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WELCOME

Group B
Shruty M.T

Diana Rajan Ekta Kamdar
Sudin A.P Farah Haneef Lekshmi Sarin

STAFFING

Introduction to

DEFINITION
Staffing is a process by which an Organization creates a pool of applicants and makes a choice from that pool to provide the right person at the rigth place at the right time to increase the Organizational effectiveness

Nature of Staffing 1. Staffing is a continous activity – Staffing function is continous throughout the life of an Organization due to Transfer and Promotion that takes place .Staffing is also important. without which Organization cannot acheive its goals 2. Important Managerial function – Like other functions of Management. Pervasive activity – Its carried out by all managers in all types of concern where business activity are carried out 3.

Training and Development.e Recruitment. Placement. providing Renumeration etc 5. Selection. Helps in placing Right person at the Right job – It can be done effectievly through proper recruitment procedure and then selecting the most suitable candidate . Efficent management of personnel – Human resources can be efficently managed by a system or proper procedure i.4.

Staffing Process .

2. Recruitment – Identyfing the sources of manpower and stimulating them to apply for the job 3. Selection – The right candidate for the right job is selected through various selection tests .1. Manpower requirement – The very first step in staffing is to plan the manpower inventory required.

Training and Development – Training and Development is a part of incentives given to workers in order to develop and grow within the concern 6.4. Remuneration – This is the outcome for the employees for what they are working. It is the monetary incentive for the employees 7. Promotion and Transfer – Promotion is said to be non monetary incentives where the workers is shifted from existing job to higher job with higher responsibility Shifting the worker from one branch to another is Transfer . Orientatin and Placement – The appointed candidate are made familiar to work and units and work environment through orientation programme Placement takes place by putting the right man to the right job 5.

Selection .

. It requires a methodical approach to the problem of finding the best matched person for the job .Definition Is the process of discovering the qualifications and characteristics of the job applicant in order to establish their likely suitability for the job position.

Technical ) Selection Interview Stage 4 Selection Decision . Aptitude.Stages in Selection process Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Screening of Application forms Tests ( Inteligence.

Selection Process .

It is also called as Screening interview 2. interest etc 3.1. Such interview may be biased at times . Preliminary Selection – It is used to eliminate those candidates who do not meet the minimum eligibility criteria laid down by the Organization. performance. Employment Interview – It is one to one interview between the interviewer and the potential candidate. attitude. Selection Tests – These Tests invove some aspects of an individual behaviour. But suchinterviews consumes time and money.

Medical or Physical Examination – .4.It prevents the employment of people suffering from communicable disease . Those who are unfit are rejected .It reveals disabilities and provides employee’s health record .It determines whether the candidate is physically fit to perform the job.

head of Education Institutions or Public figures. These people are requested to provide their frank opinion about the candidate without any liability .5. These may be his/her previous employers. Reference check – The applicant is asked to mention in his application form. the names and addresses of two or more persons who knows hin/her well.

Job Offer – After completing all the process.6. A contract of service is signed by both the candidate and the representative of the Organization. he is offered the job for the right post 7.Employment Contract – Once the job is offered to the selected candidate . . the next step is to enter into a Contract. if the employer is satified with the candidate.

Induction & Orientation .

What is Induction and Orientation This is a process meant to help new employee to settle down quickly into the job by becoming familiar with the people. the sourroundings. This is acquainting the new employees with the existing culture and practice of thr Organization . the firm and the industry.

Orientation is practical overview of the company that includes introduction of employees to different people of the Organization and making him/her familiar.Difference between Induction and Orientation Induction comes first followed by Orientation. Induction means introduction of overall preview of company. . Its more lik presentattion. so that he/she knows what kind of company he/she will be working for.

such as training. health ad safety .Induction and Orientation for ?? To sort out all anxiety of recruited person To ensure the effective integration of staff History and Introduction of founders Understand the standards and rules ( written and unwritten) of the Organization Introduction to the company. departments and its personel structure To clear doubtful situation between new employee and existing employee Relevant personel policies. promotion.

Formal Induction Programme Organizational issues Employee benefit Introduction HR Representative Special anxiety Reduction programme PLACEMEN T Supervisior Specific job Location & distribution .

Advantage of Induction Creates good impression It takes less time to familiarise Less turnover ratio Increase productivity Cost reduction .

In absence of Induction Uneasiness of new employee in the environment of the Organization Poor integration in team Low morale Loss of productivity Company image goes down More turnover ratio .

