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BORN TO WIN

NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE

CODE : ME 2203

KINEMATICS OF MECHINERY

SUGGESTED READINGS :
1. Khurmi,R.S and Guptha,J.K - Theory of machines

2. Ballaney,P.L Theory of machines


3. Rattan,S.S - Theory of machines 4. Jayakumar,V - Kinematics of machinery 5. Green,W.G - Theory of machines 6. Shigley,J.E - Mechanical Engineering

7. Malhotra,D.R and Guptha,H.C Theory of machines


8. Abdulla Shariff and Shariff,N.A - Theory of machines 9. John Hannah and Stephens,R.C Mechanics of machines

SYLLABUS :
1. BASICS OF MECHANISMS 2. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS

3. KINEMATICS OF CAM
4. GEARS 5. FRICTION

UNIT : 1
BASICS OF MECHANISMS

CONTENTS :
BASICS OF MECHANISMS:
1.Terminology and Definitions
2.Degree of freedom. 3.Mobility

4.Kutzbach criterion(Grueblers equation)


5.Grashoffs law. 6.Kinematic inversions of 4-bar chain and slider crank chains. 7.Mechanical advantage. 8.Transmission angle.

BASICS OF MECHANISMS:
9.Description of common mechanisms-offset slider mechanism as quick return mechanisms 10.Pantograph 11.Straight line generators (Peaucellier & Watt mechanisms) 12. Steering gear for automobile 13.Hookes joint 14.Toggle mechanism 15.Ratchets and escapements 16.Indexing mechanisms

THEORY OF MACHINE :
It is branch of science which deals with the study of relative

motion between the various parts of a machine, and force


which acts on them.

TYPE :
Divided into
1.Kinematics (no force consider)

2.Dynamics. (force consider)


i) kinetics ii) statics

1.MACHINE :
It is a device which receives energy and transforms it into some useful work. EXAMPLE:

fig

2.LINK (or) ELEMENT :


It is the part of a machine which has motion relative to some other part.

CHARACTERISTICS: 1.It should have relative motion and 2.It should be a resistant body

EXAMPLE: Steam engine

Link1 Link2 Link3 Link4

: : : :

Piston, piston rod and crosshead constitute a first link. Connecting rod with big end and small end bearings. Crank, crank shaft and flywheel. Cylinder, engine frame and main bearings.

TYPES OF LINK :

Three Types:
1.Rigid link (connecting rod and crank pin)

2.Flexible link (belt, ropes, chains, spring)


3.Fluid link (fluid in hydraulic press, jack, crane)

3.STRUCTURE:
Structure is an assemblage of number of resistant bodies having no relative motion between them. EXAMPLE: Roof trusses, bridges, buildings, machine frames.

4.KINEMATIC PAIR:
The two links or element of a machine, when in contact with each other, are said to form a pair. If the relative motion between them is completely or successfully constrained, the pair is known as kinematic pair. EXAMPLE: Crank and connecting rod, Piston and engine cylinder.

fig

CLASSIFICATION OF KINEMATIC PAIR :

1.Type of contact: lower pair, higher pair. 2.Type of relative motion: sliding pair, turning pair, rolling pair, screw pair, spherical pair. 3. Type of constraint: closed pair, unclosed pair.

CLASSIFICATION OF KINEMATIC PAIR :


1.LOWER PAIR: 2.HIGER PAIR:

3.SLIDING PAIR:
4.TURNING PAIR:

5.ROLLING PAIR:
6.SCREW PAIR:

7.SPHERICAL PAIR:
8.CLOSED PAIR: 9.UNCLOSED PAIR:

1.LOWER PAIR: A kinematic pair is known as lower pair if the two links has surface contact or area contact between them. Also the contact surfaces are similar. Eg.: shaft rotating in a bearing and Nut turning on a screw.

