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CDMA1X Radio Network
Planning and Optimization
Yosuf Yang

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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• Role of RNP
• Huawei Landmarks in RNP
• Planning and Optimization
• Huawei Solutions In RNP
Agenda
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Better
coverage
Large
Capacity
Best resources
utilization
Future
proof
Best Quality
An Efficient Network
…...
Wireless network demands
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Why is It Important?
Attention to
Capacity
Utilization
How to expand?
Interference
Traffic Unbalanced
About 500 BTSs and 3500TRX
?
Evaluation
Enough Frequency
Capacity Waste
!
Optimization
With
Planning
An Example of the C City:
Excellent
Network
60%
Equipment
40%
RNP Service
= +
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• Role of CDMA
• Huawei Landmarks in RNP
• Planning and Optimization
• Huawei Solutions in RNP
Agenda
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Wireless
Access
CDMA 450D
CDMA WLL
GSM
GSM900
GSM1800
2.5G
CDMA 2000 1X
GPRS
3G
WCDMA
CDMA EV
Wireless Series Products
A mature RNP Team
 Over 600 engineers in more than 40 technical support offices for
round the clock services
 Strict grade authentication of technical position qualification
A Mature Technical Team
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Technical Support System
Technical Support System
Provide Fast and Efficient RNP Services
Onsite
Engineer
R&D
Technical
Support
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OK! It is done!
Don’t worry!
We are here to
help you!
I know what’s wrong
,just do like this
System is down
I can’t solve it
Our support team always keeps on monitoring

Onsite
Technical Support
Support Guaranteed
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With 8 years’ experience,Huawei has many patents in RNP field.
Research Achievements In CDMA RNP
 Huawei hybrid traffic model and planning approaches Patent

 Huawei Link budget approaches and planning tools Patent

 Huawei Neighbor List Auto-Generation System

 Huawei RNP Platforms (SNA, Netstar, I-go…)

 Huawei Radio Resource Management Scheme Patent

Technical Guarantee
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• Role of CDMA
• Huawei Landmarks in RNP
• Planning and Optimization
• Huawei Solutions in RNP
Agenda
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Let’s begin RNP
PN
Planning
Planning
Scheme
Antenna
Selection
Simulation
Network
Planning
Software
BTS
Layout
Link
Budget
Coverage
Prediction
Capacity
Analysis
Network Planning
Just tell us your requirements on capacity and coverage, we are
ready to provide a whole planning scheme .
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Network Optimization
The general optimization procedure
Analysis &
Optimization
Data
Collection
Evaluation
& Feedback
Network Performance Data
- Statistics Data (NMS, BSM)
- Field Measurement Data
- Subscriber Claims
We have rich project implementation experience in mobile field,
and have set up more than 10,000 base stations.
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Network planning software
•PlaNET
•ASSET
Tools Applied in RNP
Drive Test instrument
•Bluerose
•Agilent
•Paromara.
Spectrum Analyzer, Signaling
Analyzer …
Best Tools in This Field
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• Role of CDMA
• Huawei Landmarks in RNP
• Planning and Optimization
• Huawei Solutions in RNP
Agenda
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Solutions in Different Environments
 Plains
Canzhou, Tashkent in Uzbiekestan, Ufa
in Russia, Petersburg in Russia …
 Highlands
Hunan, Yunnan, Guangxi…
 Dense cities
Shantou, Minsk in Byelorussia…
 Road coverage
Fujian…


