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HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSTS

I. INTRODUCTION

A. SOME USES OF CATALYSTS IN THE INDUSTRY

HABER-BOSCH SYNTHESIS OF AMONIA

N2(g) + 3H2(g)

2NH3(g)

OSMIUM OR MAGNETITE

OSTWALD PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF NITRIC ACID


4 NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) 4 HNO3 (aq)

PLATINUM

PETROLEUM CRACKING

ZEOLITE

B. ADVANTAGES OF USING CATALYSTS


SPEED UP CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITHOUT TAKING PART IN THE REACTION REDUCTION OF TOTAL COSTS IN THE PLANT INCREASE IN THE PRODUCTION CAPACITY

II. DEFINITION OF TERMS

A. DEFINITION OF CATALYST

A SUBSTANCE, USUALLY USED IN

SMALL AMOUNTS RELATIVE TO THE REACTANTS, THAT MODIFIES AND INCREASES THE RATE OF A REACTION WITHOUT BEING CONSUMED IN THE PROCESS

B. DEFINITION OF CATALYSIS

CHANGE IN RATE OF A CHEMICAL REACTION DUE TO THE PARTICIPATION OF A SUBSTANCE CALLED A CATALYST

C. DEFINITION OF HOMOGENEOUS CATALYST

A CATALYST THAT EXISTS IN THE SAME PHASE AS THE REACTANTS AND PRODUCTS USUALLY LIQUID PHASE REACTIONS, SOMETIMES GAS PHASE

D. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYST AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST

E. DEFINITION OF CHEMICAL KINETICS

STUDY OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS RATE

III. THEORIES

Theories in Catalyst
Chemical Kinetics Also known as Reaction Kinetics. It is the study of rates of chemical processes. It includes investigations of how different experimental conditions can influence the speed of a chemical reaction. Yield information about the reaction's mechanism and transition states. The construction of mathematical models that can describe the characteristics of a chemical reaction.

Theories in Catalyst
Peter Waage and Cato Guldberg pioneered

the development of chemical kinetics by formulating the law of mass action. Law of Mass Action states that the speed of a chemical reaction is proportional to the quantity of the reacting substances. Chemical kinetics deals with the experimental determination of reaction rates from which rate laws and rate constants are derived.

Rate Law Rate Law = Law of mass action For the reaction: A B For Liquids: -rA = kCA^n For Gases: -rA = kPA^n Where: n is the order of the reaction.

Factors Affecting The Rate of Reaction


Nature of reactants Substance dependent (reaction rate varies) Concentration Temperature Pressure (for gases) Catalyst

Catalytic Reaction Mechanism


Catalysts generally react with one or more reactants to form intermediates that subsequently give the final reaction product, in the process regenerating the catalyst. The following is a typical reaction scheme, where C represents the catalyst, X and Y are reactants, and Z is the product of the reaction of X and Y:

Catalytic Reaction Mechanism


Overall Reaction: X+YZ Reaction Mechanism: X + C XC (1) Y + XC XYC (2) XYC CZ (3) CZ C + Z (4)

Catalytic Reaction Kinetics


Overall Reaction: reactants + catalyst products + catalyst

Example: A+B+CR+S+C Rate of Reaction= k[A][B]

Homogeneous Catalyst
Homogeneous Catalyst
Catalyst and Reactants are in the same phase.

Example of Homogeneous Catalyst : Oxidation of sulfur dioxide to form sulfur trioxide in presence of nitric oxide. Here, nitric oxide acts as a catalyst and reactants and catalyst are in same phase. (gaseous phase) 2SO2 + O2 + NO SO3 + NO

Homogeneous Catalyst
Another examples of Homogeneous Catalyst:
Acid Catalysis Base Catalysis Acylation Aldol Reaction Alkylation Oxidation Hydrolysis Nitration

IV. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

LAND AIR
WATER

CONTAMINATION