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Basic Hydraulic Systems

Module #251M101

Objectives
To Introduce the concept of Hydraulics systems To outline the applications and advantages of hydraulic systems To introduce hydraulics components Explain the principle of Hydraulics circuitry Explain maintenance of hydraulics systems

Definition
Hydraulics is the study of the behavior of fluids. Hydraulic Power Transmission is a method used to transmit energy by pushing on a Confined Liquid.
Confined refers to having limiting boundaries for motion Pressure will refer to a force per unit of area

Advantages
Package (Size/Weight) -vs- (Power) Minimal Maintenance Simple Operation Variable Speed Reversible Overload Protection Can Be Stalled

Liquid Behavior
1. CANNOT BE COMPRESSED ! 3. LUBRICATES

2. TRANSMITS ENERGY READILY

Conservation of Energy
1. Moving the small piston 10 displaces 10 cu. in. of liquid 1 sq. in. x 10 in. = 10 cu. in. 2. 10 cu. in. of liquid will move the larger piston only 1 in. 10 sq. in. x 1 in. = 10 cu. in.

10 lbs.
1 sq in Area

Simple Hydraulic Press


10

100 lbs. 100 lbs.


10 sq. in. 10 sq. in. 1

10 lbs.
1 sq in Area

3. The energy transfer here equals 10 lbs. x 10 in. = 100 in. lbs.

4. The energy transfer here is also 1 in. x 100 lbs. = 100 in. lbs.

Theory of Hydraulic Circuitry


ACTUATOR HYDRAULIC FLUID DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

RESERVOIR

PUMP

RELIEF VALVE

Theory of Hydraulic Circuitry


ACTUATOR HYDRAULIC FLUID DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

RESERVOIR

PUMP

RELIEF VALVE

Theory of Hydraulic Circuitry


ACTUATOR HYDRAULIC FLUID DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

RESERVOIR

PUMP

RELIEF VALVE

Theory of Hydraulic Circuitry


ACTUATOR HYDRAULIC FLUID DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

RESERVOIR

PUMP

RELIEF VALVE

Components
RESERVOIR STRAINER or FILTER HYDRAULIC FLUID PUMP ACTUATOR GAUGE PRESSURE CONTROL DEVICE FLOW DIRECTION CONTROL DEVICE HEAT EXCHANGER PLUMBING

Fluid
Transmit Power Lubricate Parts Seal Clearances Dissipate Heat Requirements

Prevent rust/sludges Resist Aeration Temperature Stability Economics

Viscosity

Reservoir
Hold Fluid Transfer Heat Deaerator Settling Basin Components Steel/Aluminum Plate Inside Coating Drainage Plug Oil Level Indicator Breather Filler Opening Cleanout Plates (>10 gal) Baffles Connections/Fittings

Contamination
Solid, Liquid or Gas
Solution Entrainment Emulsion

Failures
MOF (catastrophic) Intermittent (annoyance) Degradation (lost performance)

Sources
Built-in Environmental Internal

Contamination Control
Minimization During Service Making Connections Component Repair Care During Filling Flushing System

Strainer
IN-TANK DESIGN

Relatively Course Fine Mesh Wire About 100 Microns


Full Pump Volume Must Provide Bypass

Filter
RETURN FILTER

Full-Flo Design Bypass Capability Interchangeability Fine Mesh (10 Micron)

PRESSURE FILTER

High System Pressure Bypass Capability Requires Shutdown Downstream of

Heat Exchanger
Louvered Airflow Control Electric or Hydraulic Fan Fluid-to-Air Exchanger Fluid-to-Fluid Exchanger

Actuators
Converts Fluid Energy Into Mechanical Energy

Linear = Cylinders Rotary = Motors

Ram-Type Actuators
SUPPLY and/or RETURN

BARREL

PISTON

ROD

Basic Ram Circuit

Motor

Reservoir Pump

Basic Motor Circuit

Pump
Convert Mechanical Energy to Fluid Energy Horsepower
HHP = (GPM)(psi)(0.000583)

Efficiency
VE% = Actual / Theoretical

Non-Positive Displacement Positive Displacement


Fixed -vs- Variable

Principles of Positive Displacement

Principles of Positive Displacement

Principles of Positive Displacement

Principles of Positive Displacement

Principles of Positive Displacement

Principles of Positive Displacement

Principles of Positive Displacement

Types of Hydraulic Pumps


Centrifugal Type Vane Type Gear Type Piston Type

Vane-Type Pump (balanced)

Unbalanced Vane Pump Operation

Double click on the box to play movie. Esc. To stop.

