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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION Concepts To be remembered

The lines are parallel and a transversal cuts these lines.

2 2 1 2 1 1 1

1 2

If Angle 1 = , Angle2 = [180 ]

2
2

1
2 1 2

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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION Concepts To be remembered


Lines AB & CD are parallel. E is a point such that BAE = 450 and ECD = 300. Find AEC A 450 450 G 300 300 C D E F B

Draw a line GF passing through E parallel to AB

AEG = 450

GED = 300

AEC = 750

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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION Concepts To be remembered Lines AB & CD are parallel. AE and CE are internal angular bisectors . Find AEC F A
y 2x y

B E

Let FAB = 2x0 ACD = 2x0. BAC = 2y0 2x+2y = 1800 CAE = y0 ACE = x0 X + Y = 90 From AEC, AEC = 900
3

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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION Concepts To be remembered


What is the sum of all internal angles in the figure?
A
1 2

2 3

J I
4 5 3 6

C
7

B
D
E

1 3 2

1 2

There are 8 triangles and hence the sum of all internal angles is 1440.
D

2 3 5 4

What is the Sum Of all internal angles in Figure A,B,C & D? A = 720 B = 540 C = 360 D = 900
4

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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION

Sum of all internal angles = (n-2) Sum of all External angles = 2 In a regular n sided figure, Each internal angle = (n-2) /n Each external angle = 2 /n

Sum of all internal Angles 180 360 540 720 900 1080

Average

3 4 5 6 7 8

60 90 108 120 900/7 135

9
10

1260
1440

140
144

10/11/2012

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


In a polygon the measure (in degrees) of each angle is a distinct integer. If the largest angle is 1450 and the polygon has maximum number of sides possible, then its largest exterior angle is

(1)500 (1) 9

In the above question what is the number of sides of Polygon?

(2) 470 (3) 450 (3) 10


1 2

(4) 520 (5) 480 (4) 8

(2) 7

(5) 11

If largest angle is 1450, let us find the maximum number of sides of the polygon. The sum of all internal angles is (n-2) . Let us assume it is a decagon. Total sum is 1405. Hence it cannot be decagon.

145 144

145 289

3
4 5 6 7 8 9

143
142 141 140 138 137

432
574 725 865 1142 1269

139 1004

10 136 1405

Let us assume it is a nonagon. The total sum of internal angles is 1260. The maximum number of sides is 9. Its largest exterior angle is 520

1 3

145 143

145 289 432 574

2 144 4 142

5
7 8 9

141

725

6 140 865 139 1004 138 1142


6

128 1260

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


The internal angles of a convex polygon are in arithmetic Progression. The smallest angle measures 500 and the common difference is 100 .

The polygon has maximum number of sides n. n= 1) 3 2) 24 3) 3 0r 24 4) none of these.


Sn =
n/
2

{100+10 (n-1)} =(n-2)180 50n+5n(n-1) = 180(n-2) 10n+n(n-1) = 36(n-2) n2+9n = 36n -72 n2 - 27n+72 = 0 n = 3 Or 24

Answer : 3 Why?

10/11/2012

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


The internal angles of a polygon are in arithmetic Progression. The smallest angle measures 650 and the

common difference is 180 . The number of sides of the polygon is 1) 8 2) 9 3) 10 4) 7 5) 11


Sn = (n-2)180 =
n

4 75 = (n-2)180 = [ 65 n + n(n -1) ] 8

[ 130 + 75 (n -1)]

As the value on the right hand side is an integer, n or (n-1) should be divisible by 8. Hence substituting n= 9 , we get 1260 as the sum of all internal angles of a 9 sided figure.
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


In a Pentagon how many triangles , using the vertices of Pentagon, can be formed such that only one side of the triangle is same as one side of the Pentagon. B A C

For the side ED there can be only one triangle. For each side there will be only one triangle. Totally there are 5 such triangles

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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION A F E B A B C