Recruitment .

Definition : Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. .

etc. . Recruiters may work within an organization's human resources department (typically) or on an outsourced basis. and are variously called headhunters. sports team. Outsourced recruiters typically work for multiple clients at once. nonprofit organization. agency recruiters. on a third-party broker basis. or recruitment consultants. the military. or the solicitation of individuals to fill jobs or positions within a corporation. search firms/agents.Who is a Recruiter A recruiter is someone engaging in recruitment.

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it is ensured that the employee to be transferred to the new job is capable of performing it. Promotion Many companies follow the practice of filling higher jobs by promoting employees who are considered fit for such positions. At the time of transfer. .Internal Sources : Recruitment that takes place within the organization is called Internal Recruitment Transfer Transfer involves the shifting of an employee from one job to another.

Such applications are known as unsolicited applications.External Sources : Direct Recruitment It is done by placing a notice on the notice board of the enterprise specifying the details of the jobs available. The practice of direct recruitment is generally followed for filling casual vacancies requiring unskilled workers. Unsolicited Applicants Many qualified persons apply for employment to reputed companies on their own initiative. . It is known as recruitment at factory gate. A proper record may be kept for such applications and the candidates may be called for interview whenever the need arises.

This helps in informing the candidate spread over different parts of the country.Advertisements Advertising the job has become fashion of the day with the large-scale enterprises. . semi-skilled operative jobs. Employment Agencies Employment exchanges run by the government are regarded as a good source of recruitment for unskilled. The necessary information about the company. job description and the job specifications may be given in the advertisement itself for the benefit of the candidate. particularly when the vacancy is for a higher post or when there are a large number of vacancy.

The disadvantage of this system is that if the contractor himself decides to leave the organization. Recommendations Applications introduced by friends or relatives prove to be a good source of recruitment. all the workers employed through him will follow suit. Labour Contractors Workers are recruited through labour contractors who are themselves employees of the organization.Educational Institutes Recruitment from educational institutes is a wellestablished practice of thousands of business and other organizations. .

.External Recruitment Agencies 3P Consultant LTD ABC International placement service Active consultant Career Graph HUDDAR Humanware India (and many more....) (Global level) ..) (National level) External Recruitment Agencies ADD Resources Camron James OSIRIS Connection Prisim Executive Recruitment (and many more........

journals. employee referrals and job portals. consultancies. . radio and televisions.Methods of recruitment Direct Recruitment Sending travelling recruiters to the educational institutions or colleges and they recruit the students from there. Indirect Recruitment Advertising in newspapers. Campus recruiting. Third Party Recruitment Private employment agencies.

Selection is important as no Organization can acheive its goal without selecting the right people. where faulty selection lead to wastage of time and money and spolis Organization environment . Selection is the process of choosing the best out of those recruited.Selection Vs Recruitment Recruitment involves identifying the sourses of manpower and stimulating them to apply for job in the Organization.

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CONTEMPORARY VIEWS OF LEADERSHIP .

▪TRANSFORMATIONAL .TRANSACTIONA L LEADERSHIP ▪CHARISMATIC VISIONARY LEADERSHIP ▪TEAM LEADERSHIP ▪LEADING THROUGH EMPOWERMENT .

. Admiration and commitment in the followers. Express a vision with which the followers identify and for which they are willing to work.TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP ▪TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP . Creates a special connection with followers. He creates :➜ ➜ ➜ ➜ Feelings of confidence. Transformational leaders are those who lead primarily by using social exchanges (or transactions).TRANSFORMATIONAL. These type of leaders appeal to followers ideals and moral values and inspire them to think about problems in new or different ways.They guide or motivate followers to work toward established goals by exchanging rewards for their productivity ▪TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP A transformational leader is one who stimulates and inspires (transforms) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes.

Evidence indicates that transformational leadership is strongly correlated with:➜ Lower turnover rates ➜ Higher levels of productivity. ➜ Creativity. and ➜ Follower well-being . ➜ Employee satisfaction.The evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over transactional leadership is overwhelmingly impressive. ➜ Goal attainment.

CHARISMATIC -VISIONARY LEADERSHIP CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP Charismatic leader is an enthusiastic. ➜The followers feel affection to the leader and obey the leader willingly. self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways. Phenomena that can be observed in charisma include: ➜The followers trust the correctness of the leader’s believes. ➜The followers feel an emotional involvement in the mission they are led to. People usually feel personally attracted to a charismatic leader and the attraction can lead to a powerful leadership. .

