ERGONOMICS Design of Repetitive Tasks

A Presentation By: Richa Sharma (17) Sandeep Kumar (19) Shloka Raaj (21)

and tools to eliminate excessive exertion and awkward postures and to reduce repetitive motion. work methods. . • The premise of Ergonomics is to reduce physical strain by designing or modifying the work station.Introduction • Repetitive tasks is defined as doing the same task over and over again within short intervals.

. vibration from machinery and improper arm or body support.Identification of Repetitive Motion Problem The early identification of a repetitive motion problem. tingling and apparent loss of strength of muscles should not be ignored. • Symptoms like numbness. • Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD's) are becoming more commonplace in the work world and are caused by repetitive movements over long periods of time. increases the chance of taking corrective action on time: • Attention should be paid to any warning signs such as pain or soreness.

and numbness in the thumb and first two fingers. • Tenosynovitis . muscle pain. • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome . • Tendinitis . surgery may be necessary. Causes loss of grip. weakness. Can be caused by improper or repetitive bending of the wrist.Introduction to work-related musculoskeletal disorders Fatigue or tiredness in muscles and /or joints is the body's way of telling a person to change the pattern of working.painful squeezing of the median nerve in the wrist. test and medication do not work. Can be caused by performing repeated motions incorrectly or in an awkward position. If after an appropriate period of time.a condition in which both the tendon and its covering become inflamed. .inflammation of the tendons.

Factors associated with adverse outcomes The main occupational factors associated with musculoskeletal conditions at work are • Force • Posture • Repetition • Duration .

rest periods are needed. . if acute or chronic problems are to be avoided.Effects of Repetitive Task: Muscle Pain • Human muscle has excellent endurance capacity for loads less than 15% of the muscle’s maximum voluntary contraction • Above this threshold.

. • This results in inflammation of tendons(tendinitis) and impaired blood supply to the tendons. • Under further tension. the fibrils elongate by 1–5% of their length.Pain in Tendons • Tendons have a tensile strength of 50–100 MPa (megapascals).

This is known as tenosynovitis.• Rapid. . The resultant swelling causes pain and impedes movement of the tendon in the sheath.repetitive movements of hand or fingers can cause the sheaths surrounding tendons to produce excess synovial fluid.

. • frequent or sustained flexion of the head and neck beyond this is related to chronic neck and shoulder pain.Control of Neck Problems • The head and neck should not be flexed forwards by more than 15 degrees if undue postural stress is to be avoided.

. • Elbow rests appear to be beneficial for both sitting and standing workers by stabilising and supporting the arms.. they reduce the load on the shoulder musculature. • More upright postures are obtained if the monitors are raised such that the middle of the monitor is at eye height rather than at 15–25 degrees below eye height as is usually recommended.Contd.

• If the hands have to be positioned above shoulder level. . • External support should be provided for the weight of the arms • Work objects have to be within the zone of convenient reach.4 kg and the posture should be held for no more than 20 seconds for each minute of work.Methods of Reducing Shoulder Stress • If possible work with the hands near waist level and close to the body. • Hand-held weights need to be minimized. • Shoulder flexion >90 degrees should be avoided • Taller workers should be selected for workplaces that cannot be modified. Hand loads should not exceed 0. • Regular rest breaks should be provided. • Wrist rests must be provided for keyboard workers. their elevation above the shoulders should be no more than 35 degrees.

Prevention of WMSD of Upper Limbs 1. • Reduce required grip forces: • Use high-friction materials for handles. . • Maintain neutral wrist posture. • Longer handles increase mechanical advantage. • Maximum allowable grip force (holds for less than 3 seconds) • Add handles for carrying tool and resisting reaction torque. • Encourage use of large muscle groups. • Avoid excessive use of ‘pinch grip’ (thumb and fingers).Tool Design and Posture • Bend the handle (5–10 degrees) not the wrist. • Damp vibration from powered tools.

Workstation design • Damp jerk and impact forces. . • Use arm supports in the form of slings or balancers to lower EMG activitiy in the trapezius and deltoid muscles. clamps or other aids to minimise the need for sustained holding of work objects. • Eliminate static shoulder elevation or provide elbow rests or slings. • Position work objects so as to eliminate static neck postures. • Provide vices.

Frequencies less than 1/6 Hz may cause fatigue through the mechanisms of static loading Increase task variety. Design out movements requiring rapid acceleration of body parts. Rotate workers between high-repetition and low-repetition tasks. Spend no more than 50% of the time doing the same task. Avoid mental stress: Unrealistic deadlines/production targets Excessive supervision Piece rate systems of remuneration Design in ‘micro-breaks’ (2–10 seconds rest every few minutes).Task/job design • • • • • • Limit repetitive movements to 2000 per hour or less. • • • • . Repetition frequencies greater than 1 Hz may pose a risk to joints or soft tissues. Eliminate highly repetitive (<30 second cycle time) jobs.

. • Use ergonomic criteria when making equipment procurement decisions.Management of working conditions and worker exposure • Avoid repetitive work in cold conditions. • Eliminate excessive overtime working. • Redesign tasks before a discomfort becomes a disorder.

Feedback will provide a system for employees to notify supervisors about conditions with potential ergonomic hazards. Employees should be instructed to report ergonomically related symptoms to their supervisors immediately. Inspections shall be conducted periodically to ensure safe operating procedures are being followed. fixtures. inspections. Maintenance should be the preventive program for monitoring mechanical equipment and tools to ensure they are in proper working condition. employee conditioning. feedback. • • • • • • • • Proper work techniques include training on the correct lifting procedures and correct use of ergonomically designed work stations. Employee conditioning should include employees gradually being worked into a full workload as appropriate for their specific job. Employees reassigned to new jobs should also have a break-in training period. . and tools. and maintenance.Training Work Practices should include a program with key elements such as proper work techniques.

• If you can. back and hips in a straight line. arms for lifting. • Stretching every few hours relieves physical tension and body aches and increases the productivity. • Use legs. • The work pattern should be changed so that the operators are not doing the same motion over and over. • There should be comfortable work environment. lean or sit rather than stand for long periods of time. Bend your knees and keep your head. Never bend over to pick anything up without first . • Wrists should be straight while work.Conclusion • Work area should be adjusted to fit the body.

Thank You… .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful