What are Intranets?
• internal network designed to be used by company employees • consists of a WWW server but can also be made up of other servers such as usenet servers, FTP servers, database servers or other applications • Intranets are IP networks, like the Internet, designed to be used inside of a company

What are Intranets? ―Using Internet-based technologies within an organization to facilitate communication and access to information.‖ An integrating mechanism for people. The corporate ―information network‖. processes and information within the enterprise. .

Technical Comparison Internet  vs Intranet Packets are private  IP protocol suite  Enterprise bears costs  Enterprise mgmt  Strong policies  Central enforcement  Enterprise controls  Packets are public  IP protocol suite  Cost spread out  Problematic mgmt  Weak policies  No enforcement  No controlling org .

and Security • • . Serviceability. Availability.Intranet Challenges • • Integrate data from diverse sources Provide Access to data by all stakeholder in company’s value chain Present information in the format appropriate for each stakeholders Guarantee Performance.

Top Intranet Business Issues • What will be the value of the Intranet to YOUR BUSINESS? • • How much will it cost? Will our Intranet change our current processes? How will we organize for our Intranet (new roles)? Will our corporate culture be favorable to Intranet? • • .

Top Intranet Business Issues • How will the employees be using it to achieve benefits? • • • What training will be needed for the employees? How will we measure success with the Intranet? What are our competitors doing with the Intranet? .

Top Intranet Technology Issues • • • • How will the Intranet impact our current network? What centralized functions will be required? How will we support an Intranet? What will be our operational requirements (additional MIS staff and organizational structure)? .

Top Intranet Technology Issues

How will we design the Intranet to meet business goals? Will we be able to reuse the existing technologies? What will be the requirements for content management? How will we integrate existing applications & legacy data? How will we protect my Intranet from outsider entry?

How are Companies Using Intranets?

Wide spectrum Evolution
->documents ->publishing ->collaboration ->transactions ->extranets

Growing acceptance Different levels of funding, use and support

More Intranet Examples

Information Access:
• •

Online help Information and expertise sharing Corporate libraries, identifying resources/skills, Remote problem solving Just-in-Time and Distributed training Reducing paper Software distribution Designing products (cars...) Preserving history Inter-Company/Division Collaboration, etc.

• •

• • • • •

Future Aplications • Intranet • • • • • Information brokers/finders (within/without the company) Online support centers (help desks.) Knowledge management (with need/right-2-know) Web-based simulations Further enhanced Just-in-Time training • Extranet = Intranet + Extension Outside the Company • Electronic commerce: – – Virtual Store-Fronts. etc.. Supply and demand chain automation • • • • ―Virtual webs‖ for dealers. vendors (e.g. product info) Collaboration (all outside constituencies) Online surveys (marketing) Subscription-based information services ...

HTTP • HTTP. which allows many quick connections without having to hold ports open • HTTP allows two way communication. which allows the browser to send information to the server as well as vice versa • Allows for basic authentication Server to require a username and password for each security domain defined . is what allows the World Wide Web to communicate • HTTP is a connectionless protocol. which stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol.

HTTP • Content negotiation is also specified in the HTTP specification. languages or other specifics • the performance can be greatly improved by using caches to store recently retrieved documents . This allows clients and servers to negotiate on file formats.

. This allows a cracker to watch for certain types of information on a network. unfortunately. it is prone to different attacks such as: • IP Spoofing • Man in the Middle attacksThese are attacks where the cracker is between the client and server • Eavesdropping.Secure Protocols • HTTP. is not a secure protocol.

Secure Protocols
• SSL or Secure Sockets Layer is a protocol that sits between HTTP, or another protocol, and the TCP/IP stack. It allows secure connections using digital certificates. It allows for authentication, encryption, and data integrity. • SSL servers only work with browsers that understand SSL. If a browser doesn't understand SSL, it can't communicate with an SSL- secured server.

• SSL requires a digital certificate. This is an encrypted piece of data that contains specific certificate information such as the name of the server, the server's public key, the expiration date and the name of the Certificate Authority (CA).

• S-HTTP • Secure HTTP is a version of HTTP that provides secure transactions. It allows for Data integrity, encryption, and authentication. Secure HTTP or S-HTTP, unlike SSL can be used in conjunction with http. • S-HTTP allows browsers to perform several cryptographic functions

• HTML • HTML or HyperText Markup Language allows browsers to display documents based on the logical layout of the document. • One disadvantage of HTML is the fact that the formatting is not as exact as it would be using a programming language such as Visual Basic. or a word processor .

in fact.• Open Standards • Open standards and Internet technology can also be used to make corporate networks more efficient. many companies are doing exactly that .

