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2-4 % of the AP Exam

* Our immediate awareness of thoughts,

sensations, memories, and the world around you represents the experience of consciousness. proposed that the subjective experience of consciousness is an ongoing river or stream of mental activity- always changing but perceived as unified and unbroken.

* American Psychologist William James (1882)

* In the late 1800s, the first psychologists tried

to determine the nature of the human mind through introspection, verbal self-reports that tried to capture the structure of conscious experiences. * At the end of the 20th century, many of the leading psychologists rejected the study of consciousness, emphasizing instead the scientific study of overt behavior, which could be directly observed, measured, and verified.

* Beginning in the late 1950s, many psychologists

again turned their attention to the study of consciousness because a complete understanding ob behavior was not possible without considering the role of conscious mental processes, and because new, more objective ways to study conscious experience had been devised.

* Today the scientific study of consciousness

takes into account the role of psychological, physiological, social, and cultural influences

* Circadian rhythms are the cyclical daily

fluctuations in many different biological and psychological processes. Clock

* A. The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: The Bodys

* 1. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a tiny
cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain that governs the timing of circadian rhythms

* 2. Sunlight entrains the SCN; that is, sunlight

and other bright light detected by visual receptors and processed by the SCN suppress melatonin levels, whereas decreased light increases the production of melatonin, a pineal gland hormone that produces sleepiness.

* B. Life Without a Sundial: Free-Running

Circadian Rhythms

* 1. Under free-running conditions (marked by an

absence of all environmental time cues)

* A. people drift toward the natural rhythm of the * B. people's circadian rhythms lose their normal
synchronization with one another

suprachiasmatic nucleus, with is roughly a 25-hour day, and

* 2. When people leave free-running conditions,

sunlight resets the biological clock within days, and their circadian rhythms become synchronized again

* C. Circadian Rhythms and Sunlight: Some

Practical Implications

* 1. You experience jet lag when your circadian

rhythms are drastically out of synchronization with daylight and darkness cues. Symptoms include physical and mental fatigue, depression or irritability, and disrupted sleep. In addition, thinking, concentration, and memory become fuzzy * 2. People who work night shifts or rotating shifts often suffer from jet lag symptoms

* The Dawn of Modern Sleep Research

* Modern sleep research began with the invention
of the EEG and the discovery that seep is a state marked by distinct physiological processes and stages.

* 1. The invention of the electroencephalograph

in the 1920s gave sleep researchers an important tool for measuring the rhythmic electrical activity of the brain. An electroencephalograph produces a graphic record called an EEG, or electroencephalogram.

* 2. The discovery of rapid-eye-movement sleep,

REM sleep, in the early 1950s led researchers to distinguish between 2 types of sleep

* A. REM sleep is often called active sleep or

paradoxical sleep because it is associated with heightened body and brain activity during which dreaming consistently occurs.

* 2. NREM sleep, or non-rapid-eye-movement

sleep, is often referred to as quiet sleep because the bodys physiological functions and brain activity slow down during this period of slumber. NREM is further divided into 4 stages

* Beta brain waves are small, fast brain waves

associated with alert wakefulness

* Alpha brain waves are the slightly larger and

slower waves associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness

* Hypnagogic hallucinations are vivid sensory

phenomena that can occur during the onset of sleep

* One common hypnagogic hallucination, the

vivid sensation of falling, is often accompanied by a myoclonic jerk, or sleep start stages of NREM steep takes 50-70 minutes

* On average, the progression through the fist 4

* Stage 1 NREM
* Begins when alpha brain waves are replaced by
even slower theta brain waves. This stage lasts only a few minutes It is defined by brief bursts of brain activity that last a second or two, called sleep spindles, and K complexessingle but large high voltage spikes of brain activity that occur periodically. Theta waves predominate, but delta waves begin to emerge.

* Stage 2 NREM

* Represents the onset of true sleep.

* Stage 3 and 4 of NREM

* Sometimes referred to as slow-wave sleep, are
physiologically very similar. Delta waves represent an increasing proportion of total brain activity, from 20% or more in Stage 3 to 50% or more in Stage 4. In Stage 4, the sleeper is virtually oblivious to the world.