Application Experiences in Various
Environments :
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Country Project
Russia Moscow MSS
Russia Ufa CCB
Russia St.Petersburg Delta
Uzbiekestan Uzbektelecom
Belorussia Minsk
Kirghizia Iberiatel
Ukraine CST
Kazakstan Telecom
Yemen WLL
Algeria WLL
……
Overseas CDMA Applications
Cover the
whole
country
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Dense City – S city
South China: S city
80,000 subscribers, 35 BTSs
 Economic developed city, the hometown of Li
Jiacheng, with population of 4,680,000.
 Many high-rises and condensed dwelling houses
 Face the sea and against hills
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Link Budget---
Work out the path loss under a certain
conditions, then get the cell radius with
Propagation model.
The maximum allowed path loss
Coverage area of a single site
The number of sites to meet the coverage
Coverage – S City
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Coverage – S City
m
h b b p
A d h h f L ÷ ÷ + ÷ + = log ) log 55 . 6 9 . 44 ( log 82 . 13 log 16 . 26 55 . 69
Lp
f
b
h
m
h
d
m
h
A
Path loss (dB)
BS antenna height (m)
MS antenna height (m)
Carrier frequency (MHz)
Distance between the BS and MS (Km)
MS antenna correction factor (dB)
) 8 . 0 log 56 . 1 ( ) 7 . 0 log 1 . 1 ( ÷ ÷ ÷ = f h f A
m h
m
97 . 4 ) 75 . 11 (log 2 . 3
2
÷ =
m h
h A
m
Middle or small-size cities:
Big cities:
Frequency range: 150MHz to 2000MHz.
Propagation Model–
Okumura-Hata & Cost 231

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Coverage – S City
Propagation Model–
Terrain Correction
In urban areas, adjusted as:


In rural areas (open country), adjusted as:


In rural areas (quasi open country), adjusted as:



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Tx/Rx
power
fading
allowance
Antenna
gain
Feeder
loss
Interference
allowance
Antenna
gain
Path
loss
Forward link
Reverse link
Tx/Rx
power
Soft handoff
gain
Balance


Cell Radius
Coverage – S City
Link Budget ---
Forward Link
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Coverage – S City
Link Budget ---
Cell Radius
Item Dense Urban Urban Rural
Maximum power of traffic channel 21.55dBm 21.55dBm 21.55dBm
Loss of Feeder and Connectors 1.66dB 1.93dB 2.2dB
Antenna Gain 15dB 15dB 15dB
Sensitivity 127.48dBm 125.41dBm 125.41dBm
Noise factor 3.20dB 3.20dB 3.20dB
Demodulation Threshold Eb/Nt 3.5dB 3.5dB 3.5dB
SHO gain 3.7dB 3.7dB 3.7dB
Power control Margin 0.50dB 0.50dB 0.50dB
Interference margin 3.01dB 3.01dB 3.01dB
Penetration loss(Indoor planning) 25dB 20dB 15dB
Cell Load 50% 50% 50%
Required coverage probability 98% 98% 90%
MAPL 122.36dB 125.29dB 136.45dB
Antenna Height Of MS 1.5m 1.5m 1.5m
Antenna Height Of BS 40m 40m 50m
Cell Radius 1.45Km 1.76Km 7.49Km

Need 27
sites for
coverage

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Capacity Calculation – S City
Capacity Calculation ---
According to traffic model and the capacity
of single site, get the number of sites to meet
the requirement.
The maximum throughput of single sector
The number of sites to meet the capacity requirement
Throughput
= BHE *Data Rate*Activation Factor
= BHE *9.6kbps*0.4
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Capacity Calculation – S City
)
) 1 (
) 1 (
(
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
1
0
c µ o
c µ o
o |
o |
' +
+ ÷
=
e M
e M X
R
W
Q B
cdma
dt e x Q
t
x
2 /
2
2
1
) (
÷
·
}
=
t
Cell Load 75%
Interference Factor 0.55
Second Order Interference Factor 0.086
Voice Activation Factor 0.4
Spread spectrum gain 21
Soft Block Ratio 2%
Traffic Channel Eb/Nt 5.08
Omni Site Sector Site
Sector Factor 1 Sector Factor 2.55
Traffic (Erl) 28.6 Traffic (Erl) 73
Average Throughput (kbps) 109.8 Average Throughput 280.3
Subscribers 953 Subscribers 2433

