programs: 39      American Chemistry Council American Forest and Paper Association International Chamber of Commerce Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the most widely recognized EMS standard .

Establish employees awareness and involvement . Serve the organization and its mission 3. Receive top management support 4. Remain dynamic and flexible 5. Focus on continual improvement 2.Principles of an Effective EMS 40 For better environmental and overall organizational performance. Represent employees and their actions 7. Fit the culture of the organization 6. an EMS should: 1.


Section 1. 42 Short Title .This Act shall be known as the "Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000." .

recycling. treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practice in ecological waste management excluding incineration. treatment and disposal in appropriate and environmentally sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles. (c) Set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source reduction and waste minimization measures. collection. transport.It is hereby declared the policy of the State to adopt a systematic. (d) Ensure the proper segregation. including composting. comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program which shall:     a) Ensure the protection of the public health and environment.Section 2 43 Declaration of Policies . recovery. re-use. green charcoal process. (b) Utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources and encourage resource conservation and recovery. . storage. and others. before collection.

(h) Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among waste generators through the application of market-based instruments. collection. comprehensive. (g) Retain primary enforcement and responsibility of solid waste management with local government units while establishing a cooperative effort among the national government. and ecological waste management programs. nongovernment organizations. . separation and recovery. and (j) Strength the integration of ecological solid waste management and resource conservation and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and non-formal education in order to promote environmental awareness and action among the citizenry. (f) Encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste management. (i) Institutionalize public participation in the development and implementation of national and local integrated.Section 2 44       (e) Promote national research and development programs for improved solid waste management and resource conservation techniques. more effective institutional arrangement and indigenous and improved methods of waste reduction. other local government units. and the private sector.

Section 3 45 Definition of Terms . shape or other physical attributes. into a humus-like product. commercial. bookcases. (d) Buy-back center shall refer to a recycling center that purchases of otherwise accepts recyclable materials from the public for the purpose of recycling such materials. (c) Bureau shall refer to the Environmental Management Bureau. . and other similar items. These include large worn-out or broken household. lamps. mainly bacteria and fungi. (e) Collection shall refer to the act of removing solid waste from the source or from a communal storage point. trimming or pruning of plants and wastes or run-off materials from farms or fields. filing cabinets. and industrial items such as furniture. (b) Bulky wastes shall refer to waste materials which cannot be appropriately placed in separate containers because of either its bulky size. (f) Composting shall refer to the controlled decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms.For the purposes of this Act:       (a) Agricultural waste shall refer to waste generated from planting or harvesting of crops.

(k) Disposal site shall refer to a site where solid waste is finally discharged and deposited. leaking or placing of any solid waste into or in an land. (l) Ecological solid waste management shall refer to the systematic administration of activities which provide for segregation at source. and other discarded items such as radios. recyclable and not toxic or hazardous to the environment. biodegradable or compostable. (n) Generation shall refer to the act or process of producing solid waste. (i) Department shall refer to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. segregated transportation. and TV sets. stereos. deposit. . (h) Controlled dump shall refer to a disposal site at which solid waste is deposited in accordance with the minimum prescribed standards of site operation. and disposal of solid waste and all other waste management activities which do not harm the environment. (m) Environmentally acceptable shall refer to the quality of being re-usable. broken. processing. storage. (j) Disposal shall refer to the discharge. treatment. dumping. spilling. transfer.Section 3 46         (g) Consumer electronics shall refer to special waste that includes wornout.

collecting or transporting equipment in violation of sanitation operation and other requirements or permits set forth in established pursuant.  (7) Unauthorized removal of recyclable material intended for collection by authorized persons.  (8) The mixing of source-separated recyclable material with other solid waste in any vehicle. and establishment. throwing. sidewalks.Section 48 47 PROHIBITED ACTS  1) Littering. . dumping of waste matters in public places.  (3) The open burning of solid waste. or causing or permitting the same.  (4) Causing or permitting the collection of non-segregated or unsorted wastes. canals. box. burying of biodegradable or non-biodegradable materials in flood prone areas. such as roads.  (2) Undertaking activities or operating.  (5) Squatting in open dumps and landfills. esteros or parks. container or receptacle used in solid waste collection or disposal.  (6) Open dumping.