2.HIGER PAIR:

3.SLIDING PAIR:

4.TURNING PAIR:

5.ROLLING PAIR:

6.SCREW PAIR:

7.SPHERICAL PAIR:

5.CONSTRAINED MOTION:
When the motion between the pair is limited to a definite direction then the motion is said to be a constrained motion.

TYPES OF CONSTRAINED MOTION :


1. Completely constrained motion. 2. Incompletely constrained motion. 3. Successfully constrained motion.

TYPES OF CONSTRAINED MOTION :


1.Completely constrained motion.

2. Incompletely constrained motion

3. Successfully constrained motion.

6.KINEMATIC CHAIN:
A Kinematic chain is defined as a combination of kinematic pair, joined in such a way that the relative motion between the links or elements is completely or successfully constrained.

To determine the given assemblage of links forms the kinematic chain or not:
The two equations are:
1. l = 2p 4

2. J = 3/2 * l - 2 l = number of links p = number of pairs j = number of joints

Three possible cases are: (i) If L.H.S=R.H.S Constrained kinematic chain (ii) If L.H.S>R.H.S locked chain
(iii) If L.H.S<R.H.S

Unconstrained kinematic chain

ILLUSTRATIONS:
1.Arrangement of three links:

2.Arrangement of four links:

3.Arrangement of five links:

4.Arrangement of six links:

1.Arrangement of three links:


1. Link-3 l = 2p 4

Link-2

3 = 2*3 - 4 3 = 2 L.H.S>R.HS
2. J = 3/2 * l - 2

Link-1

Number of links, l=3 Number of pair, p=3 Number of joints j=3

3 = 3/2*3 3 = 2.5 L.H.S>R.HS

- 2

2.Arrangement of four links:


1. Link-3 C l = 2p 4

D
Link-4 A Link-1 B Link-2

4= 2*4 - 4 4= 4 L.H.S=R.H.S
2. J = 3/2 * l - 2

l=4 p=4 j=4

4= 3/2*4 - 2 4 = 4 L.H.S=R.H.S

3.Arrangement of five links:


1. l = 2p 4 D

Link-4
E

Link-3
C Link-2

5= 2*5 - 4 5= 6 L.H.S<R.H.S
2. J = 3/2 * l - 2

Link-5
A Link-1 B

l=5 p=5 j=5

5 = 3/2*5 - 2 5 = 5.5 L.H.S<R.H.S

4.Arrangement of six links:


1. l = 2p 4 Link-3 C

D
Link-4

Link-6

Link-2 Link-1 B

Link-5 E

6= 2*5 - 4 6= 6 L.H.S=R.H.S 2. J = 3/2 * l - 2 7 = 3/2*6 - 2 7= 7 L.H.S=R.H.S

l=6 p=5 j=7

7.TYPES OF JOINTS:
The usual types of joints in a chain are: 1.Binary joint 2.Ternary joint 3.Quaternary joint

A.W.Kliens criterion of constraint:


J +h/2 = 3/2 * l - 2 l = number of links h = number of higher pairs j = number of binary joints

A.W.Kliens criterion of constraint:

J +h/2 = 3/2 * l - 2

j=4; l=4; h=0 j+h/2 = 3/2*l - 2 4+0 = 3/2*4 - 2 4 =4 L.H.S=R.H.S

j=7; l=6; h=0 j+h/2 =3/2*l - 2 7+0 =3/2*6 - 2 7 =7 L.H.S=R.H.S

j=12; l=9; h=0 j+h/2 = 3/2*l - 2 12+0 = 3/2*9 - 2 12 = 11.5 L.H.S>R.H.S

DEGREES OF FREEDOM:
Degree of freedom is defined as the number of independent motion (both translation and rotational) a body can have.

fig
1.A body have 6 independent motions. 2.This body is said to have 6 degrees of freedom. 3.Mathematically degree of freedom in a space is given by Degree of freedom=6-number of constraints