• IP networks are easy to integrate over LANs as well as WANs • Web technology allows cross platform development • The WWW is inherently client server based • Web technology is also cost effective • Web technology scales well Using Web technology for internal use is a natural evolution for several reasons: .

Intranet Applications • Almost all Intranet applications fall into three main categories: • Publishing applications or applications that allow one person or group to talk to many. • Discussion applications which allow many people to talk to many people. • Interactive applications or applications that interact with a program or other document .

These applications are easy to setup and may not even require a WWW server. • Document Repository • Bulletin Boards • Workgroup Server • Group Bookmarks .Publishing Applications • These are the usual first steps in creating an Intranet.

they can also be used as a front end for group discussions.Discussion Applications • Intranets can do more than simply store documents. • Usenet News servers • Discussion lists • Good communication can save money in many ways such as – – – – Reuse of technology Reduced development costs Better prices on purchased items Reduced support costs .

These applications are used to query or search databases or to view what is happening on the network. . • Interactive applications are handled by using CGI or Java or another programming language.Interactive Applications • Interactive applications are the applications that do work.

users will be more comfortable using different types of hardware • Central Form Submission Many companies have different forms for different requirements. developers can start building applications that are cross platform and distributed. When a new person starts. his manager usually needs to fill out a new user account form. a request for a phone and other forms.Interactive Applications • Standard User Interface Using HTML as a standard front end to existing software will allow users to use any type of machine to access the system. • Development Platform With the introduction of Sun Microsystem's Java to the Web. a request for a network drop. Java allows the same piece of code to run on any machine that has a Java virtual machine ported to it . Since HTML makes things look the same on different machines.

Interactive Applications • System Status Tools Different operating systems have different ways to query print queues and other system-specific information. any user on any system can easily check out what is going on. By creating an HTML front end to these applications. without having to know the correct command or syntax .

without having to know the correct command or syntax . By creating an HTML front end to these applications.• Different operating systems have different ways to query print queues and other system-specific information. any user on any system can easily check out what is going on.

Why Intranets • With Internet servers. Whether this is reason enough to create an external Web server is not known but publicity is a reason for some companies to develop an Internet presence. . Therefore there must be a better reason to create one. Intranets however are not created for publicity reasons and. many companies decide they need to get on the Net because everyone else is. no one outside of your company will even know you have one. if done properly.

• • • • • Using the Intranet to Merge Technology Saving Money with Intranets Expandability User Friendliness Reduced Development Time .

More sophisticated servers though have many features that make it easier to server HTML documents.Web Servers • Web servers are programs that can understand and talk the HTTP. . They are used to answer HTTP requests and respond with HTTP answers. A basic Web server can be used to perform any HTTP operation and return the correct headers and documents.

Web Servers • Server Parsed Files Authentication Logging Access Controls Administrative Interface .

or some combination of these • In particular. But they can be a good place to learn Web server basics.Choosing a Server Platform • In computer jargon. a set of network protocols. operating system and HTTP software used to run an internal Web. an Intranet server is the combination of hardware. the operating system. the word platform can refer to many things: The type of hardware being used. The latter lack the memory protection and multithreading of 32-bit systems and are therefore not suitable for critical business use. .

• UNIX (many brands) Runs on RISC processors. Intel PCs. Digital Alpha. Hewlett-Packard PA-RISC) . Apple Macintosh • Windows NT Runs on Intel PCs. selected RISC machines (for example.

• A server must conform to the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) standard.Essential and Desirable Features of a Web Server • The purpose of a Web server is to respond to HTTP requests from Web clients (that is. • All Web servers must be able to interpret standard HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) commands. You can assume HTTP and CGI are present in any software calling itself a Web server . browsers) by delivering a requested file. or executing a requested script.

identifying the nature of the response . This is necessary in order for the server to return the appropriate contenttype header to the client.Essential and Desirable Features of a Web Server • Another essential server feature is the ability to recognize various file content types.

a Web server may offer one or more of the following enhancements: • Access control • Proxy and caching services • Special database or application connectivity .Essential and Desirable Features of a Web Server In addition to HTTP. CGI. MIME and logging.

Server-Side Includes (SSI) • SSI is an extension to standard HTTP that enables HTML authors to embed executable commands in their Web pages. . but before it's sent to the client. These commands execute on the server after a page is requested.

and that the user has permission to access the requested document. Typical keys are 40. • Encryption works by encoding the text of a message with a key.Authentication. which is just a very long number. The process of verifying the identity of a user is called authentication. 64. Authorization. The process of verifying an authenticated user's rights is called authorization. 80 or 128 digits long. a key's strength refers to the amount of computation required to crack it. In the parlance of cryptographers. . and Encryption • That a user is who she says she is.