* During REM sleep, visual and motor neurons in the

sleepers brain activate repeatedly just as they do during wakefulness; the sleepers eyes dart back and forth behind closed eyelids- rapid eye movements- and voluntary muscle activity is suppressed. * Throughout the rest of the night, the sleeper cycles between NREM and REM, with each cycle averaging about 90 minutes, varying from 70-120 minutes. Periods of REM sleep become longer and less time is spent in NREM

* Yawning regulates and increases your level of

arousal. Thinking about yawning may trigger the behavior, yawning is not contagious increase in adenosine levels and sleepiness. Slow-wave NREM sleep reduces adenosine levels. Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors, promoting wakefulness

* Prolonged wakefulness results in a sharp

* Sleep paralysis is a temporary condition in

which a person is unable to move upon awakening in the morning or during REM sleep * Deaf people who use sign language sometimes sleep sign during sleep * Sleep researchers have been unsuccessful in having extended dialogues with people who talk in their sleep

* It is not dangerous to wake a sleep walker, but

it is difficult, because sleepwalkers are in deep sleep. Sleepwalking may be genetically determined.

* Over the course of our lives, the quantity and

quality of sleep change considerably
and NREM sleep slowly decrease

* From birth onward, total sleep time, REM sleep, * The amount of time spent in slow-wave NREM
sleep (stages 3&4) also gradually decrease over the lifespan

* A biological need for sleep is clearly

demonstrated by sleep deprivation studies; after as little as one nights sleep deprivation, research participants develop microsleeps, episodes of sleep lasting only a few seconds that occur during wakefulness

* Sleep researchers also study the effects of REM

and NREM deprivation. When people are selectively deprived of REM sleep, they experience REM rebound; when deprived to NREM stages 3 & 4, they experience NREM rebound.

* The restorative theory of sleep suggests that sleep

promotes physiological processes that restore and rejuvenate the body and the mind

* NREM sleep in important for restoring the body * REM sleep is thought to restore mental and brain

* The adaptive theory of sleep, or evolutionary

theory of sleep, suggests that sleep patterns evolved over time as a way to preventing a particular species from interacting with the environment when doing so is most hazardous

* Sleep disorders are serious disturbances in the

normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress

* Insomnia

* The most common sleep complaint among adults,

is the inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or feel adequately rested by sleep * Can often be traced to stressful life events

* Sometimes associated with restless legs syndrome

(RLS), in which unpleasant sensations in the lower legs are accompanied by irresistible urge to move the legs * Treatment specialists use a variety of behavioral and psychological techniques including stimulus control and education on sleep hygiene

* Sleep apnea
* 2nd common sleep disorder, the sleeper
loss, and surgical intervention repeatedly stops breathing during sleep.

* Treatments include special mouthpieces, weight

* Sleepwalking and night terrors are much more

common in children than adults. Most instances of bedwetting, or nocturnal enuresis, occur when children are in deep sleep

* Sleepwalking
* Somnambulisum, is characterized by an episode of
walking or performing other actions during stage 3 or 4 stage NREM sleep

* Night terrors
* Sleep terrors, typically occur during stage 3 or 4 NREM
sleep. They are characterized by sharply increased physiological arousal, intense fear and panic, frightening hallucinations, and no recall of the episode the next morning. Night terrors are not regarded as a true sleep disorder unless they occur frequently; in most children, the problem resolves itself by early adolescence

* Sleep bruxism occurs when a person grinds his

or her teeth loudly during sleep

* Collectively, sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep

bruxism, and REM sleep behavior disorder are referred to as parasomnias, a general category of sleep disorders that involve arousal or activation during sleep or sleep transitions.

* 2 unusual parasomnias are sleep-related eating

disorder, in which people sleepwalk to the kitchen and compulsively eat; and sexsomnia, which involves compulsive sexual behavior during sleep

* In REM sleep behavior disorders, the sleeper acts

out his dreams. The disorder has several possible causes.

* Evidence suggests that the cause is deterioration or

damage in the lower brain centers that control physical and mental arousal during sleep * It can also be a side effect of antidepressant and other medications * In some cases, people with REM sleep disorder have later developed a neurological disorder, such as Parkinsons disease.

