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Am, is, are Shall/will Can May Must Have/has to Ought to

DIRECT

Was/were Should/would Could Might

INDIRECT

Had to

CHANGES OF ADVERB OF TIME & PLACE


DIRECT
NOW TOMORROW NEXT WEEK TONIGHT TODAY YESTERDAY LAST NIGHT LAST WEEK HERE THIS THESE

THEN THE FOLLOWING DAY THE FOLLOWING WEEK THAT NIGHT THAT DAY THE DAY BEFORE THE NIGHT BEFORE THE WEEK BEFORE THERE THAT THOSE

INDIRECT

CHANGES OF TENSES
DIRECT
SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT CONT. SIMPLE FUTURE

INDIRECT
SIMPLE PAST PAST PERFECT PAST PERFECT PAST CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONT. PAST FUTURE

1. STATEMENT

HE SAID HE SAID TO ME HE TOLD ME

THAT

REPORTED WORDS

STATEMENT EXAMPLE
DIRECT
They said to me: we are going to visit Borobudur tomorrow.

INDIRECT
They said to me that

they were going to visit Borobudur the following day.


Jeffry said that he

Jeffry said: I didnt go to school today.

Anne told Agus: My father got angry with me last night.

hadnt gone to that day. Anne told Agus her father had angry with her night before.

school that got the

If the introductory sentence is in the Present Tense, there wont be any changes in the Reported (Indirect) speech .

STATEMENT Exception:
DIRECT

INDIRECT
Cindy says that she

Cindy says: I will come to your house tonight.

Indra says: I have seen that film for twice.


Dessy says: I meet my boyfriend every saturday. Chandra says: I dont like sport.

will come to my house tonight Indra says that he has seen that film for twice. Dessy says that she meets her boyfriend every Saturday. Chandra says that he doesnt like sport.

HE ASKED ME HE TOLD ME

TO

INFIVITIVE

COMMAND EXAMPLE
DIRECT
The teacher asked me: Open your book page 65!

INDIRECT
The teacher asked me

Siska asked Manu: give me a piece of paper!


Ronny told him: call me tonight!

to open my book page 65. Siska asked Manu to give her a piece of paper. Ronny told him to call him that night.

HE ASKED ME HE TOLD ME

NOT TO

INFIVITIVE

COMMAND EXAMPLE
DIRECT
Santy asked Edy: Dont leave me alone anymore!

INDIRECT
Santy asked Edy not

Valenxia asked Indra: Dont hurt me anymore!


Subhan told them: Dont disturb me!

to leave her alone anymore. Valenxia asked Indra not to hurt her anymore. Subhan told them not to disturb him.

HE ASKED ME

IF/WHETHER S + V + COMPLEMENT

A. Yes/No Question Example

DIRECT
Ricky asked Henry: Does your father work near here?

INDIRECT
Ricky asked Henry

Mr. Bean asked Cyntia: have you collected your homework? Dessy asked William: can you accompany me to Lippo tonight?

if/whether his father worked near there. Mr. Bean asked Cyntia if/whether she had collected her homework. Dessy asked William if/whether he could accompany her to Lippo that night.

HE ASKED ME

WHEN/WHAT S + V + COMPLEMENT etc.

b. Wh- Question Example

DIRECT
The girl asked me: Where Do you come from?

INDIRECT
The girl asked me

where I came from.


My father asked my

My father asked my brother: Why did you arrive at home late last night? Handy asked the girl: what is your favorite movie star?

brother why he had arrived at home late the night before


Handy asked the girl

what her favorite movie star was

DIRECT
The students said to the teacher: We havent done our assignment. My uncle said to my sister: I cannot come on your birthday party next month. Patar asked Lina : Do you love me?

My father asked

me:Have you prepared for your final exam? Anita told Ver: Dont tell me more about your boyfriend! My friend asked her: Stay with me forever! My headmaster asked me: Where do you live?