. Thus they are likely to crop up in politics. Ex: Martin Luther King Jr.or when a business firm is starting up or facing a survival crisis.Charismatic leadership may be most appropriate when the follower’s task has an ideological purpose or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty. or war time .. used his charisma to bring about social equality through non-violent means. religion. and Steve Jobs achieved unwavering loyalty and commitment from Apple’s technical staff in the early 1980s by articulating a vision of personal computers that would dramatically change the way people lived.

created a vision of a business that sells and delivers customized PCs directly to customers in less than a week .VISIONARY LEADERSHIP It is the ability to create and articulate a realistic . and . and attractive vision of the future that improves on the present situation. An organization’s vision should :➜ Create clear and compelling imagery that taps into people’s emotions ➜ Inspire enthusiasm to pursue the organization’s goals ➜ Generate possibilities that are inspirational and unique and ➜ Offer new ways of doing things that are clearly better for the organization and it’s members. . For ex: Michael Dell of Dell Inc. credible.

TEAM LEADERSHIP

One study looking at organizations that had reorganized themselves around employee teams found certain common responsibilities of all leaders. These included coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems, reviewing team and individual performance, training and communication. However, a more meaningful way to describe the team leader’s job is to focus on two priorities: ▪ Managing the team’s external boundary and ▪ Facilitating the team process.

COACH

CONFLICT MANAGER
TEAM LEADER ROLES

LIAISON OFFICER

TROUBLESHOOTER

LEADING THROUGH EMPOWERMENT
Empowerment involves increasing the decision making discretion of workers. Millions of individual employees and employee teams are making the key operating decisions that directly affect their work. They perform various tasks like:➜Developing budgets, ➜Scheduling work loads, ➜ Controlling inventories,

➜Solving quality problems, and
➜Engaging in similar activities that until very recently were viewed exclusively as part of the manager’s job. .

➜ Organizational downsizings have left many managers with larger spans of control. so. . managers have to empower their people.Why employee empowerment? ➜ If organizations want to successfully compete in a dynamic global economy. employees have to be able to make decisions and implement changes quickly. in order to cope with the increased work demands.

. Managers typically have some coercive power. legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward. such as being able to suspend or demote employees or to assign them work they find unpleasant or undesirable. Followers react to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if they don’t comply.POWERS OF A LEADER ▸ Legitimate PowerLegitimate power and authority are the same. ▸ Coercive PowerIt is the power of a leader to punish or control. Although people in positions of authority are also likely to have reward and coercive power. It represents the power a leader has as a result of his or her position in the organization.

▸ Expert PowerIt is the power that’s based on expertise. interesting work assignments. favorable performance appraisals. that person’s expert power is enhanced. promotions. knowledge. friendly colleagues. or expertise that’s critical to a work group. ▸Referent PowerIt is the power that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or personal traits. If an employee has skills . Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. and preferred work shifts or sales territories.▸ Reward PowerIt is the power to give positive rewards. . such as money. special skills. These can be anything that a person values. or knowledge.

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LEADERS VS MANAGERS .

A MANAGER performs all 5 functions of management.BASIS MANAGER A person becomes a MANAGER by virtue of his position. Rights are not available to a LEADER. MANAGER has got formal rights in an organization because of his status. LEADER influences people to work willingly for group objectives. The subordinates are the followers of the MANAGERS. ORIGIN FORMAL RIGHTS FOLLOWERS FUNCTIONS . LEADER A person becomes a LEADER on basis of his personal qualities. The group of employees whom the LEADER leads is his followers.

MANAGER is responsible for self & subordinates behaviour & performance. A LEADER is required to create cordial relation between person working in and for organisation. STABILITY MUTUAL RELATIONSHIP ACCOUNTABILITY LEADERSHIP is temporary. All MANAGERS are LEADERS. It is more stable. . LEADERS have no well defined accountability. CONCERN A LEADER’s concern is group goals & member’s satisfaction. All LEADERS are not MANAGERS. A MANAGER’s concern is organisation’s goals.NECESSITY A MANAGER is very essential to a concern.

LEADERSHIP THEORIES .