* Narcolepsy
* A chronic lifelong condition that typically begins
in adolescence, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day sometimes accompanied by frightening hypnagogic hallucinations; as the person awakens, he or she may experience sleep paralysis

* The onset of daytime sleep episodes is

* Narcolepsy cont.

* Narcolepsy is often characterized by episodes of

cataplexy- sudden loss of voluntary muscle strength and control * Genetics seems to play an important role, as the disorder tends to run in families. Recent evidence suggests that people with narcolepsy lack a hormone called hypocretin. While narcolepsy cannot be cured, the new drug modafinil reduces daytime sleepiness

* Sleep thinking takes place during NREM sleep and

consists of repetitive, bland, and uncreative ruminations about real-life events. * A dream is a story-like episode of unfolding mental imagery during sleep * Sleep researcher J. Allan Hobson suggests that dreams have 5 basic characteristics; emotions can be intense; content and organization are usually illogical; sensations are sometimes bizarre; even bizarre details are uncritically accepted; and dream images are difficult to remember

* Dreams occur during both NREM and REM sleep,

but dreams during REM are more frequent and of longer duration

* The Brain During REM Sleep

* The brains activity during REM sleep is distinctly

different from its activity during either wakefulness or slow wave (NREM) sleep. The primary visual cortex and the frontal lobes are essentially shut down during REM sleep; thus, the sleeper is cut off from both information about the external world and from the brain centers most involved in rational thought * The amygdala and the hippocampus, structures in the limbic system that are involved in emotion, motivation, and memory, are highly active during REM sleep.

* REM Sleep and Memory Consolidation

* Research suggests that REM sleep helps

consolidate memories, especially procedural memories; REM sleep increases after learning a novel task and deprivation of REM sleep following training disrupts learning * Brain areas activated during training on a particular task are reactivated during REM sleep; thus, REM sleep may help stabilize the neural connections acquired through recent experience

* What Do We Dream About?

* Dream researcher Calvin Hall reported that a
dreams themes often reflect the daily concerns of a dreamer being attacked, are common across cultures. influence dream content

* Certain themes, such as falling, being chased, or * Environmental cues during dreaming can also

* Why Dont We Remember Our Dreams?

* One theory is that fundamental changes in brain

chemistry and functioning that occur during sleep (such as frontal lobe inactivity and reduced neurotransmitter production) fail to support information processing and memory storage. * We are much more likely to recall a dream if we wake up during it; if the dream is vivid, bizarre, or emotionally intense; and if distractions upon awakening do not interfere with our ability to recall it. * Its difficult to remember any experience during sleep, not just dreams.

* Nightmares
* A frightening or unpleasant anxiety dream that
occurs during REM sleep

* The significance of Dreams

* Sigmund Freud: Dreams as fulfilled wishes
* Founder of psychoanalysis, believed that dreams are
manifestations or repressed urges and wishes. They serve as a safety valve for unconscious and unacceptable urges * Freud believed that dreams have 2 components: the manifest content, or the dream images themselves, and the latent content, the disguised psychological meaning of the dreams * While dreams may provide some information about psychological conflicts, research does not support Freuds ideas about dreams

* The activation- synthesis model of dreaming

* Proposed by J. Allan Hobson and Robert
McCarley, maintains that dreaming is the brains synthesizing and integrating of memory fragments, emotions, and sensations that are internally triggered. meaningless. Meaning is found by analyzing the way the dreamer makes sense of the chaotic dream images

* This theory does not state that dreams are

* Some observations about the meaning of dreams

* At least some of our dreams mirror our real-life
concerns and desires

* The more bizarre aspects of dream sequences may * Some argue that dreaming consciousness is no

be due to physiological changes in the brain during REM and NREM sleep different from waking consciousness in its attempt to make sense of the information that is available to it; only the source of the information differs

* Because dream interpretations occur when we

are awake, perhaps conscious speculations about dreams reveal more about the psychological characteristics of the interpreter than about the dream itself