In a Hexagon how many triangles , using the vertices of Hexagon, can be formed such that only one side of the triangle is same as one side of the hexagon. For the side ED there can be 2 triangles. For each side there will be 2 triangles. Totally there are 12 such triangles
In a Heptagon how many triangles , C using the vertices of Heptagon, can be formed such that only one side of the triangle is same as one side of the Heptagon. For side ED there can be 3 triangles. D For each side there will be 3 triangles. Totally there are 21 such triangles

G E

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10

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION In a Decagon how many triangles , using the vertices of a Decagon can be formed such that only one side of the triangle is same as one side of the Decagon. For the side AB there can be 6 triangles. For each side there will be 6 triangles. A B Totally there are 60 triangles. In a n sided figure ,how many triangles, using the vertices of the n sided figure, can be formed such that only one side of the triangle is same as one side of the n sided figure. For each side there will be (n 4 ) triangles. Totally there will be n ( n 4) triangles. 10/11/2012 11

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION

B
A C

E
B A

D
C

In a Pentagon how many triangles , using the vertices of Pentagon, can be formed such that two sides of the triangle are same as two sides of the Pentagon. There are 5 such triangles. In a hexagon how many triangles , using the vertices of hexagon, can be formed such that two sides of the triangle are same as two sides of the hexagon. There are 6 such triangles. 12

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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


In a heptagon how many triangles , using the vertices of heptagon, can be formed such that two sides of the triangle are same as two sides of the heptagon. There are 7 such triangles.

In a Decagon, how many triangles , using the vertices of Decagon, can be formed such that two sides of the triangle are same as two sides of the Decagon. There are 10 such triangles.

In a n sided figure, how many triangles , using the vertices of n sided figure, can be formed such that two sides of the triangle are same as two sides of the n sided figure. There are n such triangles. 10/11/2012 13

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


In a n sided figure, Let x represent the no. of triangles that can be formed, using the vertices of n sided figure, such that two sides of the triangle are same as two sides of the n sided figure. Let Y represent the no. of triangles that can be formed, using the vertices of n sided figure, such that only one side of the triangle is same as one side of the n sided figure. If x + y = 28. What is the value of n?

X + Y = n + n(n-4) = 28

n2 3n 28 =0 (n 7) (n +4) = 0
n=7
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


A c Certain Basic Notations & Facts. BC = a , CA = b & AB = c a+b>c b+c>a c+a>b A

b a
C

b a

ABC is called an acute angled , if A , B & C are less than 900. a2 < b2 + c2 b2 < c2 + a2 c2 < a2 + b2

A b a

c B

ABC is called a right angled , if either A or B or C equals 900. b2 = a2 + c2

ABC is called an obtuse angled , b if either A or B or C 0 C is more than 90 . a a2 > b2 + c2 or b2 > c2 + a2 or c2 > a2 + b2
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION How many obtuse angled can be drawn if two of the sides are 8 & 15 respectively. Let the third side be x.
Case 1: 15 is not the longest
side

8 x 22.
Case 2 : 15 is the longest side A
15

8
B
x2 82 +152

8
C B

15 > > 289 :: x2 > 289 x > 17 :: x < 23 X can take values 18,19,20,21,22 5 values.
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225 > 82 + x2 x2 < 161 x < 13 x > 7 X can take values 8,9,10,11& 12 5 values
16

Totally 10 triangles can be drawn.

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION How many obtuse angled les can be drawn if two of the sides are 6 & 10 respectively. Let X be the third side. 5 x 15.
A 10 A

6
B

6
B 10

Case 1: 10 is the longest side 100 > 62 + x2 x2 < 64 x< 8 x> 4 X can take values 5,6 & 7 3 values

Case 2: 10 is not the longest side x2 > 62 +102 > 136 x > 11 x < 16 X can take values 12,13,14&15 4 values.

Totally 7 triangles can be drawn.


