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Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a sovereign country in SouthEast Asia.


It is bordered by India, Bangladesh, China, Laos and Thailand. The capital city of Myanmar is Naypyidaw.

Geography
Location: Southeast Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Area: 676,578 km (261,228 square miles). Terrain: A land of hills and valleys rimmed in the north, east and west by mountain ranges forming a giant horseshoe. Enclosed within the mountain barriers are the flat lands where most of the country's agricultural land and population are concentrated. Climate: Tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April).

Demography
Population: 48 million (2010 estimate) Growth rate: 0.76% Ethnic Groups: As per CIA World fact-book the ethnic groups are: Bamar, Shan, Karen, Arakanese, Chinese, Mon, Indian, Other Language: Myanmar is a union of 135 ethnic groups with their own languages and dialects. Major languages Burmese, Karen Kachin, Chin,

Population Growth in Myanmar

Ethnic Concentration

Religious Concentration

Religion: The religions practiced in Myanmar are Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Spiritualism and others

Literacy Levels:

Education: Literacy (for people aged 15 and above) 92% (2009 estimate) Myanmars education system is modeled after that of the United Kingdom

Major Cities
Myanmar consists of 14 states and regions, 67 districts, 330 townships, 64 subtownships, 377 towns, 2914 Wards, 14220 village tracts and 68290 villages.
Most Populated Cities in Myanmar

Economy
Background: The country is one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology contributes to the growing problems of the economy The country lacks adequate infrastructure: - Old and rudimentary railways, Unpaved highways, Energy shortage History: British colonial era - Free market system with laissez-faire and free trade doctrine. 1948 till early 1962 - Mixed-economy model, allowing the market forces to play a leading role in the development process 1962-1988 - Socialism with a centrally planned economy September 1988 - The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) assumed power, instituting instead market-oriented economic system.

November 1988 onwards - Economic stabilization and reform measures

Natural resources: Timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, limestone, precious stones like jade, ruby and sapphires, natural gas, hydropower, and some petroleum. Agriculture Products: Rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane, hardwood, fish and fish products. Industries: Agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement. Tourism: Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country. However, fewer than 750,000 tourists enter the country annually. Exchange Rate System: Myanmar has a dual exchange rate system
Official Exchange Rates

Financial Year 2011-2012 Unofficial exchange rate:

US Dollar 5.89

Euro 7.51

Chinese Yuan 0.83

Indian Rupee 0.11

1 US Dollar = 874.5 Kyat

Economic Indicators
GDP (US dollars, billions)
60 51.93 50 40 31.37 30 20 10 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 GDP (US dollars, billions)
Source: World Data Atlas, Knoema

45.38 35.23

20.18 8.91 6.48 6.78

10.47 10.57

11.99

14.5

Economic Indicators
Per Capita GDP (US Dollars)
900 800 700 600 533 350 178 197 195 216 257 587 742

832

500
400 300 200 129 130

100
0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Per Capita GDP (US Dollars)
Source: World Data Atlas, Knoema

Economic Indicators
CPI Inflation (%)
70.00% 60.00% 58.10%

50.00%
40.00% 34.50% 24.95% 32.90% 26.30% 22.50% 10.70% 8.20%8.20% 4.20%

30.00%
20.00%

10.00%
0.00% -10.00%

-1.70%

3.80%

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
CPI Inflation (%)
Source: World Data Atlas, Knoema

Foreign Trade
Exports & Imports
60,000.00

50,000.00 Kyat Million 40,000.00


30,000.00 20,000.00 10,000.00 0.00 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 Total Exports 35,296.80 37,027.80 41,289.10 49,106.80 Total Imports 18,418.90 24873.8 22,837.40 35,508.40
Source: Central Statistical Organization, Myanmar

Export Trends
Export of Principal Commodities (2010-2011)
2% 5% 2% 2%
Rice

2%

4% 3%

Matpe Pedesein Raw Rubber Fish & Fish Products

47% 29% 4%

Teak Hardwood Gas Garment Others

Source: Central Statistical Organization, Myanmar

Export Trends
Export by Major Trading Country (2010-2011)

