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By :- Pranshu Mishra Reg no.

:- 20092015

What is Microcontroller?
A microcontroller is a small, low-cost computer-on-a-chip which usually includes: An 8 or 16 bit microprocessor (CPU). A small amount of RAM. Programmable ROM and/or flash memory. Parallel and/or serial I/O. Timers and signal generators. Analog to Digital (A/D) and/or Digital to Analog (D/A) conversion.
Often used to run dedicated code that controls one or more tasks

in the operation of a device or a system. Also called embedded controllers, because the microcontroller and support circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they control.

Devices that utilize microcontrollers include car engines, consumer electronics (VCRs, microwaves, cameras, pagers, cell phones .. ), computer peripherals(keyboards, printers, modems.. ), test/measurement equipment (signal generators, multimeters, oscilloscopes ).

Microcontrollers usually must have low-power requirements (~. 05 - 1 W as opposed to ~10 - 50 W for general purpose desktop CPUs) since many devices they control are battery-operated.

Block Diagram

Why do we need to learn Microprocessors/controllers?

The microprocessor is the core of computer systems. Nowadays many communication, digital entertainment, portable devices, are controlled by them.

A designer should know what types of components he needs, ways to reduce production costs and product reliable

General-purpose microprocessor CPU for Computers No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself ExampleIntels x86, Motorolas 680x0
CPU GeneralPurpose Microprocessor

Data Bus
Serial COM Port



I/O Port


Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System

A smaller computer On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...

ExampleMotorolas 6811, Intels 8051, Zilogs Z8 and PIC 16X

CPU RAM ROM A single chip Serial Timer COM Port

I/O Port


CPU is stand-alone, RAM,

CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and

ROM, I/O, timer are separate designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. expensive versatility general-purpose

timer are all on a single chip fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports for applications in which cost, power and space are critical single-purpose


Microprocessors can not stand alone
instruction decoder, ALU, address/data/timing logic, (CPU) Has no capability to interact with the outside world

memory, I/O ports, UARTS, etc. must be added to make it useful

Microcontrollers are small computing systems on a single chip

Central Processing Unit (CPU) Program memory Random Access Memory (RAM)

EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

A variety of peripheral devices

USARTs, Timer/Counters, ADC, DAC, I/O Ports, CANs, SPIs, etc., etc.

Features of Microcontroller
A micro-controller is a single integrated circuit, commonly with the following features:
central processing unit - ranging from small and

simple 4-bit processors to complex 32- or 64-bit processors volatile memory (RAM) for data storage ROM, EPROM, EEPROM or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage discrete input and output bits, allowing control or detection of the logic state of an individual package pin serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs)

other serial communications interfaces like IC,

Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system interconnect peripherals such as timers, event counters, PWM generators, and watchdog clock generator - often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit many include analog-to-digital converters, some include digital-to-analog converters in-circuit programming and debugging support

From sensors To actuators Displays, keyboard etc.


Single Chip

CPU-The Processor core

CPU is the brain of a microcontroller .CPU is responsible for fetching the instruction, decodes it, then finally executed. CPU connects every part of a microcontroller into a single system. The primary function of CPU is fetching and decoding instructions. Instruction fetched from program memory must be decoded by the CPU.

The function of memory in a microcontroller is same as microprocessor. It is used to store data and program. A microcontroller usually has a certain amount of RAM and ROM (EEPROM, EPROM, etc) or flash memories for storing program source codes.


Parallel input/output ports are mainly used to

drive/interface various devices such as LCDS, LEDS, printers, memories, etc to a microcontroller.

Serial ports provide various serial interfaces between microcontroller and other peripherals like parallel ports.

This is the one of the useful function of a microcontroller. A microcontroller may have more than one timer and counters. The timers and

counters provide all timing and counting functions inside the microcontroller. The major operations of this section is to perform clock functions, modulations, pulse generations, frequency measuring, making oscillations, etc. This also can be used for counting external pulses.


ADC converters are used for converting the

analog signal to digital form. The input signal in this converter should be in analog form (e.g. sensor output) and the output from this unit is in digital form. The digital output can be use for various digital applications (e.g. measurement devices).


DAC perform reversal operation of ADC

conversion.DAC convert the digital signal into analog format. It usually used for controlling analog devices like DC motors, various drives, etc.

The interrupt control is used for providing

interrupt (delay) for a working program .The interrupt may be external (activated by using interrupt pin) or internal (by using interrupt instruction during programming).

Types Of Microcontroller
ARM core processors (from many vendors) Atmel AVR (8-bit), AVR32 (32-bit), and AT91SAM (32-bit) Cypress Semiconductor PSoC (Programmable System-on

Chip) Freescale ColdFire (32-bit) and S08 (8-bit) Freescale 68HC11 (8-bit) Intel 8051 Infineon: 8, 16, 32 Bit microcontrollers STMicroelectronics STM8 (8-bit), ST10 (16-bit) and STM32 (32-bit) Texas Instruments TI MSP430 (16-bit) Toshiba TLCS-870 (8-bit/16-bit).

Pocket pagers (low-power, interprets characters, user

interface) Cameras (low-power, exposure and focus control, user interface) "Levelmeter (measures angle, audible and visual user interface) Keyboard controllers (scanning, debounce, autorepeat, diagnostics) Modems (one for data transmission, one for command processing) Plotters (command interpretation, encoders, motor control) Color copiers (paper positioning, color exposure, sensors)

Charge card pay phones (card reading, dialing, carrier

access) Lawn sprinkler controller (timer, valve control, user interface) Instrumentation (user interface, GPIB interface, compute values) Closed-loop engine control (fuel/air mixture, ignition, pressure sensing, etc.) Antilock braking system control (monitors traction, controls brake) Dynamic ride control (adjusts suspension)

Microcontrollers act as a microcomputer without any digital parts. As the higher integration inside microcontroller reduce cost and size of the system. Usage of microcontroller is simple, easy for troubleshoot and system maintaining. Most of the pins are programmable by the user for

performing different functions. Easily interface additional RAM, ROM,I/O ports. Low time required for performing operations.

Microcontrollers have got more complex architecture

than that of microprocessors. Only perform limited number of executions simultaneously. Mostly used in micro-equipments. Cannot interface high power devices directly.

Microcontroller is a single chip micro computer made

through VLSI fabrication. A microcontroller also called an embedded controller because the microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they control. A microcontroller is available in different word lengths like microprocessors (4bit,8bit,16bit,32bit,64bit and 128 bit microcontrollers are available today). Essentially a microprocessor with on-chip memories and I/O devices.

Designed for specific functions All in one solution - Reduction in chip count
Reduced cost, power, physical size, etc.

MC68332, MC68HC11, PPC555

Microcontrollers can be embedded in all sorts of everyday

devices They are inexpensiveeven in single pieces You can design complex functionality in a small package