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Color

Training-Workshop in Wastewater Analysis RLC LABORATORY Robinsons Place Manila, Ermita , Manila September 3 14, 2012

Color in water

Presence of natural organic matter, particularly humic matter that consists of humic and fulvic acids cause yellow-brown color. Presence of soluble ferric humates Suspended particles, especially colloidalsize particles such as clay. Algae, iron and manganese oxides.
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Color in Water

Industrial wastewaters can contain lignins, tannins, dyes, and other organic and inorganic chemicals that cause color.

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Removal of Color

Humic materials and the color caused by these materials are removed from potable water supplies for aesthetic reasons and for health reasons because they are precursor in the formation of disinfection by-products. Color is also removed for use in industrial processes Required for compliance to DENR requirements
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What the color of water tells you?


Water color can reveal physical, chemical and bacteriological conditions of water. In drinking water, green can indicate copper leaching from copper plumbing and can also represent algae growth. Blue can also indicate copper, or might be caused by siphoning of industrial cleaners in the tank of commodes, commonly known as back flowing.
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What the color of water tells you?

Reds can be signs of rust from iron pipes or airborne bacteria from lakes, etc. Black water can indicate sulfur reducing bacteria growth inside a hot water tank set at less than 120 degrees Fahrenheit. This usually has a strong sulfur or rotten egg (H2S) odor and is easily corrected by draining the water heater and increasing the temperature to 120 or higher.
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COLOR

True color color or water from which turbidity has been removed Apparent color includes color from the substances in solution (dissolved solids) and suspended matter. It is determined on the original sample without filtration. SMEWW 21ST Ed. 2005
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Selection of Method

Method 2120 B: Visual Comparison Method Method 2120 C: Spectrophotometric SingleWavelength (PROPOSED) Method 2120 D: Spectrophotometric MultiWavelength Method Method 2120 E: Tristimulus Spectrophotometric Method Method 2120 F: AADMI Weighted-Ordinate Spectrophotometric Method
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Selection of Method

Method 2120 B & C:

Applicable to measurement of color caused by organic matter and applies to all surface and ground waters; wastewaters, both domestic and industrial; potable waters.
Applicable to color measurement for any dissolved chemicals that gives the appearance of color in the visible-light wavelength range.
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Method 2120 D, E, & F:

Method 2120-B Procedure

Preparation of Standards

Stock 500 Color Units (CU)

Dissolve 1.246g potassium chloroplatinate (K2PtCl6) and 1.00g crystallized chloride (CoCl26H2O) in reagent water with 100 conc HCl and dilute to 1000mL

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Procedure

Preparation of Standards

Working Standard Solutions : Follow the table below, all standards are diluted to 100mL
Volume of 500 CU; mL 1.0 2.0 Dilution; mL 100 100 Concentration; CU 5 10

4.0 10.0
20.0

100 100
100

20 50
100

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Sample Analysis

Check sample pH, if outside the range 4-10 adjust pH to 7, note changes. Wash membrane filter and filter assembly by passing at least 50mL water through filter Filter about 25mL sample and discard filtrate Filter further portion of 50mL through same filter and retain filtrate for analysis
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Sample Analysis
Observe sample color by filling a matched Nessler tube to the 50mL mark with sample and comparing it with standards Look vertically downward through tubes toward a white surface placed at such an angle that light is reflected upward through the columns of the liquid Note: If color exceed 100 units, dilute sample in known proportions until the color is within the range of the standards.

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Computation

Where: A= estimated color of a diluted sample B=mL sample taken for dilution Note: Report sample pH. Color results should be reported in whole numbers
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Reference

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Ed., 2005 P2-2

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