or watershed area and or any portions thereof. (10) The manufacture. industrial. and (16) The construction or operation of landfills or any waste disposal facility on any aquifer. distribution or use of non-environmentally acceptable packaging materials.Section 48 48         (9) Establishment or operation of open dumps as enjoined in this Act. commercial. (13) Transport and dumplog in bulk of collected domestic. expansion or operation of waste management facilities without an Environmental Compliance Certificate required pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 37. . (14) Site preparation. 1586 and this Act and not conforming with the land use plan of the LGU. or closure of said dumps in violation of Sec. (11) Importation of consumer products packaged in non-environmentally acceptable materials. construction. (12) Importation of toxic wastes misrepresented as "recyclable" or "with recyclable content". (15) The construction of any establishment within two hundred (200) meters from open dumps or controlled dumps. or sanitary landfill. and institutional wastes in areas other than centers or facilities prescribe under this Act. groundwater reservoir.

(5).00) or imprisonment of not less than fifteen (15) day but to not more than six (6) months. pars. or both. shall. . (6) and (7) shall.000. (2) and (3). upon conviction. be punished with a fine of not less than One thousand pesos (P1.000. or both.00) but not more than One thousand pesos (P1. (c) Any person who violates Sec. (b) Any person who violates Sec.000.00) or imprisonment of not less than one (1) day but to not more than fifteen (15) days. upon conviction be punished with a fine of not less than Three hundred pesos (P300. pars. be punished with a fine of not less than Three hundred pesos (P300.00) but not more than One thousand pesos (P1.000. 48.00) but not more than Three thousand pesos (P3. (4). 48 paragraph (1) shall.Section 49 49 FINES AND PENALTIES    (a) Any person who violates Sec. upon conviction. or both.00) or render community service for not less than one (1) day to not more than fifteen (15) days to an LGU where such prohibited acts are committed. 48.

(12) and (13) shall. (e) Any person who violates Sec. shall be imposed for second or subsequent violations of Sec. or both. pars (8).00) plus and amount not less than five percent (5%) but not more than ten percent (10%) of his net annual income during the previous year.00) or imprisonment of not less than thirty (30) days but not more than three (3) years. upon conviction.00) but not more than Two hundred thousand pesos (P200.000. 48.Section 49 50    (d) Any person who violates Sec. pars. 48.000. (9). pay a fine of Five hundred thousand pesos (P500. pars. 48. be punished with a fine not less than Ten thousand pesos (P10. .000. upon conviction. (9) and (10). The additional penalty of imprisonment of a minimum period of one (1) year but not to exceed three (3) years at the discretion of the court. (10) and (11) for the first time shall.

the chief executive officer. be punished with a fine not less than One hundred thousand pesos (P100.Section 49 51     (f) Any person who violates Sec.000.00).000. general manager. be deported without further administrative proceedings. president. . If the offender is an alien. or imprisonment not less than one (1) year but not more than six (6) years. 48. If the offense is committed by a corporation. pars. or both. (14).00) but not more than One million pesos (P1. he shall. or other juridical identity duly recognized in accordance with the law. The fines herein prescribed shall be increased by at lest ten (10%) percent every three (3) years to compensate for inflation and to maintain the deterrent functions of such fines. (15) and (16) shall. partnership. after service of the sentence prescribed above.000. managing partner or such other officer-in-charge shall be liable for the commission of the offense penalized under this Act. upon conviction.

52 That ends our presentation. Thank you for listening! . I hope this lecture about ECO-ETHICS will make you aware of what is happening to our environment.

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