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Labour Laws : Concept &Definition Development of Labour Laws in India Provisions in Indian Constitution for Labour Welfare: a) Directive Principles b) Fundamental Rights c) Preamble

What is LAW?
Law is the set of rules and regulations framed by the state for the governance of the country and enforced by sanctions.

Law denotes rules & principles either enforced by an authority or self imposed by the members of a society to control & regulate peoples behavior with a view to securing Justice, peaceful leaving & social security.




Other Laws

Labour Laws

Labour Laws : Concept & Definition

Definition : Legislations which regulate the working conditions of Labour and the relations between employer and employee in Industrial Establishments.

Working Conditions include: Proper wages,Compensation,Measures for the health safety & welfare of workers.
Need for Labour Laws: Labour Laws were enacted to primarily combat two evils of industrialisation.

The two main & related labour problems are:

Economic Evils: Social Evils:
Migration of rural population. Breakdown of joint families to nuclear families. Social Insecurity like hazards related with working conditions in industries i. i. Inadequate wages. ii. Employment ii. Insecurity. iii. Lack of compensation for iii. victims of Industrial accidents.

Growth of Labour Law: Growth of Labour Law: It grew with the growth of Industry
Need for Labour Legislation : The Relationship between Workers & employers is one of Partnership in the maintenance of production and the building up of the National Economy. The Community as a whole as well as individual Employers are under obligation to protect the well being of workers & to secure to them their due share in the gains of economic development.
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A) Individual workers are Economically Weak. B) The Workers are Exposed to certain Risk. C) To increase Bargaing Power of Workers. D) To Avoid Industrial Disputes. E) To Protect children & Women F) To Provide Compensation to Workers G) To advance the Interest of the working people.



Object of Labour Law

1. To Improve the Service conditions of Industrial Labour so as to provide for them the ordinary amenities of life , & by that process, 2. To being about Industrial Peace which could in its turn accelerate productive activity of the country resulting in its prosperity.



Principles of Labour Legislation

1. Social Justice 2. Social Equity 3. International Uniformity



Development of Labour Laws in India

Outbreak of labour movement in our country after first world war. Madras labour union established in 1918 to redress the post war distress related to steep hike in prices & low wages.

Followed by strikes in jute & cotton mills of Jamshedpur,Bombay & Ahemadabad.

As relief,Factories Act,Workmens Compensation Act & Trade Unions Act were enacted by British rulers by taking the social security measures of Britain as role model.

Reports & the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Labour in 1929 formed the foundation of the Labour Legislations in India.
After independence the ideologies of the great thinkers like Gandhiji, Pt. Nehru etc. regarding labour welfare were written in our constitution and Labour laws were enacted by the parliament and State legislatures.

Indian Constitution and Labour Welfare






We, the People of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens : Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief , faith and worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all; Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and the integrity of the Nation In our Constituent Assembly this 26th day of November,1949 do Hereby, Adopt, Enact and give to Ourselves this Constitution.

These are the rights which are considered to be essential for the individual for the attainment his full intellectual, moral and spiritual status; the negation of the same would render his potentialities underdeveloped.

Hence these rts. have been provided in Part III of our Constitution and made justifiable under Article 32 & 226 of our Constitution.
However, these are not absolute Rts. and are subject to certain restrictions which limit their scope to avoid the state of anarchy.

The Fundamental Rts. which provide for labour welfare are:

Relevant Fundamental Rights:


Article 14: Equality before Law

Article 15: Prohibition of Discrimination

d) e) f) g) h)

Article 16: Equality of Opportunity

Article 19(1)( c) : Freedom to form Associations Article 19 (1)(g) : Freedom to practice any profession Article 21 : Rt. To life and personal liberty Article 23 : Rt. Against Exploitation Article 24 : Prohibition of employment of children

a) Article 14 : Equality before Law

It declares the state shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

It aims at establishing equality of status as provided in the preamble of the Constitution. The concept implies the absence of any special privilege in favour of individuals and the equal subject of all classes to the ordinary law.

ie. The capitalist and the labour stand at the same platform before law for seeking redressal.

b) Article 15 : No discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste etc.

This Article directs the State not to discriminate against the citizen on the grounds of religion,race,caste,sex or place of birth and the state is empowered to make special provisions for women and children.

c) Article 16 :Equality of opprtunity in public employment

This article guarantees equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters ofemployment or appointment to any post under the State.

d) Article 19(1)(c) : Freedom to form Association

This Article guarantees to all its citizens the right to form associations and unions, however, restrictions can be imposed in the interest of public order,morality and integrity of the nation.

e) Article 19(1)(g) : Freedom of profession , occupation, trade or business

This Article guarantees to all citizens the right to practise any profession,or to carry on any occupation, trade or buisness

f ) Article 21 : Right to Life and Personal Liberty

It says that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law

g) Article 23 : Right against Exploitation

This Article prohibits traffic in human beings and similar forms of forced labour. h) Article 24 : Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc.
This Article prohibits the employment of children below 14 yrs. of age in factories and hazardous employment.

The Directive Principles in Part IV of the Constitution sets out the aims & objectives to be taken up by the state in the governance of the country.
The idea of welfare state can only be achieved if these principles are implemented by the states with the high sense of moral duty

Relevant Directive Principles:

i. Art.-38 : State to secure social order for promotion of welfare of the people.


Art.-39 : (a) Rt. To adequate means of livelihood (b) Distribution of ownership & control of material sources for common good (c) Economic system not to result in conceteration of wealth & means of production (d) Equal pay for equal work (e) To protect health & strength of workers & tender age of children by preventing them from entering into avocations unsuited to their age & strength (f) To provide adequate opportunities to children to develop in a healthy manner& that they are protected against exploitation &moral and material abandonment.


Art.41 : Rt. to work, education and public assistance in certain cases Art. 42 : Just and human conditions for work Art. 43 : Living wages etc. for workers Art 43-A : Participation of workers in management of industries

iv. v. vi.

Classification of LL
a) b) c)

Low relating to working Conditions : The Factories Act. 1948 The Industrial Employment (5.0) Act 1946 The Mines Act , 1951

a) b) c) d) e)

Law relating to wages & amenities : The minimum wages Act , 1948 The Payment of wages Act , 1936 The Payment of Bonus act , 1965 The payment of Gratuity act , 1972 The Employee state Insurance Act , 1948
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f) The

employees PF & miscellaneous Provisions act , 1952

g) The Workmen compensation act , 1923

h) The Maternity Benefit act , 1961



a) b)

Law relating to association of Workers & Disputes

The trade union Act , 1926 the Industrial Dispute Act , 1947

IV. Law relating to Social Insurance & Security :a) b) c) d) ESI EPF WCA MBA


a) b) c) d) a) b) c) a) b)

Law relating children & Women & other Worker classes

Child Labour ( Prohibition & regulation) Act , 1986 Employment of Childeren Act , 1938 The factories Act , 1948 The bonded Labour system ( abolition) Act , 1981 Environment Protection Act , 1986 Air ( Prevention & Control of Pollution ) Act 1981 Water ( Prevention & control of Pollution ) 1974 Collection of Statistics Act , 1953 The Employment Exchange Act , 1959

VI. Law relating to Environment : -

VII. Law relating to Collection of statistics : -


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