* Hypnosis is a cooperative social interaction in

which the hypnotic participant responds to the hypnotists suggestions with changes in perception, memory, thoughts, and behavior * Hypnosis is characterized by highly focused attention, increased responsiveness to suggestions, vivid images and fantasies, a willingness to accept distortions of logic or reality, and a voluntary acceptance of the hypnotists instructions

* The best candidates for hypnosis are

individuals who approach he hypnotic experience with positive, receptive attitudes and the expectation that they will be responsive to hypnosis

* Sensory and perceptual changes

* Hypnotized subjects sometimes experience
profound sensory and perceptual changes, including hallucinations

* Behavior outside the hypnotic state may be

influenced by post-hypnotic suggestion, a suggestion made during hypnosis that the person carry out a specific instruction following the hypnotic session

* Hypnosis and memory

* Posthypnotic amnesia is the inability to recall

specific information or events that occurred before or during hypnosis because of a hypnotic suggestion * In hypermnesia, a hypnotic suggestion supposedly enhances a persons memory for past events. However, hypnosis does not significantly enhance memory or improve the accuracy of memories. * Hypnosis can greatly increase confidence in memories that are actually incorrect. False memories, or pseudomemories, can be created when hypnosis is used to aid recall

* The limits of hypnosis

* A person cannot be hypnotized against his or her

* Hypnosis cannot make you perform behaviors

that are contrary to your morals and values

* Hypnosis cannot make you stronger than your

physical capabilities or bestow new talents, although hypnosis can enhance physical skills or athletic ability by increasing motivation and concentration

* Ernest Hilgard believed that the hypnotized person

experiences dissociation, the splitting of consciousness into 2 or more simultaneous streams of mental activity * According to Hilgards neodissociation theory of hypnosis, a hypnotized person consciously experiences one stream of mental activity that is responding to the hypnotists suggestions, while a 2nd, dissociated stream of mental activity is also operating. Hilgard used the term hidden observer for the 2nd, dissociated stream of mental activity

* Is hypnosis a special state of consciousness?

* The state explanation, represented by
Hilgards theory, contends that hypnosis is a unique state of consciousness. * The non-state view rejects the idea that hypnosis is a special state of consciousness and contends that hypnosis can be explained in terms of ordinary psychological processes. * According to the social cognitive view of hypnosis, subjects are responding to the social demands of the hypnosis situation

* Using PET scans, researchers compared brain

activity in participants who were instructed to change the color of the images they were viewing. Brain activity reflected the hypnosisinduced hallucinations, not the actual images shown to the hypnotized participants. This study supports the state theory of hypnosis * The imaginative suggestibility view maintains that the effects of hypnosis are due to individual differences in people's ability to experience an imaginary state of affairs as if it were real.

* Meditation refers to a group of techniques that

induce an altered state of focused attention and heightened awareness. Mediation techniques can be divided into 2 basic categories:

* Concentration techniques
* Involve focusing awareness on a visual image, your
breathing, a word, or a phrase (called a mantra) that is repeated mentally

* Opening-up techniques
* Involve a present-centered awareness of the passing
moment, without mental judgment

* Some meditative traditions also stress the

attainment of emotional control. This has prompted investigations into the effectiveness of meditation for relieving anxiety and improving physical and psychological healthy

* Effects of meditation
* Even beginning meditators practicing
transcendental mediation (a concentration technique) experience a state of lowered physiological arousal, including lowered blood pressure, a decrease in heart rate, and changes in brain waves. * Experienced meditators frequently report a heightened sense of concentration and attention, a sense of timelessness and infinity, and a profound sense of connectedness to everyone and everything in existence

* Brain scans of experienced meditators provide

evidence of 2 distinct changes during meditation: increased blood flow to both frontal lobes and decreased blood flow to the left parietal lobe.

* Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances

that can alter arousal, mood, thinking, sensation, and perception

* Common properties of Psychoactive Drugs

* Addiction refers to a condition in which a person

feels psychologically and physically compelled to take a specific drug * Physical dependence is a condition in which a persons body and brain chemistry have physically adapted to a drug * Many physically addictive drugs gradually produce drug tolerance, a condition in which increasing amounts of the drug are needed to produce the original, desired effect

* Withdrawal symptoms are unpleasant physical * The drug rebound effect is the experience of * Psychoactive drugs influence brain activity by

reactions to the lack of the drug, plus an intense craving for it

withdrawal symptoms that are opposite to the drugs action

altering synaptic transmission among neurons through increasing or decreasing neurotransmitter amounts or by blocking, mimicking, or influencing a a particular neurotransmitters effects

* Addictive drugs activate the dopamine-producing

neurons in the brains reward system. The initial dopamine surge in response to drug use is the internal reinforcing reward, prompting the person to take the drug again * With repeated drug use, the brains reward pathways adapt to the high dopamine levels. The availability of dopamine receptors is greatly reduced, and other biochemical changes inhibit the brains reward circuits, resulting in drug tolerance. The brains diminished reward circuits also produce depression and negative emotional states.

* Withdrawal and craving may be caused by reward

circuits that have become hypersensitive to the abused substance

* Individual responses to psychoactive drugs are

subject to biological, psychological, and environmental factors

* Drug abuse refers to recurrent drug use that results

in disruptions in academic, social, or occupational functioning, or in legal or psychological problems. Many factors, including culture, influence what level of use is considered abuse.

* The depressants are a class of psychoactive

drugs that depress or inhibit central nervous system activity. All depressants are potentially physically addictive. The effects of depressant drugs are additive.

* Alcohol
* Alcohol, use in small amounts, reduces tension and
anxiety. Light drinking reduces the risk of heart disease.

* Alcohol
* A recent study found that some 11 million people * Alcohol depresses the activity of neurons
aged 12+ were dependent upon or abused alcohol

throughout the brain and impairs cognitive abilities such as concentration, memory, and speech, as well as physical abilities such as muscle coordination and balance include aggressive behavior, sexual assault, accidents, and property damage.

* The negative effects associated with binge drinking

* Alcohol
* Because alcohol is physically addictive, the person
with alcoholism who stops drinking many suffer from physical withdrawal symptoms, the severity of which depends on the level of physical dependence from the shakes to severe symptoms called delirium tremens or the DTs centers that govern judgment and self-control

* Alcohol lessens inhibitions by depressing the brain

* Barbiturates and Tranquilizers

* Barbiturates depress activity in the brain centers
that control arousal, wakefulness, and alertness. They also depress the brains respiratory centers. Barbiturates at low doses cause relaxation, mild euphoria, and reduced inhibitions. Larger doses produce a loss of coordination, impaired mental functioning, and depression. High doses can produce unconsciousness, coma, and death. Barbiturates include the prescription drugs Seconal and Nembutal and the illegal drug methaqualone

* Tranquilizers
* Depressants that relieve anxiety.
The effects are similar to, but less powerful than, those produced by barbiturates. Common prescription tranquilizers are Xanax, Valium, Librium, and Ativan

* Often called narcotics, opiates are a group of

addictive drugs that relieve pain and produce feelings of euphoria. Opiates include opium, morphine, codeine, heroin, methadone, and some prescription pain killers (such as OxyContin, Percodan, and Demerol). Opiates produce their powerful effects by mimicking the brains own natural painkillers, called endorphins.

* The most frequently abuse opiate is heroin.

Injecting heroin creates an intense rush of euphoria, followed by feelings of contentment, peacefulness, and warmth. Withdrawing from heroin produces unpleasant drug rebound symptoms

* Stimulants are at least mildly addicting, and all

tend to increase brain activity

* Caffeine and nicotine

* Caffeine, found in coffee, tea, cola drinks,
chocolate, and many over-the-counter medications, increases mental alertness and wakefulness. It is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world. found in all tobacco products. It increases mental alertness and reduces fatigue or drowsiness

* Nicotine, an extremely addictive stimulant, is

* Amphetamines and Cocaine

* Amphetamines elevate mood and suppress
* Methamphetamine (meth) is an illegal drug
manufactured in home or street labs

appetite. Included are Benzedrine, Dexedrine, and methamphetamine

* PET scans of former meth users show a significant

reduction in the number of dopamine receptors and transporters. Memory and motor skill problems are common in former abusers and are most severe in those with the greatest loss of dopamine transporters

* Amphetamines
* MRI scans of chronic meth users show tissue loss in
the limbic system areas involved in emotion and reward, as well as in hippocampal regions involved in learning and memory

* Cocaine
* An illegal stimulant, which is snorted or inhaled
in a powdered form; a more concentrated form called crack is smoked. Inhaling cocaine produces intense euphoria, mental alertness, and selfconfidence, which last for several minutes.