Authorization. and Encryption • HTTP servers pose unique security problems for network administrators.. Most server software provides some type of access control mechanism by which "authorized" users receive access to protected information and others are denied . • Restrict access at the Web server based on a client's IP address or username. stemming from the fact that file permissions have to be fairly open to enable users to access Web pages and run CGI scripts.Authentication.

trusted networks (such as an Intranet).Proxy Services • The firewall is a device. and public. FTP. Each service provided in this way is called a proxy. including HTTP. untrusted networks (such as the Internet) • Technically. that provides secure communications between private. • The firewall can provide secure access to most Internet services. Intranet and Internet. a proxy is a program that lives on the firewall and can see both sides of the interface. . typically a router or server. DNS (domain name services) and SMTP (e-mail).

.… • • It’s not going to happen without planning and doing It may become chaotic if a framework is not put into place ..The Key Question Is. • How will you take advantage of the ability to share information with – – – – anyone in the company your customers your business partners your suppliers..


7. This section Staffing looks at some of these areas. 4. 9. 3.. Management Funding Security . 2. 6. 1. 8. Networks Applications Scale Information Anarchy In planning for the evolution of your intranet it is important Publishing that you identify and manage potential problems. 5...Concerns.

Intranet Concerns 1. Network Infrastructure • Requires network capability (TCP/IP) – – – – IP to every desktop? IP gateways? Mix IP and non-IP desktops? do not ignore need for mainframe connectivity Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers and router upgrades to pass IP packets • IP everywhere requires admin tools – • • Initial traffic may not cause problems Future uses (multimedia) will .

Intranet Concerns 2. Applications • • • • Web mechanisms simplify the delivery of client/server applications Interactive applications can be harder to develop Web applications can be very difficult to debug Many IS applications create reports .

Scale • To scale and be useful requires investments – Central architecture/blueprint Common or shared mechanisms Central services – – .Intranet Concerns 2.

Intranet Concerns 3. and/or lead to user confusion and frustration. Information Anarchy • The goal . or is not up to date—or is wrong! Chaos can create content. • • .make the Intranet a trusted tool for business It doesn’t work if only some information is available.

Publishing • Tough issues: – – – – – Who ―owns‖ information? What can be published? Who polices? How do we know it is the latest? What happens when they lose interest? • • Ties to legacy systems may help New roles needed .Intranet Concerns 4.

Webmaster .Intranet Concerns 5. Web developer. use consultants What are other companies doing? • New roles: information designer. Staffing • • • Initial challenges Grow your own vs.

Intranet Concerns 6. This is an evolutionary— not revolutionary—process. • • . Management • Only some of the anticipated changes can come from technology Fundamental changes requires organizational and management work..

extending intranet . Funding • • Who pays for this? Different models – – Business funded .Intranet Concerns 7.based on value ―Cost of doing business‖ Reality: most cost comes in maintaining.

.  Policies need to be communicated. enforced and continuously monitored. Security  Include security mechanisms. —don’t threaten the livelihood of the corporation. policies.Intranet Concerns 9. and education.


Increased competitiveness: Expanded sales Costs reduced now and avoided later Improved productivity (due to better access to information & applications) Shortened product time to market (e. 6. 4.g. 2. due to collaborative developments) Better customer support 5. 7.Business Value 1.. Increased Collaboration . 3.

Business Value 1.Increased competitiveness • • • • • • Better access to competitive and internal information Just in time access Single access interface Easier to publish Sharing of knowledge New business opportunities .

Expanded Sales • • • • Faster access to information needed to win bids Shortened time to market Linking customers with internal systems Links to purchasers .Business Value 2.

Example: HBO • • • Moved multimedia files to Web Reduced printing costs Sales people have instant access to them .

Reduced Costs • Automated functions’ labor savings • Reduced cost of software and paper distribution • Faster access to information .Business Value 3.

Example :Keycorp • • • • • Created internet site Realized need for same service internally -> Keynet Created initial production system in 90 days. 50-60K hits/month Saving on printing and distribution alone covered costs .000 employees access 40 content areas. cost $300K 1.

Example: Compumotor • • • • • • Division of Parker Hannifin (Industrial automation) Moved basic HR documents to their Web Took 6 months. cost $18K Saving 130K/year in document management costs Then moved to data warehouse access Next will put data about quality online .

Business Value 4. platform independence Easier to learn.Better Information Access • • • • • • • Single interface. simpler to extend External information Easier to publish Connect to existing data Just in time information and training Over time information access . Higher Productivity .

difficult to get at Moved basic reports to the Web w/subscriptions! And can do ad-hoc queries Also using for collaboration .Example: Pacific Northwest National Labs • • • • • Needed access to project financial data Data existed.