Vane Pump Operation (nonbalanced)

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Vane Pump Operation

Balanced Vane Pump


The rotor is centered within the cam ring eccentric thus there are two chambers for accepting and discharging fluid from the tank

DISCHARGE

Forces as a result of system pressure are shared at opposing angles to balance the rotor/drive shaft loading. As a result friction is reduced allowing higher system pressure capabilities. SUPPLY

Balanced Vane Pump Operation

Double click on the box to play movie. Esc. To stop.

Changing Direction
Clockwise Rotation Counter-Clockwise Rotation

Changing the position of the cam ring in relation to the inlet and outlet porting will change the direction of rotation.

Gear-Type Pump
Outlet Drive Gear Driven Gear

Inlet

Gear-Type Motor (Actuator)


4. These two teeth have only tank line pressure opposing. 3. Pressure between teeth in this segment push both ways thus torque is not affected 3. Pressure between teeth in this segment push both ways thus torque is not affected

1. These two teeth are subjected to pressure and tend to rotate gears in direction of arrow

2. Segments of two meshing teeth tend to oppose rotation thus net torque is a function of only one tooth.

Gear Pump Operation

Double click on the box to play movie. Esc. To stop.

Piston Pump Operation

Double click on the box to play movie. Esc. To stop.

Fixed vs Variable Displacement

Double click on the box to play movie. Esc. To stop.

Pressure Compensated

Double click on the box to play movie. Esc. To stop.

Pressure Relieving
Normally Closed Limits Pressure Direct Acting Pilot Operated Cracking Pressure Full Flo Pressure Override Pressure

Relieving Valve Types


Direct Acting Pilot Operated Unloader Sequencing Pressure Reducing Counterbalance

Direct Acting
Adjustment Knob Adjustment Stem Sealing Section Top Grommet Spring Seat Assy. Stem Assy.

Direct Acting Operation


4. Can be adjusted

1. Spring holds piston seated

3. Spring tension determines setting

Flow to tank

2. When pressure here is less than the valve setting, valve remains closed.

5. When valve setting is reached, pump flow is directed to tank.

Pilot Operated - Balanced Piston


Poppet Valve Venting Port Adjustment Head Poppet Spring Adjustment

Plunger Spring Poppet Spring Outlet

Piston Plunger

Inlet

Plunger Seat

Valve Body
Return

Balanced Piston Operation


System Pressure is sensed in the adjustment head via small port thru the piston. The spring tension on the poppet keeps fluid confined. System pressure overcomes adjustment head setting and allows fluid to pass thru the piston out the return port .The pressure drops in upper section Due to the pressure drop, the piston is forced up opening the system to the tank. It takes 20 to 45 psi differential for this to occur. Once pressure equalizes valve closes.

Normally CLOSED

Initial CRACKING

Fully RELIEVING

Remote Adjustment
Pilot flow can take this path

VENT

Remote valve limits pressure from its minimum up to the limit set by the pilot section of the main valve

Directional Flow Control


Starts/Stops Actuators Controls Direction of Actuators Single or Multiple Positions
P T

FREE FLOW

NO FLOW

Spool Type Valves

Two-Way Spool Valves


Land on the valve spool blocks flow

Groove between the lands completes the flow passage between the two ports.

Slide spool left, changes flow path

Pressure to B while A is routed to tank


P T

Pressure to A while B is routed to tank

Four-Way Spool Valves


A B A B