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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION A C E D


3 6 ABC & DEF are similar as

D
F
ABC & DEF are similar as A = D :: B = E :: C = F Then
AB/ = BC/ = CA/ DE EF FD

B
6

A
12

C E

AB/ = BC/ = CA/ = DE EF FD Then

A = D :: B = E :: C = F
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Area = 24 :: Perimeter =24 A In radius = 2 Circum radius = 5

Area = 6 :: Perimeter =12 In radius = 1 Circum radius =2. 5

D
10 6 5 3

E B
8

ABC & DEF are right angled triangles and are similar.
AB/ = BC/ = CA/ = 2/ DE EF FD 1 Perimeter of ABC/ = 2/1 Perimeter of DEF In radius of ABC/ 2 In radius of DEF = /1 Circum radius of ABC/ Circum radius of DEF Area of ABC/ 4 Area of DEF = /1
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= 2/1
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION A C E

D
F

ABC & DEF are similar as A = D :: B = E :: C = F


AB/ = BC/ = CA/ = m/ DE EF FD n Perimeter of ABC/ m Perimeter of DEF = /n In radius of ABC/ = m/n In radius of DEF Circum radius of ABC/ = m/n Circum radius of DEF Area of ABC/ = m2/n2 Area of DEF
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


ABC & EFD are similar. AB = 12 , EF = 8 . If BC = 18 , Find DF. ABC and EFD are similar. In ABC, let D & E be points on AB & AC such that ABC and ADE are similar and ADE = area of quadrilateral DECB. If AB = 12 , Find DB.

A
D

C B

E C

E
AB/

ABC and ADE are similar and ADE = area of quadrilateral DECB implies
ADE / ABC = AD/ = 1/ AD = 62 AB 2.

= AC/DE = BC/DF EF 12/ = 18/ 18*8/ 8 DF DF = 12 DF = 12


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DB = AB - AD = 12 - 62 = 6 (2 - 2).
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION A


ABD =2(BD) (Alt. from A to BC) ADC =2(DC) (Alt. from A to BC)
ABD/

m A

If the base is divided in the ratio m : n, area of the 2les so formed are in the ratio m : n. If area of triangle ABC is 100 sq units, what is the area of triangle ADE given that BD = 3 AB & CE =4 AC? Let us join DC. Consider ACD. AB:BD:: 1 : 3 BCD = 300 sq units ACD = 400 sq units Consider CDE. AC : CE :: 1 : 4 CDE= 1600 Sq.units ADE=2000 Sq.units
22

ADC

BD/

= m/n DC

100

B
300

C
1600

D
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION A 20 180 3800 D A x kx D


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If area of triangle ABC is 20 sq units, what is the area of triangle ADE given that BD = 9 AB & CE =19AC? Let us join DC. Consider ACD. AB:BD::1:9 BCD= 180 sq units. ACD =200 sq units AC: CE:: 1:19 CDE= 3800 Sq.units ADE=4000 Sq.units

E
If area of triangle ABC is x sq units, what is the area of triangle ADE given that BD = k AB & CE =m AC? Let us join DC. Consider ACD. AB:BD::1:k BCD = k x sq units ACD = x + kx sq units AC: CE:: 1:m CDE= m(x+kx )Sq.units ADE=(k+1)(m+1)x 23

m(x+kx) E

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION In a ABC, AD is median from A to BC. ABD = ADC (Why?) BE is median from B to CA. CF is median from C to AB The point of concurrence is Centroid (G) Centroid divides the median in the ratio 2:1 AGF = BGF = BGD CGD = CGE = AGE = X AB2+AC2=2(AD2+BD2) BA2+BC2=2(BE2+CE2) CA2+CB2=2(CF2+AF2)
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E
G

24

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION In ABC, AB = 16,BC= 12, AC = 8. Find AD, BE & CF (Medians) A G
CB2 + CA2 = 2(CF2 +BF2) 122 + 82 = 2(BE2 +82) CF2 = 40

BE > AD > CF
BE2 + AD2 + CF2 = 348 AB2 + BC2 + CA2 = 464 [BE2 + AD2 + CF2] /[AB2 + BC2 + CA2] =

AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2 +BD2) 162 + 82 = 2(AD2 +62) AD2 = 124

BC2 + BA2 = 2(BE2 +CE2)


162 + 122 = 2(BE2 +42) BE2 = 184
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


In a right angled ABC, AB = 6 BC = 8 & AC = 10. Let AD , BE & CF be medians.