Business Value Higher Productivity .Better Application Access • • • • • Delivery to desktops Gateways to existing applications Cross-platform concerns reduced Browser testing reduced New possibilities .

Business Value 5. Shortened time to market • Reuse of existing information Share information instantly (across the world… ) Share information with business partners Faster development time • • • .

Better Customer Support • • • • • • For less money Around the world 24 hours a day With reference material Sharing between users Access to internal experts .Business Value 6.

Business Value 7. other tools Support for virtual. work Use of conferencing. distributed teams Not bound by restrictions of platforms and networks! The Web means that collaboration does not need to be bound by time nor space! . Support for Collaboration • • • • • Sharing documents.

protected . for less money Lets manufacturers collaborate remotely on wind tunnel analysis Reduces upfront design costs Based on security (network.collaborative aeronautical design system Goal: design more quickly.Example: NASA • • • • • Darwin .

Marco de desarrollo .

.. The challenge is to create an extensible information system that can be easily used by many people of diverse skill levels ...Developing an Enterprisewide Framework How Do We Get Started? Starting an intranet can be simple – if the network is right • • • install a server create a few pages let folks know – and then.

Challenges of a Large-scale Intranet To be used across the enterprise we need to create a trusted environment .

Creating an Enterprise-wide Intranet Requires: • • • • Integrating mechanisms Services Information Policies .

Why a Framework? • • Evolutionary process Need ―roadmap‖ • Infrastructure – – – – – Mechanisms Information Services Policies Management .


.Computing Environment • Underlying these tools is the computing environment – – – – – network web servers clients firewalls etc.

support and testing costs More than Browsers – – – Plug-ins new viewers for new data and file formats ―remembering‖ pages (bookmarking.User Tools • • • • Provide tested. licensed and supported tools Increase user acceptance Reduce licensing. notification) .

User Tools Reduce start-up. support and maintenance costs by providing tested and maintained collection of tools .

Tools to help people find information: – Search engines – Spider-based search agents – Announcement directories (internal Yahoo) • • People help people find information New types of agents: – push – intelligent search .Discovery Tools • • Information is useless unless people can find it.

Discovery • ―Finding it‖ touches each part Intranet – – – – How users use information and data How (and what) providers format and transmit How developers write and integrate applications How content is authored and how its published • Easy to start doing. difficult to start doing right .


Support Systems • • • • Provide support for end users Consider online FAQs. consulting. helping people use tools in best way . access to problem reporting systems for all users Use the Web as a training and help tool let users help and learn from each other Training.


Overall tools immature. hints. but evolving – – – – – – data base access state management user interface forms processing cgi.. Java. warnings. help new technical people make good decisions Collection of tools. ActiveX.Web Tools • • • To help deal with constant change. scripts . etc.. May need to develop own tools. stories.

cio. reviews and • links to anything that makes • creating or using the Web easier • • • • • • • • WebMaster's NoteBook http://www.html • • • Adobe Acrobat Announcements Authoring Tools Browsers Converters Data Base Access Diagnostic Tools Editors Filters Players Firewall Forms Gateways Graphics Tips Icon libraries Image maps Indexing tools Retrieval Tools Messengers Real Audio Robots Searching tools Security Scripts Sound Spiders Tracking tools verifiers Viewers VRML Other toolboxes .com/WebMaster/wm_notebook.Web Toolbox Share internal and external tools and experience • A collection place for • descriptions.

Applications Document Access Product Information Policies and Procedures Phone Directory Newsletters Project Information Official Travel Guide Employee Infobases Catalogs Newswire Clippings Software Libraries Art Libraries This is a small sample of the types of applications that can be in an intranet. Application Gateways Access to Legacy Systems Access to Data Warehouse Access to Design Management Product Support Databases Sales Support Centers Training and Registration Subscription Services Indexing Engines Groupware Mail Conferencing Calendar management Electronic meeting Workflow Management Voice/video conferencing Whiteboard Document sharing Chat Knowledge Applications Knowledge Management Information Mapping Decision Support Knowledge Filtering Knowledge Preservation .

Possible Types of Applications Sales and Marketing • • Product Development • • • • • • product info customer info war stories leads competitive information online training • • • Product specs Schedules Team assignments customer issues competitive info .

