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Commonly Operating Machine Particularly Used for Trade, Education & Research
A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Computer can access & process data millions of times faster than humans can. A computer can store data & information in its memory, process them & produce the desired results. Computer can do a lot of different tasks such as playing games, railway reservation etc.

computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instructions and even more per second. Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in terms of microsecond (10-6 part of a second) or nano-second (10-9 part of a second). computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete

The degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. The accuracy level is determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data.

A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a computer will perform every calculation with the same accuracy. Due to this capability it overpowers human being in routine type of work.

. Versatility
It means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use your computer to prepare payroll slips. Next moment you may use it for inventory management or to prepare electric bills

Power of Remembering
Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data.

Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can.

No Feeling
It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users.

The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computers.


MARKETING :- Computer is mainly used for sales promotion,
e.g. designing of advertisements. Internet marketing (e-marketing). Comparing the sales figure. Studying the demand graph.

PRODUCTION :-It is used for making design of product.

CAD (computer aided design)

HUMAN RESOURCE :- Computer is used in keeping the

records of all the employees. Recruitment and Selection.

Higher education :- All the universities and
colleges are furnished with computer labs.

Online education :- This can done with the help

of computer and internet.

Self-Learning. Faculty usage. School library. Used to generate letters and documents.

Air force :- All the fighter plane are equipped with
computer system for targeting and navigation. With the help of computer only PREDATOR an unmanned fighter can be controlled.

Army :- Gentle men uses computerized ROBOT in the

battle field. Tanks are also installed with computer.

Navy :- Today all the submarines uses computer far

navigation and targeting.


Software. Design of buildings and maps. Designing VLSI chip and many more. Robotics research.

Research :-Used in different pharmaceutical companies. Hospitals :- Mainly computer is used for keeping the
record of patients. Inventory of medicines. Surgeries.

Diagnosis :CT scan. Ultra-sound. Blood test. Electro-cardio gram.

1. Use of vacuum tubes 2. Big & Clumsy 3. High Electricity Consumption 4. Programming in Mechanical Language 5. Larger AC were needed 6. Lot of electricity failure occurred

1. Transistors were used 2. Core Memory was developed 3. Faster than First Generation computers 4. First Operating System was developed 5. Programming was in Machine Language & Aseembly Language 6. Magnetic tapes & discs were used 7. Computers became smaller in size than the First Generation computers 8. Computers consumed less heat & consumed less electricity


1. Integrated circuits developed 2. Power consumption was low 3. SSI & MSI Technology was used 4. High level languages were used


1. LSI & VLSI Technology used 2. Development of Portable Computers 3. RAID Technology of data storage 4. Used in virtual reality, multimedia, simulation 5. Computers started in use for Data Communication 6. Different types of memories with very high accessing speed & storage capacity


1. Used in parallel processing 2. Used superconductors 3. Used in speech recognition 4. Used in intelligent robots 5. Used in artificial intelligence

Block diagram of computer

Primary Storage or Main Memory (MM). This is where programs are stored during their execution. The MM is a fast memory capable of operating at electronic speeds.

Memory Unit Secondary Storage

This is used when large amounts of data have to be stored (on a more permanent basis), particularly if some of the data need not be accessed very frequently. This is a storage medium that will hold data and program/sets of instructions even if the computer system is switched off.

Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) Logical Unit

After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored

Control Unit (CU)

The next component of computer is the Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. Control Unit is responsible for co ordinating various operations using time signal. The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed. Things like processing of programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute them. It also acts as a switch board operator when several users access the computer simultaneously. Thereby it coordinates the activities of computers peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output.

Computer software
System Software :( the code that boots the computer
and controls the devices, resources and applications). Everyday folks know this as Windows, Mac, Linux, Unix, etc. This is typically read from disk and loaded into RAM, although it could also be manifested as PROM, in which case it is read from non-volatile memory. Application Software. This is software that can be written for a platform such as Windows, or in todays world, a web-based application that uses the Network and System software noted above.

Application Software: This is software that can be

written for a platform such as Windows, or in todays world, a webbased application that uses the Network and System software noted above.

This is most commonly used device which acts as input device. Its structure is like typewriter.It contains no. of keys which have some specific ASCII values. Like A has ASCII value 65. When this is pressed , it is converted into 65 & this 65 is sent to CPU in the form of Binary language (i.e. 1000001). Then operations are done on this data.


This is a pointing device which contains a roller in its base. When the mouse is moved on any surface, the pointer on the screen is also moved. It contains a potentiometer coupled with the roller. This potentiometer senses the motion of mouse & convert it into digital value. A mouse may contain two or three buttons. Now a day's optical mouse are very popular.


It is a device which is used to read the code from the products which are usually in the form of Bars. It contains a light sensitive detector which identifies the values of the bars on the product & converts them into numeric code. These Bar readers are used in Shopping malls in a very large scale.

It is a pointing device which contains a photocell mounted at its tip. It senses the light from the screen when it becomes closer to the screen, & generates a pulse. So for identifying a particular location on the screen these light pens are very useful. But this is not in very much use these days.

The scanner is an input device like the photocopier machine which makes the electronic copy of the picture or document which can be further edited.