A
G

AD2 = 62 + 42 = 52 CF2 = 82 + 32 = 73 BE2 = 25


CF > AD > BE

BE2 + AD2 + CF2 = 150 AB2 + BC2 + CA2 =200

BE2 + AD2 + CF2] [

/[AB2 + BC2 + CA2] =


26

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24

B
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BC = 10 ABC . CA = 26.The given triangle is divided into 2 triangles whose areas are equal. What is the maximum possible sum of perimeter of the 2 triangles so formed? The given triangle can be divided into 2 triangles whose areas are equal if we draw a median . As maximum perimeter of the 2 triangles so formed is sought, the longest median is to be drawn. Longest Median is to the shortest side. AF = 601. Maximum possible perimeter of the 2 triangles so C formed is 60+2 601
27

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION In the triangle given alongside, AD, BE & CF are medians. GECD is a cyclic quadrilateral, find the ratio of AE:GD. GECD is a cyclic quadrilateral implies that the vertices G, E, C & D lie on a circle. Therefore AG * AD = AE * AC If GD = Y AG = 2Y & AD = 3Y If AE = X ,EC = X , AC = 2X X * 2 X = 2Y *3 Y X= 3 Y. The ratio is 3 : 1 10/11/2012

A G

28

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


In the triangle given alongside, D,E & F are midpoints of sides BC, CA & AB. AK is r from A to BC. Find FKD + FED.

Consider AFE & ABC

L AFE = L ABC = X
Consider CED & ABC

X
X

LFED = L AFE = X
Consider FK = FB. Hence LFKB = X ABK, FK is
X X

median to Hyp AB. Hence

L FKD = (180 -X) L FED + L FKD = 180


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29

Medians Points to remember


A median divides a triangle into 2 triangles whose areas are equal Three medians divide the triangle into 6 triangles whose areas are equal. The point of concurrence is called centroid. Centroid divides the median in the ratio 2:1 AB2+AC2=2(AD2+BD2) BA2+BC2=2(BE2+CE2) CA2+CB2=2(AF2+BF2) where AD,BE & CF are Medians Median to hypotenuse in a right angled is half the hypotenuse. Shortest median is to the longest side. Longest Median is to the shortest side. Ratio of Sum of squares of medians to sum of squares of sides is 3:4
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GEOMETRY
A

& MENSURATION AI, BI & CI are internal angular bisectors of A B & C.


I

The point of concurrence is called the in-centre.


ID,IE & IF are in radii

Therefore in-centre is equidistant from the sides. AID need not be a Straight line. BIE need not be a Straight line. CIF need not be a Straight line.
B

AB, BC & CA are tangents to in circle. Length of tangents from a point outside the circle are equal. BD = BF :: AF = AE :: CE = CD
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BIC = 2 (a)(r) CIA = 2 (b)(r) AIB = 2 (c)(r)

ABC = 2 (a + b + c)(r) ABC = (s) (r)


31

GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION
BI & CI are internal angular bisectors of B & C respectively. I is the in-centre & L BAC = 700 , find the angle BIC. Consider ABC, 2X+2Y = 110 X+Y = 55 Consider BIC, +X+Y = 180 = 1250 :: = 90+ A

A
70

X X

AI, BI & CI are internal angular bisectors of A B & C. BIC = 90+ 2 A

CIA = 90+ 2 B AIB = 90+ 2 C


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32

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


A I

D 2+ x

BD = BF = [BC + BA AC] /2 CD = CE = [CB + CA AB] /2 AF = AE = [AB + AC BC] /2


10/11/2012

AI, BI & CI are internal angular bisectors of A B & C. ID,IE & IF are in radii. If AB=20, AC=22 &BC= 24. Find BD. AB=20 AC=22 BC= 24. Let BD = X :: BF = X AF =AB BF = 20 X AE = 20 X CE = AC CE = X + 2 CD= X+2 BD+CD = 2X+2 = 24 2X = 22 X =11
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GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


