A. Microlinguistic C.A.

1. Phonology 2. Morphology 3. Vocabulary 4. Syntax

a. Structural/Descriptive Grammar
b. Transformational-Generative Grammar c. Case Grammar

B. Macrolinguistic C.A.
1. Receptive

a. Listening
b. Reading 2. Productive a. Speaking b. Writing

1. C.A. in Structural/Descriptive Grammar
 Language analysis on the smallest components of language: phonetics/phonology, morphology, vocabulary, and syntax a. C.A. in Phonology  To reveal what sounds of L2 are (not) easy to pronounce  What sounds of L2 are (not) contrast to those of L1

 Scopes:
o Segmental o Suprasegmental o Distribution

o Segmental
1. VOWELS
L1 (Indonesia):
/i/, /e/, /a/, /u/, /o/, /ǝ / L2 (English): /i/, /e/, /a/, /u/, /ǝ/, /æ/, /o/, /Λ/; /i:/, /3/, /α:/, /u:/, /o:/ Ex.: - Vowel /i/ a. Pronunciation
Pronunciation Components Indonesia English

Front Half-close Voiced Neutral or spread

+ + + +

+ + + +

b. Distribution
Initial Indonesia indah intan English it [it] in [in] Medial Indonesia English Final Indonesia English money [mΛni] hurry [hΛri]

pil
batik

pill [phil]
kid [khid]

rapi
tapi

- Vowel /e/
a. Pronunciation
Pronunciation Components Front Half-close Voiced Spread Indonesia + + + + English + + + +

b. Distribution
Initial Indonesia English Medial Indonesia hebat becek English send [send] rent [rent] Final Indonesia English -

enak
elok

enter [entǝ]
elegy [elǝʤi]

2. DIPHTHONGS
L1 (Indonesia): /ai/, /oi/, /au/ L2 (English): /eǝ/, /uǝ/, /iǝ/, /ai/, /oi/, /ei/, /au/, /ǝu/ Ex.: - Diphthong /ai/ a. Pronunciation
Pronunciation Components Centering Closing Indonesia + English + +

b. Distribution
Initial
Indonesia English I [ai] Medial Indonesia English library [laibreiri] ensurement [ensuǝment]

Final
Indonesia santai halau English dry [drai] how [hau]

3. CONSONANTS
Analysis on: 1. Voicing, place of articulation, manner of articulation and distribution 2. Possible difficulties 3. The absence of sound elements of L2/L3 in L1 Ex.: - Consonant /l/ a. Features:
Components Voiced Alveolar in front positions Alveolar in medial positions Alveolar in final positions Velar in final positions Lateral Indonesia + + + English + + +

+
+ +

+
+ +

b. Distribution
Initial
Indonesia lupa lima English late leave Medial Indonesia malang kuli English collar silent

Final
Indonesia pukul binal English

dull bull

Ex.: - Consonant /t/ a. Features:
Components Voiceless Alveolar Indonesia + + + + + English + + + + + +

Plosive (stop)
Aspirated stressed syllable Non-aspirated unstressed syllable

Unplosive in the final

Ex.: - Consonant /t/ a. Features:
Components Voiceless Alveolar Indonesia + + + + + English + + + + + +

Plosive (stop)
Aspirated stressed syllable Non-aspirated unstressed syllable

Unplosive in the final

4. CONSONANT CLUSTERS (CC)
Analysis on: 1. Components and distribution 2. The absence of sound elements of L2/L3 in L1 3. Possible difficulties a. CC /bl/ Components and Distribution
Initial Indonesia blokir blus English black blade Medial Final Indonesia English

Indonesia
iblis kiblat

English
ablaze ablong

capable possible

b. CC /st/

Components and Distribution
Initial

Medial
Indonesia kestablian English restate restore

Final

Indonesia
stasiun stadion

English
stable staff

Indonesia
-

English rest list

c. CC /pl/

Components and Distribution
Initial

Medial
Indonesia taplak kapling English aplomb replace

Final

Indonesia
plastik plester

English
play plea

Indonesia
-

English apple purple

d. CC /str/

Components and Distribution
Initial

Medial
Indonesia English astride restring

Final

Indonesia
strop strategi

English
strong strategy

Indonesia
-

English -

e. CC /spl/

Components and Distribution
Initial

Medial
Indonesia English resplendid asplash

Final

Indonesia
-

English
spleen splash

Indonesia
-

English -

f.

