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Developing classroom skills

ELE 3102 Week 4

Questioning techniques
Central to interactive teaching is the active use of questions. Questions help to: * actively involve students in the lesson * arouse students interest and curiosity * focus attention on a particular pointy or concept * encourage students to form and express ideas based on what is discussed * encourage students to form the habit of asking questions
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Types of questions
Questions are used for a variety of purpose. E.g.: Do you have a garden at home? What kinds of plants grow there vegetables or flower plants? Can you tell us more about the plants in your garden? 1st question: focuses on students attention on the topic of the day -> plants 2nd question: draws on students previous knowledge and prompt them by providing two categories of plants 3rd question forces student to think more thoroughly about his first answer and requires a clearer, detailed answer

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Types of questions
Questions therefore has three types: focussing questions prompting questions probing question

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Questioning techniques
The art of good questioning involves: Distribution: do not direct questions at a few bright students or use a mechanical system such as proceeding row by row. Distribute questions at random to cover the whole class Wait time: students need time to think of their answers> they need time to formulate an answer as well as build confidence to make a response
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Questioning techniques
Redirection : you can increase the amount of student participation by asking a number of students to respond to the same question, e.g.: Chye Leng lives five kilometres from school. What form of transport can he use to get there? Alex? -> car.. Lee? -> bicycle. Mike?.....

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Questioning techniques
Phrasing: Questions should be clearly phrased and should not be more complex than the answers required. Ask questions which are relevant to your lesson objectives using language that is familiar and easily understood.

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Responding to the learners


1. Reinforcement: Skinner (behavioural psychologist) -> responses which are rewarded tend to be repeated Reinforcement conveys the message to the student that his response or behaviour is desirable and it can be used to:

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increase students attention maintain motivation encourage independent thinking improve student behaviour reinforcement can be positive (praise, award, star, point) or negative (detention, warning)

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Types of reinforcement
a. b. c. d. Verbal reinforcement Using gestures and movement Activity reinforcement Token reinforcement

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Responding to the learners


2. Correction When a student makes incorrect response a teacher will have to identify if it is a mistake or an error A mistake is an occasional slip, in incorrect form which the student can correct by themselves. e.g.: he are going, she are eating Errors:
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cont
Three types of error according to Hubbard et. al. (1983): 1. Mother-tongue interference 2. Overgeneralization 3. Errors caused by teaching ->> please refer to ELT Methodology: Principles and Practice (pp.: 288)

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Dealing with errors:


What to correct When to correct How to correct ->> please refer to ELT Methodology: Principles and Practice (pp.: 288)

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