A In a ABC, AB = 17, BC = 25, CA = 28, find in-radius S = [17 + 25 + 28]/2 = 35 35*18*10*7 = 35*r 35*18*10*7=352 * r2 r2 = 36. r=6 In the given AB = 6, BC = 8 & AC = 10 and angle B is 900. Find radius of the circle inscribed in the Triangle. Area of Triangle ABC = 2 (6)(8) = 24 sq. units Semi perimeter = 12 units Area of Triangle ABC C = (12)(r) = 24 sq. units :: r= 2

B
A

6-r

r o r r
r+4

r
B

2r+4 = 8 implies r = 2 units


34

10/11/2012

GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION
ABCD is a square. E is the midpoint of BC. Find the ratio of in-radius of the circle inscribed in the DCE, to the side of the square. AB = BC = CA=DA = 2a In radius of circle = r. Consider DCE. CE = a ::CD = 2a :: DE = 5a s = (3+ 5 ) a/2 DCE = (2a)(a) DCE = (3+5)a r r/ 1 2a = /(3+5)
35

2a

E a D 2a c
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GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION

E A


ABC,AB=16,BC=18 &AC = 20. If AD is an internal angular bisector, Find BD ABC, AB=16, BC=18 AC=20.

ABC, internal angular bisector divides the BC in the ratio in the ratio of sides. BD/DC = AB/AC
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Let CE be parallel to AD ABD IIIr EBC BD/ AB/ 16/ DC = AC= 20 BD = 4K CD = 5K BD = 4K = 8

GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION
Given ABC is any triangle.AD is external angular bisector of LEAC. BD is internal angular bisector of LABC. What is

A
2z

the value of LADB LACB? Let LABC = 2X LACB = 2Y LBAC = 2Z.


2x+2y+2z = 180

LEAC = 2X+2Y LDAC = X+Y.

x B

2y C

From ADB, +x+2z+x+y = 180 -y =0

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LADB - LACB = 0

37

GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION ABC is a right angled triangle LB = 900. AB = 24. BC = 7. AD is external angular bisector, D is a point on BC Extended. Find CD. Let AD be the external angular bisector. Draw BE l to AD

24

LAEB = LABE = X AE = AB = 24 EC = 1
B 7
c CEB |||r CAD CE /EA = CB/BD BD = 168 CD = 175

168

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38

GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION ABC is a right angled triangle LB = 900. AB = 15. BC = 8. AD is external angular bisector, D is a point on BC Extended. Find CD. Let AD be the external angular bisector. Draw BE parallel to AD

15

LAEB = LABE = X AE = AB = 15 EC = 2
D
60

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CEB |||r CAD CE /EA = CB/BD BD = 60 CD = 68

39

GEOMETRY & MENSURATION


ABC is a right angled triangle LB = 900. AB = x. BC = y. AD is external angular bisector, D is a point on BC Extended. Find CD. Let AD be the external angular bisector. Draw BE parallel to AD LAEB = LABE = x AE = AB = x EC = z -x CEB |||r CAD CE /EA = CB/BD BD = x y/(z-x)
40

E x

xy/(z-x)
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GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION ABC is a right angled triangle LB = 900. AB = 8. BC = 6. AD is external angular bisector, D is a point on BC Extended. Find AD. Let AD be the external angular bisector. Draw BE parallel to AD LAEB = LABE = X AE = AB = 8 EC = 2 CEB |||r CAD CE /EA = CB/BD BD = 24 AD = 640

E
8

24

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41

GEOMETRY A

& MENSURATION
Area of ABC Let AD be the altitude from A to BC. Sin C= AD/AC = AD/b AD = b Sin C Area of ABC = (BC) (AD) = (a) (AD) = a b Sin C ABC is a triangle with AB = 7 & AC = 5. Given LBAD= LCAD = 600. Find AD. ABD = (7) (AD) Sin 60 ADC = (5) (AD) Sin 60 ABC = (7) (5) Sin 120 ABC = ABD+ ADC = {7(AD)Sin60+5(AD)Sin60} = (7) (5) Sin 120 AD = 35/12
42

B D
A

B
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GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION ABC is a triangle with AB = & AC =.