* Cocaine
* Prolonged use of amphetamines or cocaine can
result in schizophrenia-like symptoms called stimulant-induced psychosis (also called amphetamine psychosis or cocaine psychosis).

* Psychedelic drugs create sensory and

* Mescaline and LSD

perceptual distortions, alter mood, and affect thinking

* Mescaline is a naturally occurring psychedelic drug

derived from the peyote cactus. Another psychedelic drug, psilocybin, is derived from the Psilocybin mushroom and is sometimes called magic mushrooms

* LSD (or lysergic acid diethylamide) is a powerful

synthetic psychedelic drug. LSD and psilocybin are very similar chemically to the NT serotonin, which is involved in regulating moods and sensations

* The effects of a psychedelic experience vary

greatly, depending on an individuals personality, current emotional state, surroundings, and the other people present.

* Marijuana

* Derived from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, and

is one of the most widely used illegal drugs. * The chemical tetrahydrocannabinol, abbreviated THC, is the active ingredient in marijuana. One potent form of marijuana, hashish, is made from the resin of the hemp plant * Researchers discovered receptor sites in the brain that are specific for THC. They also discovered a naturally occurring brain chemical called anandamide, which is structurally similar to THC and which binds to THC receptors in the brain. Anandamide may reduce painful sensations.

* Marijuana
* Most marijuana users do not develop tolerance or
physical dependence

* Marijuana and its ingredient THC have been

shown to be helpful in treating some medical conditions, as well as preventing the negative effects of chemotherapy

* Marijuana interferes with muscle coordination

and perception and may impair driving ability. Alcohol intensifies its effects.

* Club Drugs are a loose collection of

psychoactive drugs that are popular at dance clubs, parties, and raves. Many are designer drugs, that is, drugs that were synthesized in the lab

* Ecstasy
* Which is the chemical MDMA, at low doses has
stimulant effects; at high doses, it has mild psychedelic effects

* Ecstasy
* Produces feelings of euphoria and increased wellbeing, as well as feelings of love and openness to others heartbeat, tremors, muscle tension and involuntary teeth clenching, and hyperthermia

* Side effects include dehydration, rapid

* Ecstasys effects may result from its causing the

release of serotonin and its ability to block serotonin reuptake

* Ecstasy
* Several studies have shown potentially irreversible
damage to serotonin nerve endings in the brain. Long-term effects include depression and problems with memory and verbal reasoning.

* Dissociative anesthetics deaden pain; at high

doses, they can induce a stupor or coma

* PCP effects are unpredictable.

High doses can cause hyperthermia, convulsions, and death * PCP is highly addictive. Memory problems and depression are common effects of long-term use

* Dealing with Morning Brain Fog

* Sleep inertia is the sleepiness on awakening that
interferes with the ability to perform mental or physical tasks of coffee or tea. Sit near a window or turn on bright lights to reduce blood levels of the hormone melatonin

* Arise 15 minutes earlier than usual and sip a cup

* Improving the Quality of Your Sleep

* Go to bed after 10pm, the forbidden zone for sleep * Dont consume caffeine for at least 3-4 hours before going
to bed * Dont go to bed very hungry or very full * Engage in moderate exercise during the day * Consider soaking in a warm bath before going to bed * Establish a consistent bedtime routine * Avoid depressants- they reduce REM sleep and disrupt the quality of sleep * Sex promotes sleep

* Coping with the Night Shift

* The longer you can stay with one shift, the

* If you work rotating shifts, try to arrange your

shift changes to progress from morning to evening to night shifts the night shift

* Bright lights help your circadian cycles adjust to

* Ask your doctor about taking melatonin