Factors unique to each situation determine whether specific leader characteristics & behaviours will be effective.LEADERSHIP THEORY TIME OF INTRODUCTION MAJOR TRENDS TRAIT THEORY 1930’s Individual characteristics of leaders are different from those of non-leaders. CONTINGENCY THEORY 1960’s & 1970’s . BEHAVIORAL THEORY 1940’s & 1950’s The behaviour of effective leaders are different from those of ineffective leaders.

EARLY LEADERSHIP THEORIES .

Successful leaders definitely have interests. The resulting lists of traits are then compared to those of potential leaders to assess their likelihood of success or failure.  . but they are essentially seen as preconditions that endow people with leadership potential.both successful and unsuccessful .and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. These traits are not responsible solely to identify whether a person will be a successful leader or not.TRAIT THEORY  The trait model of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders . and personality traits that are different from those of the less effective leaders. a set of core traits ofsuccessful leaders have been identified. abilities. Through many researches conducted in the last three decades of the 20th century.

5. energy & initiative. DESIRE TO LEAD – An intense desire to lead others to reach shared goals. SELF-CONFIDENCE – Belief in one’s self. HONEST & INTEGRITY – Trustworthy. 2. ambition. JOB-RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE – Knowledge of industry & other technical matters.Leaders are energetic & lively people. reliable & open. DRIVE – High level of effort.7 TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH LEADERSHIP 1. 4. 7. 3. solve problems & make correct decisions. 6. . idea & ability. INTELLIGENCE – Leaders have to be intelligent enough to create visions. EXTRAVERSION.

It gives a detailed knowledge & understanding of the leader element in the leadership process. . Serves as a yardstick against which the leadership traits of an individual can be assessed.ADVANTAGES of TRAIT THEORY:     Naturally pleasing theory. It is valid as lot of research has validated the foundation & basis of the theory.

The theory is very complex. . to effective leadership. There is disagreement over which traits are the most important for an effective leader.LIMITATION’s of TRAIT THEORY:      Bound to be subjective judgement in determining who is regarded as a ‘good’ or ‘successful’ manager. height & weight. The list of possible traits tend to be very long. Most of these relate to situational factors. It relates to physical traits such as.

BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP .

although later studies showed mixed results. but not in all situations. and encouraging participation. AUTOCRATIC STYLE: dictating work methods. Initiating Structure: structuring work & work relationships to meet job goals. CONCLUSION Democratic style of leadership was most effective. LAISSEZ-FAIRE STLYE: giving group freedom to make decisions & complete work. delegating authority. High-high leader(high in consideration & high in initiating structure)achieved high subordinate performance & satisfaction.BEHAVIORAL DIMENSION UNIVERSITY OF LOWA DEMOCRATIC STYLE: involving subordinates. OHIO STATE Consideration: being considerate of followers’ ideas & feelings. centralising decision making & limiting participation. .

MANAGERIAL GRID . Production Oriented: emphasized or task aspects of job. Concern for Production: measure leader’s concern for getting job done on a scale 1 to 9(low to high).UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Employee Oriented: emphasized interpersonal relationships & taking care of employees’ needs.9 style(high concern for production & high concern for people). Leaders performed best with a 9. Employeeoriented leaders were associated with high group productivity & higher job satisfaction. Concern for people: measured leaders’ concern for subordinates on a scale of 1 to 9(low to high).

MANAGERIAL GRID .

. provide clear expectations for what needs to be done. 2. LAISSEZ-FAIRE STYLE . It offers guidance to group members.3 LEADERSHIP STYLES 1.They are known as autocratic leaders. but they also participate in the group & allow input from other group members.Also known as Delegative leadership.Most effective leadership style. It is described as a leader who let the group make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it saw fit. AUTOCRATIC STYLE . 3. when it should be done and how it should be done. DEMOCRATIC STYLE .

CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP .

PATH-GOAL theory . HERSEY & BLANCHARD’S situational leadership theory. and 3). The FIEDLER Model 2).CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP In this section. we examine 3 contingency theories: 1).

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Hersey & Blanchard identified four leadership styles 1). The emphasis on the followers reflects that regardless of what the leader does. By readiness.HERSEY & BLACHARD’S SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY      Developed by Paul Hersey & Ken Blanchard. is a contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. the group’s effectiveness depends on the actions of the followers. it refers to the extent to which people have the ability & willingness to accomplish a specific task. Telling 2). This model is called Situational Leadership Theory (SLT). Selling .

when. 2. how. TELLING – The leader defines roles & tells people what. 3. and where to do various tasks. 4.1. PARTICIPATING – The leader & followers share in decision making. DELEGATING – The leader provides little direction or support. . the main role of the leader is facilitating and communicating. SELLING – The leader provides both directive and supportive behaviour.