A x x

Given LBAD= LCAD = X0. Find AD.


ABD = () (AD) Sin 60 ADC = () (AD) Sin 60 ABC = () () Sin 120 ABC = ABD+ ADC = {(AD)Sin x+ (AD)Sin x} = () () Sin 2x C AD = Sin 2x /[ + ] Sin x
43

B
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GEOMETRY

& MENSURATION AI, BI & CI are internal angular bisectors of A B & C. ID,IE & IF are in radii. If BF=6, CE=8 and ID = 4. Find AB+AC. ABC = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) ABC = (14+x)(x)(8)(6) ABC = s r s = 14+x ABC = (14+x) (4) (14+x)(x)(8)(6) = (14+x)2 (16) 48x = (14+x) (16) 3x = (14+x) 2x = 14 :: x = 7 AB+AC = 28
44

A I

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Geometry & Mensuration


In a ABC, AD is altitude from A to BC. BE is altitude from B to CA. CF is altitude from C to AB The point of concurrence is orthocentre (H) AFHE is a cyclic quadrilateral DHEC is a cyclic quadrilateral DHFB is a cyclic quadrilateral If FAE = 70o, what is BHC? FHEA is a Cyclic Quadrilateral. FAE = 70o FHE = 110o BHC = 110o
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E
H

45

Geometry & Mensuration


In a triangle ABC, one of the side is 10 units .The longest side is 20 units. Area is 80 sq units.Find the third side.
A

Let AD be the altitude ABC = (20) (AD) = 80 AD = 8 units From ABD, BD2 = AB2 AD2 = 102 82 = 36 = 6 DC = 14 From ADC , AC2 = AD2 + DC2 = 82 + 142 = 260 AC = 260
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8 B 6 D C

14

46

Geometry & Mensuration


In a triangle ABC, one of the sides is 10 units & another side is 20 units. Area is 80 sq units. Find the longest side. Let AD be the altitude ABC = (20) (AD) = 80 AD = 8 units ADB, DB2 = AB2 AD2 = 102 82 = 36 DB = 6 :: DC = 26 ADC , AC2 = AD2 + DC2 = 82 + 262 = 740 AC = 740
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20

47

Geometry & Mensuration


In a ABC, AB = AC = 100 units, the area of the triangle is not less than 4800 sq units. What is the difference between maximum and minimum perimeter of such a triangle? Let AD be the altitude & AD = X. The altitude bisects the base in an isosceles triangle. Let BC = 2Y B x = 1002 y2 { (2y) (x) } 4800 y {1002 y2} (4800) y2 ( 1002 y2 )2 (4800)2 y4 10000y2 + (4800)2 0 (y2 3600) (y2 6400) 0 3600 y2 6400 :: 60 y 80 10/11/2012
A

x y D C

60 y 80 Min perimeter 320. Max perimeter 360 . Diff 40.


48

Geometry & Mensuration


A

8
A

ABC is a right angled triangle. AB = 6 BC = 8 CA = 10 . BE is a median & BD is r from B to AC. Find DE. Let BD & BE be altitude & Median respectively. BE =5.0 (6)(8) = (10)(BD) BD = 4.8 units DE={(5.0)2- (4.8)2} = 1.96 = 1.4
ABC is a right angled triangle. B = 90. BD is r from B to AC. AE = 4 EC = 9 . Find BE. Consider AEB & BEC. AEB = 90 =BEC ABE = =ECB. The other angle must be equal AEB |||r BEC.
BE/

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BE 2 = (AE) (EC)=4*9 :: BE = 6

AE

= EC/BE.

