# Hydraulic Actuators

POWER CONVERSION IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Hydraulic Actuator
 Hydraulic systems are used to control & transmit fluid

power
 A pump driven by prime mover (electric motor)

creates flow of fluid and adds energy to the fluid
 An actuator is just opposite of pump and is used to

convert the energy of the fluid back into mechanical energy to perform useful work

TYPES OF HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS  Linear actuator (hydraulic cylinder) Provides motion in straight line Linear displacement depends on stroke length Usually referred to as cylinders. rams (single acting cylinders) or jacks (cylinder used for lifting) .

LINEAR ACTUATOR .

TYPES OF ACTUATORS Rotary actuators (Hydraulic motors) Produces continuous rotational motion Semi rotary actuators(limited rotation) Produces non-continuous rotational motion Limited to less than one revolution (<360°) Used to produce oscillatory motions in mechanisms .

LINEAR HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS (CYLINDERS) Common Types  Single acting cylinder  Double acting cylinder .

SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER .

OPERATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER .

DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER .

DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER .

Double Rod Cylinder .

CYLINDER FORCE. VELOCITY & POWER .

EXTENSION STROKE Fluid enters the blank end of cylinder through the entire circular area of the piston AP .

VELOCITY & POWER .CYLINDER FORCE.

RETRACTION STROKE Fluid enters the rod end of cylinder through the Smaller annular between the rod & cylinder bore “AP-Ar” Extension force is greater than the retraction force for the same operating pressure Retraction velocity is greater the extension velocity for the same input flow rate .

CYLINDER POWER Power developed by hydraulic cylinder equals the product of its force and velocity during a given stroke Power = p X Qin .

An external force returns the piston to its normal position and forces the hydraulic fluid back through the supply tubing to the fluid reservoir. Hydraulic fluid enters through a port at one end of the cylinder. double acting  Single acting cylinders are economical and the simplest design. which then moves the piston to extend the rod.Single acting vs. .

double acting  Double acting cylinders have a port at each end. . They are used where an external force is not available to retract the piston or where high force is required in both directions of travel. supplied with hydraulic fluid for both the retraction and extension of the piston.Single acting vs.

COUSHIONED CYLINDER .

SECOND CLASS LEVER SYSTEM .

THIRD CLASS LEVER SYSTEM .

GEAR MOTOR .

VANE MOTOR .

SWASH PLATE TYPE PISTON MOTOR .

BENT-AXIS TYPE PISTON MOTOR .

HYDRAULIC MOTOR PERFORMANCE  Volumetric efficiency  Mechanical efficiency  Overall efficiency .

5. 3. . power source(prime mover or electric motor) a hydraulic pump a hydraulic motor appropriate valves and pipes can be used to provide adjustable speed drives is called a Hydraulic Transmission. 4. 2.HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSION  A system consisting of a 1.