Need 35
sites
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Situation:
Special Considerations – S City
Good coverage required
Very heavy traffic in dwelling areas
Solutions:
 Make detailed site survey
 Adopt built-in antenna with 16°tilt
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Prediction – S City
Import the Target
Area Digital Map
Define the Site Parameters
- Equipment Parameters
- Location Parameters
- System Parameters
- Propagation Model
Calculate the Path Loss

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Simulation – S City
Run the Monte Carlo Simulation
- Initialize the mobile state
- Initialize the noise
- Calculate the power increase
- Iterate this procedure
Define the Traffic
- Traffic Distribution
- Mobile Parameters
Analyze the Output Report
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Simulation- S City
The Ec/Io in most areas are over -10dB
Ec/Io
<=-14dB
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The Rx_level in most areas are over -85dBm
Simulation- S City
Forward Rx_Level
<=-95dB
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The MS Tx Power is usually lower than 0dBm in urban,
-10dBm in dense urban and -20 dBm near the BTS.
Simulation- S City
Ms Tx Power
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PN Offset Planning – S City
Walsh Code
0 1-7 8-31 32 33
- 63
The different Sector
is distinguished by
different PN offsets.

300 312 480
0 PN # (timing offset) 511
Pilot
Strength
(Ec/Io)

24 156
What is PN Offset?
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PN Offset Planning – S City
Sub-cluster 1
Sector1 4 20 36 52 68 84 100 116 132 148 164
Sector2 172 188 204 220 236 252 268 284 300 316 332
Sector3 340 356 372 388 404 420 436 452 468 484 500
Sub-cluster 2
Sector1 8 24 40 56 72 88 104 120 136 152 168
Sector2 176 192 208 224 240 256 272 288 304 320 336
Sector3 344 360 376 392 408 424 440 456 472 488 504
Sub-cluster 3
Sector1 12 28 44 60 76 92 108 124 140 156
Sector2 180 196 212 228 244 260 276 292 308 324
Sector3 348 364 380 396 412 428 444 460 476 492
Sub-cluster 4
Sector1 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 144 160
Sector2 184 200 216 232 248 264 280 296 312 328
Sector3 352 368 384 400 416 432 448 464 480 496
Divide the PN Offsets into 4 sub-clusters
Unreasonable PN offset planning causes interference.
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PN Offset Allocation
PN Offset Planning – S City
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Optimization – S City
PN Pollution
Optimization
•Down tilting,
•Transmit power adjustment,

PN pollution areas!

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Optimization – S City
Neighbor List Missed
CAI message
BSM message
Date BSC BCP BTS BTS Name SECT T_PN COUNT
01/10/12 5 18 258A-100 0 184 135
01/10/10 1 16 64B-102 0 202 126
01/10/11 5 18 258C-88 0 184 124
01/10/11 5 27 267B-14 1 124 122
01/10/10 3 10 154D-209 1 4 121
01/10/9 3 10 154F-76 1 4 119
01/10/10 1 3 154A-35 1 202 111
01/10/10 5 18 154H-124 0 184 111
01/10/11 3 20 154B-322 1 60 102
01/10/11 5 27 154J-3 0 440 102
01/10/11 4 12 154D-111 2 94 101
Reduce the call drop
Add
neighbor list
CAI Msg. BSM data

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Optimization – S City
External Interference
Test Tool
Spectrum Analyzer

Shut Down The Illegal
Transmitter
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Drive Test – S City
Ec/Io >= -12dB in 99.1% Area.
Ec/Io Result
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Rx>=-85dBm in 99.44% Area.
Drive Test – S City
Rx_Level Result
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Summary to Dense City
 Careful site layout
 Avoid high site location
 Right antenna selection
 Set the proper power parameters
 ……
The subscribers increase rapidly
The system has been expanding
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Summary to Other Scenario
Repeater solution
PN delay
Hot spot traffic
Power parameters
PN pollution
Coverage overlap
Plains
Highlands
Roads
Application experiences in other environments
Consideration
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Radio Network Optimization
• More information
– You can find more information about RF planning
and optimization on HUAWEI’s homepage.
– http://support.HUAWEI.com
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