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PAPR reduction technique comparision

PAPR reduction technique comparision

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CONTENTS

Concept of OFDM

OFDM Block Diagram What is PAPR

How to reduce it ?

PRPR reduction techniques Selected Mapping technique Partial transmit sequence Comparison of techniques Conclusion References

CONCEPT OF OFDM

Target rate for 4G is 1 Gbps stationary and 100 Mbps while moving.

New modulation technique for adoption of 4G is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

It is a multicarrier transmission system.

Multicarrier System

CONCEPT OF OFDM

FDM

OFDM

Each one being modulated by low data rate speed. Uses the spectrum much more efficiently.

ORTHOGONALITY

Orthogonal Waves

The orthogonality of the carriers means that each carrier has an integer number of cycles over a symbol period.

Due to this the spectrum of each carrier has a null at the center frequency of each of the other carriers in the system.

Sine wave multiplied by another of a different harmonic

The area under a sine wave multiplied by its own harmonic is always zero.

ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM

Block

The pair FFT IFFT will return the same output while maintaining the orthogonality

Block

Is

sicquam

Block

Is

RESULTANT WAVEFORM

sicquatio

mn (t)sin(2nt)

Block

WHAT IS PAPR ?

Definition : The PAPR of the transmit signal x(t) is the ratio of the maximum instantaneous power and the average power.

Max [X(t)] 2

PAPR

= ------------0tT E{|[X(t)]2|}

Block

This technique is introduce in1960s But started implementing now a days Because high PAPR require higher value Power Amplifier at the Transmitter side

If we reduce the power of the signal, the battery life of mobile will increase even at the high data rate

BlockHOW

PAPR reduction techniques vary according to the needs of the system and are dependent on various factors : PAPR reduction capacity, Power increase in transmit signal, loss in data rate, complexity of computation and Increase in the bit-error rate at the receiver end.

No of Carriers 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256

Block

A threshold value of the amplitude is set in this process and any sub-carrier having amplitude more than that value is clipped or that sub-carrier is filtered to bring out a lower PAPR value.

SELECTED MAPPING

In this a set of sufficiently different data blocks representing the information same as the original data blocks are selected. Selection of data blocks with low PAPR value makes it suitable for transmission.

Transmitting only part of data of varying sub-carrier which covers all the information to be sent in the signal as a whole is called Partial Transmit Sequence Technique.

. In SLM, from the original data block several candidate data blocks are generated and the one with lowest PAPR is transmitted.

At the receiver the reverse operation is performed to recover the original data block.

PTS Block diagram

+

xn

IFFT Length N

Optimizer

Side information

Bolock

WORKING OF PTS

Subblock partition scheme (SPS) perform the division of T r subcarriers into multiple disjoint subblocks by choosing the appropriate subcarriers to be allocated in each subblocks The cluster then converted to time domain using the IFFT Representation of the cluster in time domain is given by xm and is known as Partial transmit sequence

M x = xm m=1

Each transmit sequence is then phase rotated with a constant weighting factor ,bm The weighting factors are choosen by the optimization block that performs a specific algorithm in searching for the optimized combination of the weighted transmit sequences, which produce the lowest PAPR. Then the optimum signal combination will be transmitted

Advantage: No distortion is introduced

Drawback: It requires transmitting bits of side information per OFDM symbol. It is crucial that the side information is received without errors. The side information has to be heavily protected. PTS has a complexity of V IFFT operations complex vector multiplications and complex vector sums.

The amount of PAPR reduction depends on V, and the sub block partitioning.

Block

Type / Parameter

Distortion less

Power increase

Clipping & Filtering Coding Partial Transmit Sequence(PTS) Selected Mapping Interleaving

No

No

No

Yes Yes

No No

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

No No

Yes Yes

Block

APPLICATIONS

1. Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) 2. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) 3. HiperLAN/2 and IEEE802.11a

Block

CONCLUSION

Most of these techniques are unable to achieve simultaneously a large reduction in PAPR with low complexity, with low coding overhead, without performance degradation.

No specific PAPR reduction technique is the best solution for all multi carrier transmission. Rather the PAPR reduction technique should be carefully chosen according to various system requirements

REFERRENCES

1. Reducing PAPR of OFDM Signals using Partial Transmit

2. An overview of techniques for reducing PAPR and its selection criterion by V. Vijayarangan Dr. R. Sukanesh , JATIT.

3. A Novel PAPR reduction scheme SLM without Explicit side info by sameer S. IEEE 2008.

4. Selected mapping without side information for PAPR reduction in OFDM by Stephane Le Goff. IEEE 2011

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