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# Welcome to AISSMS COE ME (E&TC)(Microwave)

CONTENTS
Concept of OFDM

## Orthogonality and OFDM modulation

OFDM Block Diagram What is PAPR

How to reduce it ?
PRPR reduction techniques Selected Mapping technique Partial transmit sequence Comparison of techniques Conclusion References

CONCEPT OF OFDM
Target rate for 4G is 1 Gbps stationary and 100 Mbps while moving.

New modulation technique for adoption of 4G is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
It is a multicarrier transmission system.

## Single Carrier System

Multicarrier System

CONCEPT OF OFDM

## Divides the available spectrum into many subcarriers.

FDM

OFDM

Each one being modulated by low data rate speed. Uses the spectrum much more efficiently.

ORTHOGONALITY

## This is achieved by making all the carriers orthogonal to one another.

Orthogonal Waves

The orthogonality of the carriers means that each carrier has an integer number of cycles over a symbol period.
Due to this the spectrum of each carrier has a null at the center frequency of each of the other carriers in the system.

## f(t) = sin wt * sin n wt

Sine wave multiplied by another of a different harmonic

The area under a sine wave multiplied by its own harmonic is always zero.

## FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF Block

ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM

Block

## The two view of a signal

The pair FFT IFFT will return the same output while maintaining the orthogonality

Block
Is

sicquam

## Time domain view of signal

Block
Is

RESULTANT WAVEFORM
sicquatio

mn (t)sin(2nt)

## Is basically an equation of an Inverse FFT

Block

WHAT IS PAPR ?

Definition : The PAPR of the transmit signal x(t) is the ratio of the maximum instantaneous power and the average power.
Max [X(t)] 2

PAPR

= ------------0tT E{|[X(t)]2|}

Block

## WHY WE SHOULD REMOVE IT ?

This technique is introduce in1960s But started implementing now a days Because high PAPR require higher value Power Amplifier at the Transmitter side

## Which increase the cost of transmitter

If we reduce the power of the signal, the battery life of mobile will increase even at the high data rate

BlockHOW

## SHOULD BE THE TECHNIQUE ?

PAPR reduction techniques vary according to the needs of the system and are dependent on various factors : PAPR reduction capacity, Power increase in transmit signal, loss in data rate, complexity of computation and Increase in the bit-error rate at the receiver end.

## GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PAPR VS NO OF CARRIERS

No of Carriers 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256

Block

## Block AMPLITUDE CLIPPING AND FILTERING

A threshold value of the amplitude is set in this process and any sub-carrier having amplitude more than that value is clipped or that sub-carrier is filtered to bring out a lower PAPR value.

SELECTED MAPPING
In this a set of sufficiently different data blocks representing the information same as the original data blocks are selected. Selection of data blocks with low PAPR value makes it suitable for transmission.

## PARTIAL TRANSMIT SEQUENCE

Transmitting only part of data of varying sub-carrier which covers all the information to be sent in the signal as a whole is called Partial Transmit Sequence Technique.

## SELECTED MAPPING TECHNIQUE (SLM) Block

. In SLM, from the original data block several candidate data blocks are generated and the one with lowest PAPR is transmitted.

At the receiver the reverse operation is performed to recover the original data block.

## PARTIAL TRANSMIT SEQUENCES (PTS) Block

PTS Block diagram

## IFFT Length N IFFT Length N

+
xn
IFFT Length N

Optimizer

Side information

Bolock

WORKING OF PTS

Subblock partition scheme (SPS) perform the division of T r subcarriers into multiple disjoint subblocks by choosing the appropriate subcarriers to be allocated in each subblocks The cluster then converted to time domain using the IFFT Representation of the cluster in time domain is given by xm and is known as Partial transmit sequence
M x = xm m=1

Each transmit sequence is then phase rotated with a constant weighting factor ,bm The weighting factors are choosen by the optimization block that performs a specific algorithm in searching for the optimized combination of the weighted transmit sequences, which produce the lowest PAPR. Then the optimum signal combination will be transmitted

## Block MERITS AND DEMERITS OF PTS

Drawback: It requires transmitting bits of side information per OFDM symbol. It is crucial that the side information is received without errors. The side information has to be heavily protected. PTS has a complexity of V IFFT operations complex vector multiplications and complex vector sums.

The amount of PAPR reduction depends on V, and the sub block partitioning.

Block

Type / Parameter

Distortion less

Power increase

## Data rate loss

Clipping & Filtering Coding Partial Transmit Sequence(PTS) Selected Mapping Interleaving

No

No

No

Yes Yes

No No

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

No No

Yes Yes

Block

APPLICATIONS
1. Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) 2. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) 3. HiperLAN/2 and IEEE802.11a

Block

CONCLUSION

## It is desirable to reduce the PAPR

Most of these techniques are unable to achieve simultaneously a large reduction in PAPR with low complexity, with low coding overhead, without performance degradation.
No specific PAPR reduction technique is the best solution for all multi carrier transmission. Rather the PAPR reduction technique should be carefully chosen according to various system requirements

REFERRENCES
1. Reducing PAPR of OFDM Signals using Partial Transmit

## Dept. of Radio Technology of

2. An overview of techniques for reducing PAPR and its selection criterion by V. Vijayarangan Dr. R. Sukanesh , JATIT.

3. A Novel PAPR reduction scheme SLM without Explicit side info by sameer S. IEEE 2008.
4. Selected mapping without side information for PAPR reduction in OFDM by Stephane Le Goff. IEEE 2011