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The primary application of this robot is to pick the things and place them wherever needed just with a help of a remote control. This is totally a wireless robot using RF TECHNOLOGY and batteries for the power supply.However the MICROCONTROLLER is the core technology used and it is basically an application of microcontrollers, that how with help of low voltages like 0V and 5V we are able to control high voltage circuits. Some ICS along with microcontroller are also used,so as a whole we can call it as an application based on EMBEDDED SYSTEMS.

SWITCH MODULE DEMO BOARD RF TRANSMITTER RF RECIEVER L293D MOTOR DRIVER MODULE POWER SUPPLY MODULE LED MODULE (for inspection purpose)

forward Gripper close

Arm up

Left

Gripper open

Back Right Arm down

The basic functionality of switch module is that whenever we press a particular button it simply provide 0V to the connected pin of the microcontroller so as to make it perform the specified task which is embedded in it. Each button of this module when pressed simply short circuits the connection hence providing 0V to controller. Why we provide only 0V to controller ? The answer to this question lies in the fact that by default all the pins of

controller are at 5V. So if we want our controller to perform a particular task we need to provide it oV at any pin. And for this we have SWITCH MODULE.

A Microcontroller (at89s52 used in this robot) A green printed circuit board with internal connections Bergstrips A Capacitor(10 uf) An led An oscilator (optimum frequency 11.0592 Mhz) Resistances( 10k ohm and 220 ohm) A reset button 2 Ceramic capacitances(33 pf ) External Pullup resistors( for port 0)

RESET is an active High input When RESET is set to

High, 8052 goes back to the power on state.

The 8052 is reset by holding the RST high for at least two machine cycles and then returning it low. Power-On Reset - Initially charging of capacitor makes RST High - When capacitor charges fully it blocks DC. Manual reset -closing the switch momentarily will make RST High. After a reset, the program counter is loaded with 0000H but the content of on-chip RAM is not affected.

Register Program counter Accumulator B register PSW SP DPTR All ports

Content 0000h 00h 00h 00h 07h 0000h FFh

Register IP IEv All timer registers SCON SBUF PCON (HMOS) PCON (CMOS)v

Content XXX00000b 0XX00000b 00h 00h 00h 0XXXXXXXbv 0XXX0000b

P0 is open drain. Has to be pulled high by external 10K resistors. Not needed if P0 is used for address lines Writing to a port pin loads data into a port latch that drives a FET connected to the port pin. P0: Note that the pull-up is absent on Port 0 except when functioning as the external address/data bus. When a "0" is written to a bit in port 0, the pin is pulled low. But when a "1" is written to it, it is in high impedance (disconnected) state. So when using port 0 for output, an external pull-up resistor is needed, depending on the input characteristics of the device driven by the port pin P1, P2, P3 have internal pull-ups: When a "0" is written to a bit in these port , the pin is pulled low ( FET-ON) ,also when 1 is written to a bit in these port pin becomes high (FET-OFF) thus using port P1,P2,P3 is simple.

The 8052 uses the crystal for precisely that: to synchronize its operation. Effectively, the 8052 operates using what are called "machine cycles." A single machine cycle is the minimum amount of time in which a single 8052 instruction can be executed. although many instructions take multiple cycles. 8052 has an on-chip oscillator. It needs an external crystal thats decides the operating frequency of the 8052. This can be achieved in two ways,, The crystal is connected to pins 18 and 19 with stabilizing capacitors. 12 MHz (11.059MHz) crystal is often used and the capacitance ranges from 20pF to 40pF. The oscillator can also be a TTL clock source connected with a NOT gate as shown Why is such an oddball crystal frequency? 11.0592 MHz crystals are often used because it can be divided to give you exact clock rates for most of the common baud rates for the UART, especially for the higher speeds (9600, 19200). Despite the "oddball" value, these crystals are readily available and commonly used.

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a sixvector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry.

We will be using ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) based Tx/Rx (transmitter/receiver) pair operating at 433 MHz. The transmitter module accepts serial data at a maximum of XX baud rate. It can be directly interfaced with a microcontroller or can be used in remote control applications with the help of encoder/decoder ICs. The encoder IC takes in parallel data which is to be transmitted, packages it into serial format and then transmits it with the help of the RF transmitter module. At the receiver end the decoder IC receives the signal via the RF receiver module, decodes the serial data and reproduces the original data in the parallel format.

Keil microvision as an assembler Programming has been done in c For burning hex file into the controller sunrom burner has been used

Over all functioning of all modules


Remote circuit:
Pin 1

0 8 0 5 1

0
4

1
1 2 3 8

5 6 7

Port 1

Port 0 0 0 1

Parallel data
0 0 1

Port 3

Port 2

Rf transmitter

Serial data transmitted

Reciever circuit:
Serial data recieved
Port 1

+12v -12v
8 0 0 5 0 1 1
Port 0

12v dc motor

Rf reciever
0 0 1

Parallel data
Port 3

Port 2

1 L293d IC

Similarily we can run all other motors by providing desired combination of 1s and 0s.

COST: We have made the use of microcontroller that is very cheaper if compared to microprocessors.We have used wooden scales for making

the robotic arm which again reduces the cost of our project.

EFFECT ON ENVIROMENT:We have used rechargable battery which makes it reusable.Moreover we have used microcontroller which consumes less power ie ov and 5v and it occupies less space and is lighter in weight.