R1 – People are both unable & unwilling to take responsibility for doing something. 2. Followers aren’t competent or confident. R2. R4.People are able but unwilling to do what the leaders want. R3. 4. 3. Followers are motivated but lack the appropriate skills.People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them. . Followers are competent but don’t want to do something.The final component in the SLT model is the 4 stages of follower readiness: 1.People are unable but willing to do the necessary job tasks.

The leader needs to use the SELLING Style & display high task orientation to compensate for the followers’ lack of ability & high relationship orientation to get followers to ‘’buy into’’ the leader’s desires 3.The leader doesn’t need to do much and should use the DELEGATING Style. . R3.SLT says if followers are at: 1. R1. 4. R2.The leader needs to use the TELLING Style & give clear and spcific directions 2. R4.The leader needs to use the PARTICIPATING Style to gain their support.

The term path-goal is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify the path to help their followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals & make the journey along the path easier by reducing roadblocks & pitfalls. .PATH GOAL THEORY This theory states that the leader’s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the goals of the group or organisation.

. 4. there are 4 leadership behaviours: 1. Participative leader. Achievement oriented leader. 3. and gives specific guidance on how to accomplish tasks. 2.The leader consults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision.The leader shows concern for the needs of followers and is friendly.Under this theory. Directive Leader – The leader lets subordinates know what’s expected of them.The leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level. schedules work to be done. Supportive leader.

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networks and systems of communication within an organization. Transfer of meaning->information have not been conveyed .COMMUNICATION ?  Communication is the transfer and understanding of meaning . Understanding of meaning->meaning must be imparted and understood . Organizational communicationall the patterns. Interpersonal communication-communication between 2 or more people .   . communication not taken place .

Informal communication also controls behavior. motivation . For example.   . emotional expression and information . those indivituals are informally controlling the behavior of that person.to follow their job description. when a group teases a member for working too hard.FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION  Major functions: Control .For example. Controls employee behavior in several ways . communication is needed. when employee wants to communicate job-related grievances to their immediate manager .

Communication provides a release for emotional expression and feelings.how well they are doing it and what can be done to improve the performance . Communication motivates by clarifying to employees what is to be done . Communication provides information for indivituals and groups to get things done in an organizations. As employees set specific goals. For many employees. work towards those goals. communication is required at every step. their work group is a primary source for social interaction to share their frustrations and feelings of satisfaction. and receive feedback on progress towards goals.    .

Interpersonal Communication process Message Medium Receiver Encoding Decoding Noise Sender Message Feedback .

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etc. Before communication can take place.    . The message is converted to symbolic form (called encoding) and passed by way of some medium(channel) to the receiver . It passes between sender(source) and receiver. a purpose. expressed as message to be conveyed . The entire process is susceptible to noisedisturbances that interface with the transmission .must exist first . inattention by the receiver.phone static.receipt or feedback of a message .For example ..who retranslates the message(called decoding). Anything that distorts the communication process can be noise. background sounds.

METHODS OF COMMUNICATING INTERPERSONALLY Managers have a wide variety of communication methods which can be evaluated by the following factors:  Feedback-how quickly can the receiver respond to messages?  Complexity capacity-can the method process complex messages?  Breadth potential-how many different messages can be transmitted using this method?  Confidentiality-can communicators be sure that their messages are read only by the intended audience?  Encoding ease-can senders easily and quickly use this channel? .

       Decoding ease-can receivers easily and quickly decode messages using this method? Time-space constraint-Do senders and receiver have to communicate the same time and in the same space? Cost. Interpersonal warmth-how well does this method convey interpersonal warmth? Formality-does the method have needed amount of formality? Scanability-does this method allow messages to be browsed easily or scanned for relevant information? Time of consumption-does the sender or receiver have the most control over when the message is .cost efficiency of using this method.

   . facial expressions and other body movements that convey meaning .communication transmitted without words .For example . conveys messages about his/her profession . Verbal intonation refers to emphasis someone gives to words or phrases that convey meaning . clothes he/ she wears. Body language and verbal intonation are best known types of non-verbal communication Body language refers to gestures .NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION  Non-verbal communication. a doctor or a lawyer.