11%

13% 21% 10%

China

Hong Kong

33% 5%

India

Republic of Korea
Malaysia

5% 2%

Singapore
Thailand

Others

Source: Central Statistical Organization, Myanmar

Import Trends
Import of Principal Commodities (2010-2011)
4% 3% 30% 22%
Plastic Artificial & Synthetic Fabric Refined Mineral Oil Electrical Machinery Non electrical Machinery Base metals & manufactures

2% 3%

9%
3%

19%

5%

Edible Vegetable Oil Pharmaceutical Products Cement Others

Source: Central Statistical Organization, Myanmar

Import Trends
Country wise Imports (2010-2011)
11%
11% 34%
China

India
Indonesia

Japan

26% 5%

Republic of Korea

Malaysia
Singapore

3%
4% 2% 4%

Thailand
Others

Source: Central Statistical Organization, Myanmar

India Myanmar Relations


Trade relations between India and Myanmar growing in the past few years. India as Myanmars trade partner: Exports: 4th largest trading partner Imports: 7th most important source of imports for Myanmar Myanmars Trade with India
6,000.00 5,000.00

Kyat Million

4,000.00
3,000.00 2,000.00 1,000.00 0.00 Exports Imports

2007-2008
4,006.56 849.69

2008-2009
4,387.83 796.81

2009-2010
5,512.93 1,058.49

2010-2011
4,858.12 1,079.87

Source: Central Statistical Organization, Myanmar

India Myanmar Relations


Items exported to India (2010-2011)
Wood and articles of wood, Wood Charcoal (USD$ 419.16 million - 20102011)

Items imported from India (2010-2011)

Meat and edible Meat offal Pharmaceutical Products Iron and Steel Sugar & Sugar Confectionary Edible vegetables and certain roots and Nuclear Reactors, Boilers, Machinery & tubers (USD$ 570.82 million 2010-2011) Mechanical Appliances; Parts thereof Residues and Waste from the food Others: Products of animal origin, Rubber industry and articles thereof, Coffee, Tea, Mate and Electrical Machinery & Equipment Spices Others: Plastic, Paper and Paperboard, Essential oils, Cosmetics, Mineral Fuels, Locomotives, Optical Photographic Equipment,
Source: Export-Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, India

Millennium Development Goals


S.No 1. Goal

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger


% of undernourished population down from 10% (1990) to 5% (2002).

2.

Achieve universal primary education


Literacy rates of youth up from 88.2% (1991) to 95.7 (2009). Net enrolment ratio in primary schools down from 98.1% to 90.2% (2005). Primary completion rate up from 67.6% (1999) to 77.8% (2005).

3. 4.

Promote gender equality and empower women


Women-Men Parity Index as ratio of literacy rate up from 0.96 (1990) to 0.98 (2004).

Reduce child mortality


Infant mortality rate down from 91 (1991) to 50.4 (2010). Children under 5 mortality rate down from 130 (1990) to 106 (2004).

Millennium Development Goals


S.No 5. Goal

Improve maternal health


Maternal mortality ratio per 1,00,000 births down from 580 (1990) to 360 (2000).

6.

Combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases


Number of AIDS deaths up from 14000 (2001) to 37000 (2005). Tuberculosis deaths per 1,00,000 down from 50.1 (1991) to 20.7 (2004).

7.

Ensure environmental sustainability


Land area covered by forests down from 59.6% (1990) to 49% (2005). CO2 emission, metric tons of C02 per capita, up from 0.1049 (1990) to 0.1914 (2003). % Population using improved drinking water sources up from 57 (1990) to 78 (2004). % Population using improved sanitation facilities up from 24 (1990) to 77 (2004).

8.

Develop a global partnership for development


Internet users per 100 inhabitants up from Nil (1999) to 0.22 (2009). Personal Computers per 100 inhabitants up from 0.11(1999) to 0.60 (2006). Telephone lines & Cellular subscribers per 100 inhabitants up from 0.53(1999) to 0.96 (2004).