Our Students’ Mindsets

Mindset Research
• Dr. Carol Dweck spent 30 years developing the theory of mindset.

• A mindset is believe a person has about their intelligence and abilities.

• This belief is highly contextual. It changes from subject to subject or task to task.

• The belief does not depend on a person innate intellectual abilities.

Growth or Fixed
• Dweck’s work found that only two belief system developed in learners.

• Learners either saw their intelligence as fixed at birth—hence a Fixed Mindset. • These learners see people as being born either smart average or below average and that is just the way it is.

Growth Mindset
OR • Learners see intelligence as malleable and changeable and that a person never knows how smart they might become.

• You get smarter your whole life.

Students’ Mindsets
• Our students’ mindsets begin in middle school.

• Students, for the first time, are confronted with more difficult academic tasks.

Students’ Mindsets

• Students begin to see clear difference between themselves and other learners.

Growth Mindset
In a growth mindset students believe their intelligence and abilities can be enhanced through hard work and practice. They believe only time will tell how smart they become.

In a fixed mindset students believe that intelligence is a fixed trait -- that some people have it and others don't -- and that their intelligence is reflected in their performance (Dweck, 2006).

Growth Mindset

Student’s value hard work, learning, and challenges while seeing failure as something to learn from.

Fixed Mindset
Fixed mindsets believe they either shouldn’t need to work hard to do well

putting in the effort won’t make any difference in the outcome.

Growth Mindset
Students are willing to take learning risks and understand that through practice and effort their abilities can improve.

Mindset is Contextual

Students’ Mindsets are often different for different subjects or tasks.

Fixed Intelligence is unchangeable. VS. Growth Intelligence is malleable and can be improved.

Fixed Look smart. vs. Growth Desire to learn is paramount.

Fixed Avoid challenges. VS. Growth Failure is seen as an opportunity to learn. Risks are necessary for growth.

Fixed Make excuses and try to avoid difficulties. VS. Growth Effort is necessary for growth and success.

Fixed Criticism is taken personally. VS. Growth Criticism is directed at their current skills level.

Students know they can improve.

Feedback and Mindset
Teachers should focus on students' efforts and strategies.

Praise students’ efforts or their strategies, not their intelligence.

Mindset and Intelligence
There is no relation between students' abilities or intelligence and the development of a growth mindset.

• • • • References ^ http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~dweck Carol S. Dweck, Department of Psychology, Stanford University ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-13128701 The words that could unlock your child, BBC News, 19th April 2011 ^ Mangels, J. A.; Butterfield, B.; Lamb, J.; Good, C.; Dweck, C. (2006). "Why do beliefs about intelligence influence learning success? A social cognitive neuroscience model". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 1 (2): 75–86. doi:10.1093/scan/nsl013. PMC 1838571. PMID 17392928. edit ^ Job, V.; Dweck, C. S.; Walton, G. M. (2010). "Ego Depletion--Is It All in Your Head?: Implicit Theories About Willpower Affect Self-Regulation". Psychological Science 21 (11): 1686–1693. doi:10.1177/0956797610384745. PMID 20876879. edit ^ Olson, K. R.; Dunham, Y.; Dweck, C. S.; Spelke, E. S.; Banaji, M. R. (2008). "Judgments of the lucky across development and culture". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94 (5): 757–776. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.757. PMC 2745195. PMID 18444737. edit ^ Dweck, C. S.; Leggett, E. L. (1988). "A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality". Psychological Review 95 (2): 256–273. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256. edit ^ Dweck, C. S. (1986). "Motivational processes affecting learning". American Psychologist 41 (10): 1040–1048. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040. edit ^ "Stanford University’s Carol Dweck on the Growth Mindset and Education". OneDublin.org. 201206-19.

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