Information Overload-when information exceeds a person’s processing capacity.BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION  Filtering-It’s the deliberate manipulation of information to make it favorable to the receiver.Extreme emotions hinder effective communication . like when a person tells his manager what his manager wants to hear.how a receiver feel when he gets a message influences how he interprets it . For example. when a marketing manager is faced with 1000 email messages after his return from a week long sales trip. information is filtered.   . Emotions.

education and cultural background influences once language and use of words.when people feel they are threatened. Defensiveness.For example . they tend to become defensiveverbally attacking others. Language-Age.   . being overly judgmental or questioning other’s motives which hinders effective communication . making sarcastic comments. National Culture-communication differences might arise from different cultures .due to technological and cultural reasons .

For example.which are less likely to occur if the manager gets feedback.   .get emotions under control before communicating . Simplifying language-language can be a barrier.else it might hinder effective communication.both verbal and nonverbal .if the audience is not considered.OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION  Using feedback-Misunderstandings and inaccuracies are common communication problems . Constraining emotions-calm down . the use of jargons .

Listening is the active search for meaning . Watching Nonverbal Cues. It demands total concentration without premature judgments.make your actions align with the words you speak to ensure that they give out the desired meaning . Listening actively.  .

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION .

Definition A process by which activities of a society are collected and coordinated to reach the goals of both individuals and the collective group. organizational communication can be defined as the transmission of a message through a channel to a receiver. It is a subfield of general communications studies and is often a component to effective managementin a workplace environment. such as . be defined as the way language is used to create different kinds of social structures.

EXAMPLE: When a manager ask an employee to complete a task he or she is communicating formally. Any communication that takes place within prescribed organizational work arrangements would be classified as formal. So is the employee who brings a problem to the attention of his or her manager. .ORMAL COMMUNICATION Formal communication refers to communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job.

or as they’re working out at the company excerise facility. When employees talk with each other in the lunch room. that’s informal communication. .INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Informal communication is organizational communication that is not defined by the organizational structural hierarchy. as they pass in hallways. Employees form friendship and communicate with each other.

and frequently faster and more efficient. channels of communication. .The informal communication system fulfills two purpose in organizations: (1) it permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction (2) it can improve an organization’s performance by creating alternative.

DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION FLOW
Organizational communication can flow downward, upward, literally, or digonaly.

DOWNWARD : Any communication that flows downward from a manager to employees is downward communication. Downward communication is used to inform, direct, coordinate and evaluate employees. When managers assign goals to their employees they are using downward communication. Managers are also using downward communication by providing employees with job description, informing them of organizational policies and procedures, pointing out problems that need attention, or evaluating their performance.

UPWARD: Managers rely on the employees for information. Reports are given to managers to inform them of progress toward goals and any current problems. Upward communication flows upward from employees to managers. It keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, their co-workers and the organization. Managers rely on upward communication for ideas on how things can be improved.

Examples: performance reports prepared by
employees, suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, manager-employee discussions etc…

LATERAL:

In todays rapidly changing environment horizontal communication are frequently needed to save time and improve coordination. However it can create conflicts if employees donot keep their managers informed about decision they have made or actions they have taken .Communication takes place among any employees on the same organizational level is called lateral communication. rely heavily on this form of communication interaction. for instance. Cross functional teams.

And the increased use of email facilitates diagonal communication. However just as with lateral communication. diagonal communication has the potential to create problems if employees don’t keep their managers . In the interest of efficiency and speed diagonal communication can be beneficial.DIAGONAL: Diagonal communication is communication that cut across both work areas and organizational levels.

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORKS The vertical and horizontal flows of organizational communication can be combined into a variety of patterns called communication networks .

TYPES: CHAIN NETWORK: Communication flows according to the formal chain of command. both downward and upward .

The leader serves as the hub through whom all communication passes. .WHEEL NETWORK: Communication flowing between a clearly identifiable and strong leader and others ina work group or team.

ALL-CHANNEL NETWORK: Communication flows freely from all members of a work team. .

GRAPE VINE: (INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK) .

managers can stay on top of issues that concern employees and. picking up on the issues employees consider relevant by being aware of the grape vine flow and patterns. can use the grape vine to disseminate important information. It identifies for managers those bewildering issues that employee consider important and anxiety producing. . It acts as both a filter and feed back mechanisam.The grape vine is active in almost every organization. inturn . The grape vine is an important part of any group organization communication network and well worth understanding.