Possible Types of Applications Customer Service • • • HR • • • • Problem status Customer concerns News flashes Online Training • • • • Benefits updates Pollicies Job postings Phone directories Maps Medical referrals Lookup of personal info .

a Sales Workbench. distributed.Beyond Applications • • Take advantage of the Web and create functions. a Customer Support Center. moving from point applications to functional apps. not one-ofs . sources Trends: better tools coming. developing multiple apps. and not just specific applications For example. Product information with information pulled from multiple.

Environment Managers • • • Intranets are getting complicated New tools help manage them. Most existing tools are linked to other tools link validation document control version control site viewers user administration statistics tracking HTML validation security tools .


reduced support costs HTML editors HTML templates converters taxonomy Java applets process descriptions Links to Web archives examples search mechanisms guidelines Feedback forms templates Navigation Aids (graphics.Web Publishing System Tools. and share new tools. templates to create new Web information sites. • • • Potential cost savings: reduced startup costs shared tools shared information. A mechanism to enable creation. guides to help groups create and maintain their own sites.information implement desired stds. pages. experiences. implement standards Goal: enable owners of info to create Web sites • • • • • • A collection of tools. more easily. processes. Helps new groups get online quickly. implement ‘standards’. share tools. . HTML code) Other benefits: common look and feel sharing of new tools. support.

not creation tools! Don’t force users to learn and use new tools – – – WYSIWYG tools Document converters Document add-ons (IA) • • Consider tools to convert commonly used documents for large-scale use Be wary of proprietary formats.Publishing Guidelines • • Standardize on Content. .

• Eventually need access to "corporate data". filtering and daily updates. • • • . different security levels. leveraging existing information whenever possible. Archives are a collection of shared information used by the enterprise. multiple feeds. This could be a significant project. Sourcing depends on where information resides. Archive tools may need to support extensions.Information Repository Provide a trusted information base.

.Web Information Repository Cost savings: Reduced cost of information sourcing. Improved information quality Improved ability to manage information Trust of users (critical!) Costs: development/testing/production costs.

Intranet Web Sites • • Business groups create their own* Central group creates shared pages – – – access to common services Index service A place to communicate with company * or do they? What’s your policy? .

Benefits of A Central Web Site • • • • • • Consistent navigation for all users Can be maintained Customizes view of Web for business Vehicle to communicate to users Simplifies startup and ongoing use of Web One of many. Cost savings: page updates. but it can serve as the coordination or entry point leading to other sites. startup. time to access info. reuse .

Web Site Design Support • Help new groups learn how to create effective web sites – – – – – – – planning information design what’s new sections use of navigation tools consistency (within site. across corporation) testing feedback tools .

    chunking titles icons logos     navigation bars date/author stamps cross-page references terminology . and users should be able to navigate across the intranet. Web Team can help consistency through guidelines and consulting.Design Help • • Internal pages need to be easy to use and understand.



Base Mechanisms • This is the core set – see synergy between components • User tools • Discovery Tools • Next phase of Web use will build • Web Applications on this • Web Toolbox • Information Repository – workflow • Monitoring Tools – large-scale retrieval systems • Publishing Systems • Web sites – document management • • Will need policies/guidelines Services will leverage .

Development Tools Framework • Platforms • User Tools • Discovery Tools • Publishing/Production/Document Management • Databases/Repositories • Applications Development • Legacy Systems Integration • Management Tools • Conferencing/Collaboration .

Computing Platforms • • Leverage what you have Put computing power where it is needed – – – shared servers security (firewalls) common services .

remote monitoring . NC approach: Do everything. • Smart clients: Registry. The user has little or no say over his configuration. – – remote management of desktop devices Pushing software to desktops.New Deployment Styles • • • PC approach: Do nothing. The user is on his own. Compromise – Customized installation • repackaging existing installations into enterprise specific suites.

installing. integrating Applications Operating System Software Provided by Network Data . using PC/NC Universal Browser Platform Provided by Network Applications/ Applets Data NC APPROACH PC APPROACH PC User’s responsibility: Purchasing.PC vs NC Approach User’s responsibility: purchasing. using. upgrading.

What to Look for in Platforms • • • • • • Ease of installation Functionality Integration into existing system services What you already know and have Scalability Third party tools .

Infrastructure • • • • Networks Web Servers (http) Servers Directories .

. Mail HA Gateway NFS Serv er Web Serv er Load Balancer Firewall Remote Site(s) Sensitive Data Web Serv er Web Serv er Proxy / Cache Auth DB CA Database Legacy Sy stems TP . Mail HA Gateway NFS Serv er Web Serv er FTP Load Balancer DMZ External DNS Web Serv er Firewall Directory Internal DNS Mail Admin Logging Corporate Network NC Serv er Search Proxy / Cache Backup/ Recov ery Ops ...Internet E-Com GW Remote Access Mail Relay Firewall ..

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