49

Geometry & Mensuration


A
ABC is a right angled triangle. B = 90. BE is r from B to AC. Consider AEB & BEC. AEB = 90 =BEC. ABE = =ECB. The other angle must be equal AEB |||r BEC.

BE/ AE

= EC/BE :: BE 2 = (AE) (EC)

ABC is a right angled triangle. B = 90. BE is r from B to AC. Consider AEB & ABC. AEB = 90 =BEC. ABE = =ACB. The other angle must be equal AEB |||r ABC.
AE/ AB

ABC is a right angled triangle. B = 90. BE is r from B to AC. Consider CEB & ABC. CEB = 90 =ABC. CBE = =CAB. The other angle must be equal AEB |||r ABC.
BE/ AB

= AB/AC = BE/BC

= BC/AC = CE/BC
50

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Geometry & Mensuration


A
ABC is a right angled triangle. B = 90. BE is r from B to AC. We get 3 sets of similar triangles. AEB |||r BEC AEB |||r ABC BEC |||r ABC

C
A F S E

In ABC, D, E & F are midpoints of BC, CA & AB. Let L1, L2, L3 represent r passing through D, E, F.L1, L2, L3 are r bisectors of BC, CA & AB.The point of concurrence is s, circumcentre SA SB = SC Circumcentre is equidistant from vertices
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C
51

Geometry & Mensuration


Area of ABC = (b) (c) Sin A. Let BD be the diameter of the circum circle Then LA = LD and BD = 2R,where R is the circum radius. From BDC, Sin D = a/2R = Sin A Area of ABC = abc/4R Area of ABC = (b) (c) Sin A. Let BD be the diameter of the circum circle Then LA = LD and BD = 2R,where R is the circum radius. From BDC, Sin D = a/
2R = Sin A Similarly a/SinA= b/SinB = c/SinC

c
B

b
S
C

A S B

= 2R

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Geometry & Mensuration


Area of ABC Area of ABC Area of ABC Area of ABC Area of ABC Area of ABC = (base) (height) =s(s - a) (s - b) (s - c) = r s = b c Sin A = c a Sin B = a b Sin C A

Area of ABC = abc/4R


a/ = b/SinB SinA

= c/SinC = 2R

2 2 2 COS A = [b + c - a ]/2bc 2 2 2 COS B = [c + a - b ]/2ca

2 2 2 COS C = [a + b - c ]/2ab Area of ABC = (3/4) (a2) if ABC is equilateral triangle of side a.

10/11/2012

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Geometry & Mensuration


Area of ABC Area of ABC Area of ABC Area of ABC Area of ABC Area of ABC = (base) (height) =s(s - a) (s - b) (s - c) = r s = b c Sin A = c a Sin B = a b Sin C B A

Area of ABC = abc/4R

Let AB = AC AD is Median AD is Internal Angular Bisector AD is Altitude AD is r bisector. ABD = ADC Therefore, in centre, circumcentre, orthocentre , & centroid lie on AD.

C
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10/11/2012

Geometry & Mensuration


Let ABC be a right angled triangle ABC = 90 . AD is Median. BE is Median. AE = EC. A E G D B is orthocentre.E is circumcentre Centroid lies on BE.G is Centroid. BG/GE = 2/1. In any triangle, Centroid divides the line joining Orthocentre and circumcentre in the ratio 2:1 . The proof is indicative . B C

Let ABC be an Equilateral triangle. AD, BE & CF are Medians, Altitudes ,r bisectors, & internal angular A bisectors .
E F G

G is Centroid ,incentre , Circumcentre and Orthocentre A

Let AB = AC . AD is Median . AD is Internal Angular Bisector . AD is Altitude AD is r bisector. ABD = ADC Therefore, in centre, circumcentre, 10/11/2012 orthocentre , & centroid lie on AD.

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