The devices which are used to display the data to the user either in the form of hard copy or soft copy are called output devices.

Speakers receive the sound in the form of electric current from the sound card & convert it to sound format. These are used for listening music, chatting , seminars for presentations etc.

VDU (Visual Display Unit)

This is also called monitor. It is used to get the data in the form of soft copy. Their functioning is exactly similar to the television. It contains a CRT which emits the electrons to trace a regular pattern of horizontal lines on the screen.

These devices gives the hard copy of the output. These are in different types: Impact - Have mechanical contact in between paper & printing head Non Impact - No mechanical contact between paper & printing head IMPACT : Line Printers - print line wise (E.g. Drum Printer) Character Printer - print character wise (E.g. Daisy Printer) NON IMPACT Electromagnet Printers Thermal Printers Electrostatic Printers Inkjet Printers Laser Printers

Primary Memory consist of RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read only memory). In this type of primary memory data is not stored permanently, it is stored temporarily . After getting off data is erased from the memory of computer.These are considered as short term memory

Random Access Memory (RAM) is the best known form of computer memory. The Read and write (R/W) memory of a computer is called RAM. The RAM is a volatile memory, it means information written to it can be accessed as long as power is on. As soon as the power is off, it can not be accessed There are two basic types of RAM: (i) Dynamic Ram (ii) Static RAM

Dynamic RAM
It loses its stored information in a very short time (for milli sec.) even when power supply is on. D-RAMs are cheaper & lower. Similar to a microprocessor chip is an Integrated Circuit (IC) made of millions of transistors and capacitors.This refresh operation is where dynamic RAM gets its name. Dynamic RAM has to be dynamically refreshed all of the time or it forgets what it is holding. The downside of all of this refreshing is that it takes time and slows down the memory.

Static RAM
It uses a completely different technology. S-RAM retains stored information only as long as the power supply is on. Static RAMs are costlier and consume more power. They have higher speed than D-RAMs. They store information in Hip-Hope.In static RAM, a form of flipflop holds each bit of memory.Static RAM is fast and expensive, and dynamic RAM is less expensive and slower.

Read only memory: Its non volatile memory, ie, the information stored in it, is not lost even if the power supply goes off. Its used for the permanent storage of information. It also posses random access property. Information can not be written into a ROM by the users/programmers. In other words the contents of ROMs are decided by the manufactures. The following types of ROMs an listed below : (i) PROM : Its programmable ROM. Its contents are decided by the user. The user can store permanent programs, data etc in a PROM. The data is fed into it using a PROM programs. (ii) EPROM : An EPROM is an erasable PROM. The stored data in EPROMs can be erased by exposing it to UV light for about 20 min. Its not easy to erase it because the EPROM IC has to be removed from the computer and exposed to UV light. The entire data is erased and not selected portions by the user. EPROMs are cheap and reliable. (iii) EEPROM (Electrically Erasable PROM) : The chip can be erased & reprogrammed on the board easily byte by byte. It can be erased with in a few milliseconds. There is a limit on the number of times the EEPROMs can be reprogrammed, i.e.; usually around 10,000 times.


Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a
thin magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. It was developed in Germany, based on magnetic wire recording. Devices that record and play back audio and video using magnetic tape are tape recorders and video tape recorders. A device that stores computer data on magnetic tape is a tape drive

A floppy disk, or diskette, is a disk storage medium composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic carrier lined with fabric that removes dust particles. They are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD).Floppy disks, initially as 8-inch (200 mm) media and later in 5.25-inch (133 mm) and 3.5-inch (89 mm) sizes.

The Zip

drive is a medium-capacity removable disk storage system that

was introduced by Iomega in late 1994. Originally, Zip disks launched with capacities of 100 MB, but later versions increased this to first 250 MB and then 750 MB.

A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive, hard disk, or disk drive)[2] is a device for storing and retrieving digital information, primarily computer data. It consists of one or more rigid (hence "hard") rapidly rotating discs (platters) coated with magnetic material, and with magnetic heads arranged to write data to the surfaces and read it from them.

An operating system (OS) is a set of computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. At the foundation of all system software, the OS performs basic tasks such as controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and output devices, facilitating networking, and managing files. It also may provide a graphical user interface for higher level functions.


Memory management: The memory manager in an OS
coordinates the memories by tracking which one is available, which is to be allocated or deallocated and how to swap between the main memory and secondary memories. The operating system tracks all memory used by each process so that when a process terminates, all memory used by that process will be available for other processes.

Disk and file systems: Operating systems have a variety of

native file systems that controls the creation, deletion, and access of files of data and programs.

Security: most operating systems include some level of security.

Networking: Most current operating systems are capable of using the

TCP/IP networking protocols. This means that one system can appear on a network of the other and share resources such as files, printers, and scanners. Many operating systems also support one or more vendorspecific legacy networking protocols as well.

Device drivers: A device driver is a specific type of computer software

developed to allow interaction with hardware devices. Typically this constitutes an interface for communicating with the device, through the specific computer bus or communications subsystem that the hardware is connected to, providing commands to and/or receiving data from the device, and on the other end, the requisite interfaces to the operating system and software applications.