KUTZBACH CRITERION:
n = 3(l 1) 2j - h

l = number of links h = number of higher pairs j = number of binary joints or lower pairs n = number of degree of freedom.
1.Application of kutzbach criterion to plane mechanisms mechanisms with lower pair: (i) three bar (ii) four bar (iii) five bar (iv) six bar mechanisms with higher pair: (i) cam and follower. 2.Application of kutzbach criterion to spatial mechanisms

1.Three bar:

2.Four bar:

1.Five bar:

1.Six bar:

Mechanism with higher pair

1.Three bar mechanism:

n = 3(l 1) 2j - h
l=3 j=3

n = 3(3-1) 2 * 3 n=0 Structure, no motion

2.Four bar mechanism:


n = 3(l 1) 2j - h

l=4 j=4

n = 3(4-1) 2 * 4 n=1 Mechanism is driven by single input motion

3. Five bar mechanism:

n = 3(l 1) 2j - h

l=5 j=5

l=5 j = (f)=6

n = 3(5-1) 2 * 4 n=2
To drive, two input motion

n = 3(5-1) 2 * 6 n=0
Structure, no motion

1.Six bar mechanism:

n = 3(l 1) 2j - h

l=6 j=6

l=6 j = (f)=7 n = 3(6-1) 2 * 7 n=1 To drive, 1 input motion

l=6 j = (f)=8 n = 3(6-1) 2 * 8 n = -1 Statically indeterminate structure.

n = 3(6-1) 2 * 6 n=3
To drive, 3 input motion

Mechanism with higher pair


n = 3(l 1) 2j - h l=3 j=2 h=1 n = 3(3-1) (2 * 2) - 1 n=1 Mechanism is driven by single input motion

Mechanism with higher pair


n = 3(l 1) 2j - h l=4 j=3 h=1 n = 3(4-1) (2 * 3) - 1 n=2

To drive, two input motion

KUTZBACH CRITERION FOR SPATIAL MECHANISMS:

n = 6(l 1) 5p1 4p2 3p3 2p4 1p5 l = number of links n = number of degree of freedom p1=number of pair having one degree of freedom p2=number of pair having two degree of freedom

GRUBLERS CRITERION FOR PLANE MECHANISM: 3l 2j 4 = 0

GRUBLERS CRITERION FOR SPATIAL MECHANISM: 6l 5p1 7 = 0 l = total number of links p1 = number of pairs having single degree of freedom

MECHANISM:
- When one of the links of kinematic chain is fixed, then the chain is known as mechanism. - To transmit motion. - type writers

TYPES: 1.SIMPLE . 2.COMPOUND


Four link More than 4 links

INVERSION OF MECHANISM:
The method of obtaining different mechanisms by fixing different links in a kinematic chain, is known as inversion of the mechanism

GRASHOFS LAW:
Grashofs law states that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be greater than the sum of the remaining two links lengths, if there is to be continuous Relative motion between two members. l = length of the longest link. s = length of the shortest link. p & q = length of the other two links. s+l<p+q

fig

TYPES OF KINEMATIC CHAINS:


1.Four bar chain (i) Beam engine (crank and lever mechanism) (ii) Coupling rod of a locomotive (double crank mechanism) (iii) watts indicator mechanism (double lever mechanism) (iv) Pantograph (v) Ackermann steering

2.Single slider crank


(i) Pendulum pump (bull engine) (ii) Oscillating cylinder engine (ii) rotary internal combustion engine (gnome engine) (iii) Crank and slotted lever quick return motion 3.Double slider crank (i) Elliptical trammels. (ii) scotch yoke mechanism (iii) Oldhams coupling.

(i) Beam engine (crank and lever mechanism)

(ii) Coupling rod of a locomotive (double crank mechanism)

(iii) watts indicator mechanism (double lever mechanism)

(iv) Pantograph (v) Ackermann steering

(i) Pendulum pump (bull engine)

(ii) Oscillating cylinder engine

(iii) rotary internal combustion engine (gnome engine)

(iv) Crank and slotted lever quick return motion

(i) Elliptical trammels.

(iii) Oldhams coupling.