CC /ndz/

Components and Distribution
Initial

Medial
Indonesia English -

Final

Indonesia
-

English
-

Indonesia
-

English ends binds-

o Suprasegmental A. Stress
B. Pitch C. Juncture

A. Stress
1. Word Stress a. English  phoneme

b. Indonesia  not phoneme 2. Sentence Stress
a. English  phoneme b. Indonesia  phoneme Examples: a. English: - He didn‟t 'want to go. - 'He didn‟t want to go. b. Indonesia: - Dia tidak 'mau pergi. - 'Dia tidak mau pergi.

B. Pitch 1. Low Pitch (1): where the voice falls at the end of most types of sentences. 2. Normal Pitch (2): where the voice most often is. 3. High Pitch (3): where the voice usually rises to at the intonation focus

4. Very High Pitch (4): the voice rises to show stronger emotions.

Examples:
a. Statement: - It‟s fresh in here.
2 3 1

b. Commands: 2 3 1 - Let the book covered.
c. „Wh‟ Question: - Where did you leave it?
2 3 1

d. „Yes/No‟ Question: e. Request: f.
2

- Are you hungry?

2

3

- Could you open the door?
2

3

Surprising:

What?

4

C. Juncture
1. Plus Juncture /+/  in rapid speech 2. Single bar /l /  inter-phrases 3. Double bar /l l /  inter-clauses 4. Double cross /# /  at the end of sentences Examples: 1. “/Whosthat?/” “/Siapaitu?/” 2. “That man /fell off/ the stairs.” “Orang itu /jatuh/ dari tangga.”

3. “Mother / / I have the flu today.” “Ibu / / saya flu hari ini.”
4. “Don‟t go yet #.” “Jangan pergi dulu #i.”

2. C.A. in Morphology A. Intonation (meaningful variation of pitches)
B. C. Adjectives Nouns

D. Etc.

3. C.A. in Vocabulary A. Form 1. Segemental 2. Suprasegmental B. Meaning 1. Lexical 2. Morphological C. Distribution 1. Grammatical: Noun, Pronoun, Verb, etc. 2. Geographical: hood (A.E.) – bonnet (B.E.) 3. Social: “You are not good” and “You ain‟t no good.”

Students’ Vocabulary Difficulties by Lado’s Research 1. Homonyms: different words that are pronounced the same,

but may or may not be spelt the same

“tale” and “tail” 2. Homographs: different words spelt identically and pronounced

the same

“lead”: to act as a leader; and “a kind of metal”

3. Polysemy: different words with different spelling but have the

same or similar meaning

“coach” and “sofa” 4. Cognates: the same words of different source of language .

“grogi” (Ind.) and “groggy” (Eng.) “hostes” (ind.) and “hostess” (Eng.) “isu” (Ind.) and “issue” (Eng.)

FALSE COGNATES

5. Foreign meaning of words

Lantai dasar (1) (Ind.) = ground floor (B.E.) = first floor (A.E.) Lantai 2 = first floor (B.E.) = second floor (A.E.)
6. Different Connotation

(Eng.) : You are fat. Your baby is funny.
(Ind.) : You are fat. Your baby is funny. 7. Idioms

( - ) connotation (+) connotation

(Ind.): Dia panjang tangan. (= a thief) Mary bertangan dingin. (= running successful on any work) (Eng.) : The long arms of the laws. (= laws find the wrong) Mary has got cold fingers. (= afraid of doing something)

4. C.A. in Syntax Lado proposes: A. the same medium, but different order - “a garden flower” and “a flower garden” B. the same medium, different form - (Eng.): “The car runs.” = “El coche corre.” (Spanish) “The cars run.” = “Los coches corren.” (Spanish) C. different medium
Modal Lexicals

- (Eng.): “I would go.” = “Saya mungkin akan pergi.” (Ind.) “I will go.” = “Saya akan pergi.” (Ind.)

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